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went on pilgrimage into all quarters of the world ;
and, on the other side, he that lives in obedience to
the holy commandments of God will undoubtedly
be saved, though he never went a step on pilgrim-
age in his life, either to Rome, or Canterbury, or
Compostell, or to any other places.'

" Sir John having thus read his writing, we.


with our brethren the bishops above mentioned, and
divers other doctors and learned men, held a con-
sultation about the contents of it ; and, by the
advice and agreement of the same, we thus applied
to the said Sir John Oldcastle, at the same time
and place : — ^ Look you. Sir John ! In this writing
of yours, it must be confessed, there are contained
many good things, and right Catholic ; but this
day was appointed you to answer to other points,
which savour of error and heresy, which your
declaration has not fully answered ; and, therefore,
you ought to explain yourself more clearly as to
those points, and more particularly declare your
faith and assertions expressed in the said writing,
viz. — Whether you hold, believe, and affirm, that
in the sacrament of the altar, after consecration by
the priest, there remaineth material bread or not ?
Also, whether you hold, believe, and affirm, that,
in the sacrament of penance, it is necessary, where
a priest can be had, to confess your sins to the
priest ordained by the church?' To which state
of the question, amongst many other things said by
the said Sir John, he answered, expressly, — That
he would not declare himself otherwise, nor return
any other answer, than in his said writing. Upon
this we replied to the said Sir John, with much
patience, and in a courteous and affectionate man-
ner : — * Sir John, it behoves you to consider well



of this matter, because, if you do not return a clear
answer to the articles exhibited against you within
the time assigned by the judge, we may proceed to
pronounce and declare you an heretic/ But Sir
John would abide by his former answer, and afford
U3 no other.

*' We therefore advised with our brethren the
bishops above mentioned, and others of our council,
and, by their advice, we declared to the said Sir
John Oldcastle, what the holy Roman Church,
following the doctrines of St. Austin, St. Jerome,
and St. Ambrose, and other fathers, in these points,
had determined, which determinations all Catholics
were obliged to submit to. To which the said Sir
John gave for answer, — ^ That he would readily
assent to and observe the determinations and deci-
sions of Holy Church, and all that God required
him to believe and observe ; but that our lord the
Pope, the cardinals, the archbishops, and bishops,
and other prelates of the church, had power to de-
termine such things, he would by no means affirm."
We, still patiently baring with him, in hopes he
might be better informed by mature deliberation,
])romised the said Sir John that certain determina-
tions, relating to the points above mentioned, and to
which he ought to give a clearer answer, should be
translated from the Latin into English, that he
might the more easily understand them, and they


be published for his use. And we commended and
affectionately entreated him to prepare and deliver
in a full and clear answer to the same on Monday
next following.

" And we caused these determinations to be
translated the same day, and to be delivered into
his own hands the next Sunday ; the tenor of
which determination is as follows : — ' The faith
and determination of the holy Catholic Church,
concerning the sacrament of the altar, is this, —
That, after consecration by a priest at mass, the
substance of the bread is changed into the material
body of Christ, and the substance of the wine into
the material blood of Christ ; therefore, after con-
secration, there remaineth not any of the substance
of bread and wine, which were in both before it.
What answer do you give to this article ? Also,
Holy Church hath determined, that it is the duty of
every Christian living in the world to confess his
sins to a priest ordained by the church, if he has
the opportunity of such an one. What are your
sentiments of this article ? Christ ordained St.
Peter to be his vicar on earth, whose see is the
Church of Rome ; and that all the successors of
Peter, who are now called the Popes of Rome,
should succeed in the same power and authority
with which Christ invested him ; by whose special
power are constituted and ordained prelates in par-



tioular churches, as archbishops, bishops, curates,
and the rest of the ecclesiastical order ; to which
all Christians owe obedience, according to the
traditions of the Roman Church. This is the
determination of Holy Church ; and what is your
opinion of this article? Besides these, the holy
church hath ordained, that it is the indespensable
duty of every Christian man to go on pilgrimage
to holy places, and there to adore the sacred relics
of the apostles, martyrs, and confessors, and of all
the saints in the calendar of the Roman Church.
How do you hold this article V

^* On Monday, the 25th of the said month of
September, we assembled, with our brethren the
bishops above mentioned, with the addition, by our
order and command, of our venerable brother
Benedict, by the grace of God Bishop of Bangor ;
and our counsellors and officers, namely, Mr.
Henry Ware, official of Canterbury ; Philip Mor-
gan, doctor of both laws ; Howel KyfFen, John
Kemp, and William Carleton, doctors of the canon
law ; and John Witnam, Thomas Palmer, Robert
Wombervel, John Withead, Robert Chamberlain,
Richard Doddington, and Thomas Walden, doctors
in divinity ; also James Cole and John Stevens,
our notaries, both called to assist, and take the
examinations, in the trial, were all and every of
them sworn upon the holy evangelists, as they


would answer it to God and the world, faithfully
to discharge their duty that day, in the matter and
cause above mentioned.

