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An introduction to the critical study and knowledge of the Holy ..., Volume 3 online

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its place here, and ctows spontaneously on the top and sides of the
foot of this mountam, to which it gives its name.^ About half way
up this mountain is a ruined monastery, built on the spot where we
have every reason to conclude that Jesus Christ sat, when he beheld
the city and wept over its impending miseries, when he delivered his
prediction concerning the downfall of Jerusalem (Luke xix. 41 —
44.); and the army of Titus encamped upon the very spot where its
destruction had been foretold.' It is a remarkable fact that, amidst
all the vicissitudes to which this country has been subjected, not
only has the Mount of Olives retained the name by which it was
known in the days of David (2 Sam. xv. 30^, but likewise the same
beautiful evergreen and perennial foliage.* The panoramic view from
the Mount of Olives is truly magnificent^ While its summit com-
mands a view extending as far as the Dead Sea, and the mountains
beyond Jordan, the whole city lies before it so completely exposed
to view, that' the eye of the beholder can walk about Zion, and go
round about her ; tell the towers thereof and mark well her bulwarks,
(PsaL xlviiL 12, 13.) Dr. Clarke discovered some Pagan remains on
this mountain; and at its foot he visited an olive ground always
noticed as the garden of Gethsemane. •* This place," says he, " is,
not without reason, shown as the scene of our Saviour's a^ony the
night before his crucifixion (Matt, xxvi., Mark xiv., Luke xxii.,

■ Lord Lindsa/s Letters on Egypt, Edom, and the Holy Land, vol ii. p. 62.
* Stephen's Incidents of Trayel, p. 481.

■ Josephos, de BelL Jud. lib. vi. c. 6. •* It is not difficult to conceive," — says the Rev.
W. Jowett, who, in December, 1823, surveyed Jemsalem from this mountain, — " observ-
ing from this spot the various undulations and elopes of the ground, thut when Mount
Zion, Acra, and Mount Moriah, constituted the bulk of the city, with a deep and steep
valley surrounding the greater part of it, it must have been considered by the people of
that age as nearly impregnable. It stands beautiful for situation I It is, indeed, buittUd
AH a city that is compact together. (Ps. cxxii. 3.) The Kings of the earthy and all the in-
habitants of the world would not have believed, that the adversary and the enemy should have
entered into the Gates of Jerusalem. (Lara. iv. 12. bc 588.) This was said nearly two
thousand four hundred years ago. And when, 650 years after, Titus besieged and took
this devoted city, he exclaimed, on viewing the vast strength of the place, — *■ We have
ctrtainly had God for our assistant in this war^ and it was no other than God who
ejected the Jews out of these fortifications: for what could the hands of men, or any ma-
chines do, towards overthrowing these towers?* " Josephus, de BelL Jud. lib vi. c 9.
(Jowett's Chri^tian Researches in Syria, &c. p. 256. London, 1825. 8vo.)

* £lliott*s Travels in Austrii), Russia, and Turkey, vol. it pp. 435. 436.

• The Rev. G. Williams has a graphic description of the magnificent prospect visible
f*Mm the Mount of Olives. Holy City, voL ii. pp. 438, 439.

O 3



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22 Historical Geography of the Holy LandU

John xviii.), both from the circumstance of the name it still retains,
an(} its situation with re^rd to the city." Here he found a groTC
of olives of immense size covered with fruit, almost in a mature
state. ^ Between Olivet and the city lies the deep valley of Kedron,
through which flows the brook of that name wluch is noticed in a
subsequent page.

On the south side stood the Mount of Cobruption, where
Solomon, in his declining years, built temples to Moloch, Chemooh,
and. Adhtaroth (1 Kings xi. 7. ; 2 Kings xxiii. 13.^: it was sepa-
rated from the city by the narrow valley of Hinnom (Josh. xviiL 16.;
Jer. xix. 2), where the Israelites burnt their children in the fire to
Moloch (Jer. viL 31. and xxxii. 35.): thence made the emblem of
hell, Gehenna, or the place of the damned. (Matt. v. 22., xxiiL 33. ;
Mark ix. 43.)

Towards the north, according to Eusebius and Jerome, and without
the walls of the city, agreeably to the law of Moses* (Levit. iv.), lay
GoLOOTHA, that is, the place of a skull (Matt xxviL 33.), so called
by some from its £uicied resemblance to a skull, but more probably
because criminals were executed there.* This place, now conmionly
termed Calvary (which groans beneath the weight of monastic piles),
was probably open ground, cultivated for gardens (John xix. 41.),
at the tame when He, who suffered without the gate (Heb. xiiL 12.),
there poured out his soul unto death, ^

The southern quarter, originally " the city of David," built on
Mount Zion^f Josephus calls the upper city; and the house of Millo
was what he calls the upper market^

* Dr. Clarke's Travels, yoL iv. pp. 355. 365, 366. Sto. edit. For a farther acooant of
Oethsemane, see that article in the Bibliographical, Historical, and Oeographical Index at
the end of this volume.

' To this St. Paul delicately alludes in his Epistle to the Hebrews (xiiL 12, IS.\ where
he says that Christ, as a sacrifice for sin, suffered without the gate ; and when he exhoru
the Hebrew Christleuis to go forth mnio him urithout the camp^ that is, out of Jemsalem, this
city being regarded by the Jews as the camp of linraeL (Bp. Watson's Tracts, toL iii
p. 156.)

* Schulzii Archaologia Biblica, p. 23. Relandi Palsestina, torn. ii. ^ 860.

* Jowett's Christian Researches in Syria, &c. p. 255. Considerable ^ufference of opinion
prevails aroon^ the most learned modem travellers in Palestine concerning the probable
site of Golgotha. The reader, who may be desiroos of investigating this topic, is referred
to Mr. FuUer's learned disquisition ** dn the True Site of Calvary,^ in the second vcdnme
of the Museum of Classical Antiquities. (London, 1853.) Mr. Fuller comes to the con-
clusion that Golgotha was situated in the valley of Hinnom.

* When Dr. lUchardson visited this sacred spot in 1818, he found one part of Mount
Zion supporting a crop of barley, another was undergoing the labour of the plough; and
the soil turned up consisted of stone and lime mixed wiUi earth, such as is usufdly met
with in the foundations of ruined cities. ** It is nearly a mile in circumference, is highest
on the west side, and towards the east falls down in broad terraces on the upper part of
the mountain, and narrow ones on the side, as it slopes down towards the brook Kedron.
Each terrace is divided from the one above it by a low wall of dry stone, built of the ruins
of this celebrated spot. The terraces near the bottom of the hill are still used as ^^ardens,
and are watered from the pool of Siloam. They belong chiefly to the small village of
Siloa, immediately opposite. We have here another remarkable instance of the special
fulfilment of prophecy: — Therefore shaU Zion for your sokes be ploughed as a fields and
Jerusalem shall become heaps, (Micah iii. 12.)" Dr. Richardson's Travels along the Me-
diterranean, &c vol. iL p. 848 ** The sides of the Hill of Zion have a pleasing aspect,
as they possess a few olive-trees and rude gardens; and a crop of corn was growin<r
there" Carne's Letters, p. 265.

' Dr. Hales Analysis of Chronology, vol. i. pp. 425—429. Josephus dc Bell. JuU
lib. V. c. 4.



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Account of Jerusalem . 23

m. We have no particulars recorded concerning the nature of the
fortifications of Jerusalem^ previously to the time of the pious and
patriotic governor Nehemiah ; though such there undoubtedlv must
have been, from the importance and sanctity of the city, as the