" After this, Robert Morley, Knight and Lieu-
tenant of the Tower of London, brought Sir John
Oldcastle into court, and set him before us, to
whom we affably and courteously repeated the pro-
ceedings of the former day, and, as before, told
him how he had been, and still stood, excommu-
nicated j and we entreated and besought him to
desire and accept of absolution, in the usual form
of the church. To which Sir John then answered
in these words : — * That he desired no absolution
from us, but only from God.' Upon this, we
prayed the said Sir John, with an air of kindness
and concern, to give his full answer to the articles
exhibited against him. And first we demanded
what he had to say about the sacrament of the
Eucharist ? To which article, among other things,
he answered and said, — * That, as Christ, when he
lived upon earth, had the divine and human nature
united together in him, and the divine was veiled
and covered under the human, and only the human
visible and outward ; so, in the sacrament of the
altar, there is the very body of Christ, and real
bread too : the bread is the thing we see with our
eyes; and the body of Christ, which is hidden
under it, we do not see.' And the faith about this


sacrament of the altar, expressed in the writing
which we sent to him, as determined bj the holy
Roman Church and the fathers, he expressly denied
to be the determination of the church ; or, if it was
the determination of the church, he asserted such
determination to be made contrary to the holy
scriptures, and after the church was aggrandized
and corrupted, and not before.

" To the articles about penance and confessi. >n,
he answered in these words : — * That if any one is
so entangled in the snares of sin, that he knows not
how to extricate himself, it is advisable and expe-
dient for him to apply to some pious and discreet
minister for ghostly counsel ; but that he should
confess his sin to his own or any other priest,
though he had ever so good an opportunity, is not
at all necessary to salvation, because such a sin
can be forgiven only upon contrition, and on that
alone can the sinner be cleared.' Concerning the
adoration of the holy cross, he then declared and
asserted, — * That the body of Christ, which hung
upon the cross, ought only to be worshipped,
because that body was and is the only adorable
cross.' And, beino; asked what honour he allowed
to the imaije of the cross, he answered in these
express words : — * That to keep it clean, and in his
closet, was the only honour he vouchsafed it.' As
to the power of the keys, our lord the Pope, arch-


bishops, bishops, and other prelates, he said, — ' The
Pope and we together made up the true Antichrist :
the Pope was the head ; the archbishops, bishops,
and other prelates, the body and limbs; and the
friars the tail of Antichrist : to which Pope, arch-
bishops, and prelates, there was no obedience due,
any further than they imitated Christ, and Peter,
in their lives, manners, and conversation ; and that
he is the successor of Peter who follows him in
the purity of his life and conversation, and no

" The said Sir John added, addressing himself,
with a loud voice and extended hands, to the peo-
ple who were present, — * Those who sit in judg-
ment upon me, and are desirous to condemn me,
will seduce you all, and themselves, and lead ye to
hell ; take therefore good heed of them.' Upon
his saying this, we applied to the said Sir John,
and besought him, with tears in our eyes, and ex-
horted him in the most compassionate manner we
could, to return to the unity of the church, to believe
and embrace the faith and doctrine of Holy Church.
To which he returned this peremptory answer: —
* That he would not believe nor maintain otherwise
than he had before declared.'

" Seeing, therefore, he was so hardened in his
errors, that we had no hopes of working on him to
renounce them, we proceeded, with regret and


bitterness of heart, to pronounce the following
definitive sentence."


" The Commons gave King Richard a broad
hint on the subject of his own extravagance.'' (Vol.
i. p. 104.) How this subject was dealt with in
the reigns of Richard the Second and Henry the
Fourth, by tlie Commons of England, will be seen
from what follow^ : —

*' The Commons pray that all kind of gifts what-
soever, made by King Edward the Third, may be
examined ; if worthily bestowed to be confirmed,
if otherwise to be revoked : — ^ Item ils prient, pur
ceo que la Corone est moult abaisse & demembre
pardivers donns donez en temps de notre Soignour
que Dieux assoille, & queux donns il estroit male-
ment deceux & en plusieurs personnes malement
eraploeis, come home le poet declarer, a grand
damage de lui, & de notre Seigneur la Roy q*ore
est, si bien des chasteaux, villes, terres, tenements,
baillez, gardes, marriages, eschetes, & releves, aussi
bien en Gascoigne, Irlande, come en Engleterre,
qe plese a notre Seigneur le Roy, & son Conseil
faire examiner par les roUes de Chancellerie, du
temps notre Seigneur le Roi, qi Dieux assoile,
queux donnes, & a queux, & quelle somme ils
amontent qi aviendront, a trop haut somme sans


doute, & qe sur ceo ils soient sag^ement examinez,
asqueux ils estoient donez notablement & profitable-
ment, pur le Roi & le roialme, & es queux notre dit
Seigneur estoit deceux, & ses donns malement
employ ez, & queux tous ceux asqueux notre dit
Seigneur estoit deceux & qi sont malement em-
ployes, y puissent estre de tout repellez, sanz etre
redonez as memes ceux, ou a nul autre, tanqe ses
dettes soient acquites & lestat de nos tres lionoures
Seigneurs les fitz de notre Seigneur qi Dieux assoile,
qi sont poures a leur estat, y purra avenantement
per ascuns des ditz donns ette relevez, & soit le
pernour quensy ad notre dit Seigneur deceux punis
en cest |)resent Parlement, selonc son desert par
agarde de Barronage, en supportation du charge qe
le commune people y convient porter: ratifiantz &
confirmantz a ceux qi ont deserve, les donns en
nianere come notre dit Seigneur, qi Dieux assoile,
leur avoit grantez considerant a chescun son longe
service, & son desert, & regardant sil please a nostre
Seigneur, as tous ceux qe servirent a nostre dit
Seigneur, son aiel, qe sont sans rewarde pur lour

" JResp. 'hes Signeurs de continuel Counseil ser-
ront chargez de veer & examiner les ditz donns,
& les conditions estates & deserts des personnes
& en ultre fair ce qe reson demande. '

" Anno 3 Richard II. The Speaker says, If the


king were reasonably governed in his expenses,
within and without the realm, he should have little
need to charge his Commons, who were already-
much impoverished : — * Dist qe lour sembloit a la
dite Commune, qe si lour Seigneur lige eust este bien
& reasonablement governez en ses despenses par
dedeins le royalme, & autrement, il neust ore
besoigne de leur aide, per chargeant sa dite Com-
mune, quore est trop poure,' &c.

" Anno 5 Richard II. The king says, He will
make no grant without the assent of the Lords of
his Council, till he shall be out of debt : — ' Item,
prient les Communes, qil plese au Roy notre
Seigneur, qil puisse au present estre escript en
rolle de Parlement, coment ordenez est, per lui,
nos autres Seigneurs, & toute la Commune, qe de
desore en aprez, nul donn de terre, de rente, de
garde, ne de marriage, ne de nul manere eschete
soit grantez a nulluy, tanqe le Roy notre dit
Seigneur soit hors de dette, & hors des tielx charges
de guerre, come y ad au present, & si aucune per-
sone demande aucune donn au contraiere de cette
petition perde les service & compagnie notre dit
Signeur pur toujours apres.'

" Resp, ' II ne semble mye honest ne chose
honourable au Roy, ne a sa dignitee, qil se lieroit
a telle guise peront il ent fuist si oultrement con-
streint, mais plest au Roy k il voet par le bien de


luy mesmes & de son roialme, soy restreindre, &
abstenir a doner ou granter a aucune persone,
terre, rente, garde, marriage, ou eschete, sans
lassent & accord des Seigneurs & autres de son

" Anno 6 Richard II. The Commons among
other things pray, That the king will appoint good
orders about his person, so as he may live within
his revenues, and that all profits and gifts may be
employed upon the wars, to the ease of the Com-
mons : — ' Come autrement ordeigner, qe bone
governail soit mys entour votre honourable persone,
si qe vous purres honestement & roialment viver,
deinz les revenues de votre roialme, & qe toutes
maneres des gardes, marriages, releifs, eschetes,
forfaitures, & toutes autres commoditees, puissent
^tre gardes pur vos guerres, & en defens de votre
royalme, & nul part aillours donez en supportation
& aide de vos poures Communes & grant honour &
profit a vous.'

" Resp. ' Le Roy est de bone voluntee & le desire
moelt entirement de fair & ordonner en ce cas per
lavis des Seigneurs de son roialme ce qe luy sem-
blera mieulx affaire pur son honour & profit.'

^^Anno 9 Richard II. it was enacted. That all
the revenues, as well in the Exchequer as else-
where, should be laid up for one whole year, with-
out any diminution thereof by gift : — * Item, Qe
Vol. ir. 2 d


ordein soit en especial qe tous les revenues notre
Seigneur le Roy, si bien en I'Escliequer, comme
aillours, soient sauvement gardez per un an entier
sans estre donez a nully per nul grant, en sup-
portation de nostre Seigneur le Roy, & de son
people qe plese a notre Seigneur le Roy de charger
& commander les Seigneurs du Conseil, & ses
officiers en plein Parlement, qe rien ne soit fait au

^' Resp, ' Le Roy le voet.'

" Anno 11 Richard II. The Commons pray
That no hereditaments, or other profits, then es-
cheated to the king, be granted to any during the
wars, and that no person presume to crave any of
the same : — * Item. Prient les Communes, qe
toutes maneres de seignouries, terres, tenements,
rents, services, biens, possessions & chateaux
qeconques, forfaits a notre Seigneur le Roy, per
cause des jugemens rendus devers les persones
adjugez en cest present Parlement, & auxint toutes
autres terres, tenements, eschetes, forfetures, gardes,
marriages, & autres profits qeconques queux sont,
ou deviendront en la meins du Roy per qeconqe
cause demoergent entirement en la main du Roy
nostre Seigneur durant les guerres, pur acquiter ses
dettez & en eide de meintenir son estat & ensement
en ease & supportation de ses pauvres communes
du roialme nient contresteant ascun grant ou gar-


rant fait a ascunnys avant cestheures & qe nul
liomme greindre ne meindre, en Thostiel du Roy,
ne en tour la persone du Roy ne autre qeconqe, de
quel estat ou condition quil soit, en privee, nen
appert, soit sy hardy a demander ou preinder de
donn nostre Seigneur le Roy, ascuns des seig^ni-
ouries, terres, tenements, rents, services, biens,
possessions, eschetes, forfeitures, gardes, marriages,
chateaux, ou profits susdits, ou autres profits, ou
revenues qeconques, durant les guerres, come dessus,
sur peine de forfaire le double devers nostre Seig-
neur le Roy, & repelle de mesme la chose issint
demandez, & etre reint & iraprisonnes a la volonte
du Roy. Purvus toutes voys, qe si ascun home
eit terres tenements ou possessions du grant notre
Seigneur le Roy, ou dascuns de ses progeniturs,
queux furent parcelles de la Corone, qe per bon
trette enter le Conseil du Roy &c les possesseurs des
tieux terres & tenements, mesmes les terres tene-
ments & possessions poient estre rejoints a la dite
Corone, a profit du Roy, grantants autres terres
tenements ou possessions de les forfaitures avant
ditz en eschange pur les terres tenements & posses-
sions de la Corone susdite, & sy les Seigneurs ou
autres qi ont terres ou tenements de la corone, come
dessus, ne voellent volontairement a ce assentir, ne
accorder, qils eint & enjoient lours terres & tene-
ments de la Corone avant ditz come ils ont eu a



devant, & qe les grants officiers du royalme par
avis des Seigneurs du Conseil, eient poer de vendre
parcelles deles dites forfetures per leur bone dis-
cretion, & qe le grant sur tiel vendue soit ferme &

" Itesp. ' Le Roy le voet, forpris d'offices &
baillis, & ce qil a donne en cest present Parlement,
issint, qendroit de forfeitures adjuges en cest Parle-
ment, si ascun pretend davoir droit ou interest en
icelles, sue au Conseil, sil luy semble affaire, &
droit luy sera fait.'

The misgovernment of this prince, not only in
his revenues, but in all the duties of his high office,
with his profusion and partiality to his favourites,
made way for a very great revolution, and drew on
so much hatred of the people, as at last all his
subjects withdrew their allegiance from him, and
chose another. King Henry the Fourth, his cousin

*' Amio 1 Henry IV. The Commons pray
That the lands, parcel of the Crown revenue,
granted away by Edward the Third and Richard
the Second, may be resumed : — ' Item. Touchant
terres, tenements, & rents, ou autres possessions,
queconques, qe furent parcelle de la Corone, ou des
Seignouries de la Corone, en temps Seigneur Ed-
ward le Tierce, Roy Dengleterre, ou en temps
Richard, darrein Roy Dengleterre, nient donez per


assent du Parlement, ne en eschange pour autres
terreS; ore demurantz a la Corone, qe toutz y ceux
soint rejoints arere a la Corone j purveu toutefoitz,
que si ascun Seigneur de lestate cliivaler, ou esquire
pur son travaille duement deservy, eit pur terme de
sa vie, & nient autrement, qil ne soit rebote dicelx,
devant qil soit autrement guerdonez & semblable-
ments seit feat dela principalte de Galles, de Corn-
wailee, & de Cestre, & reservez tout foits, as
citeins & burgeys, parmy tout le royalme, lour
libertees & franchises, & a lour heirs & suc-

" Mesjy. * Le Roy sadviesera, & pai' bone
advys & discretion ent fera due remedie.'

" Anno 5 Henry IV. The Commons pray
That the king would provide for the repairing of
his castles and houses, and, namely, for his castle
at Windsor, which was greatly in decay, and not
to grant away the profits of those castles and
houses, and notwithstanding to stand to the repair
of the same, without which he could not but run to
the great charging of the commons : — ^ Et auxint
les diets communes monstrerent, comeiit les
chastellx & autres manoirs du Roy sont molt ruin-
ueses, & embusoignant de grand repris, & repera-
tion, & coment les profits dicelles sont donez as
diverses persones, k le Roy supporte les charges,
come per especial, le chastel de Windesore, a el



feust assignee certain commoditie, pur la repara-
tion dicelle, k ore mesme la commoditie est donne
as certaines persones, & le Roy supporte les charges
& auxint es autres places, les gentz preignent les
profits de herbage, & del vert, deins diverses ses
parkes, & bois, & le Roy supporte les charges de
le enclosure dicell, & pur cestes importunes charges,
& plusieurs autres, & pur les plusieurs donns des
chastellx, terres, & seignouries, & des annuites,
faits & donez nient duement, ne descreteinment, &,
par especial pur les grandes charges & depenses de
le hostel du Roy, & pur amendement des tielx
meschiefs faire, & pur ouster tielk inconveniences
en apres, en supportation del commune people, les
Communes prierent au Roy moelt entierment, &
cordialement, qe considerez les perils imminentes,
de toutz parts per ses ennemys, & rebelx, comes
yont novelx de jour en autre, & coment le cas est
tiel, qe si tielx meschiefs ne soient graceousement
remediez, & refourmez en cest Parlement y pur-
roit estre qe sur soudeins novelx de arrival des
enemys, ou per autre voix, mesme cest Parle-
ment de necessite seroit de tout depurtiz, & dis-
solvez, & jamais les Seignours ni les Communes
se re-assembleroient, pur remedee ne redresse faire,
sur les meschiefs susdits, & autres qe Dieux def-

" It appears, by the purport of this petition,


That there were certain lands and rents set aside,
or assigned, for the repair of Windsor Castle, that
ancient seat of our kings, and sacred to the ho-
nours and ceremonies of the Garter, and therefore
particularly provided for with a revenue, by the
wisdom of our forefathers ; yet it seems these lands,
so annexed to Windsor, were at that time granted
away to some great man, or craving courtier : but
this the House of Commons did not then think

"And the remonstrance therepon made was kindly
taken by the king ; for he answered the petition
in person from the throne : — ' Et sur ceo mesme
nostre Seignour le Roy moelt graciousement de son
bouche propre, en plein Parlement, chargea &
commenda si bien tons les ditz Seignours, come les
ditz Communes, qils faiorient lour diligence & luy
montreroient lours bons & seins conseilx, celle
partie, pur aide de luy, & de tout son roialme.

" ' Et puis apres les dits Communes en mesme
le Parlement firent reqeste as ditz Seignours, qe
come le Roy lour avoit donne tiel charge, & man-
dement, & ceo en si haute Court de Record, qils
fairoient lour diligence bien & loyalment sans cur-
tosie faire entre eux, en ascune manere, come ils
voloient respondere devant lue Dieux tout puissant,
& devant nostre dit Seignour le Roy, & a tout le
roialme en temps avenir, & qe de sur ceo mesme


les Communes ent fairoient semblablement de lour
partie, & disoient outre mesme les Communes, a
nostre dit Seignour le Roy, qe cestes ma tiers ensi
fails, & accomplez en cest Parlement, il lour trove-
roit foialx & naturelx liges devers luy de parfaire
son plaisir, & voloir a lour poiar par le aide de

" It is probable this seasonable care of the House
of Commons rescued, for that time, the lands be-
longing to Windsor Castle, for from that time these
lands continued in the demesnes of the Crown till

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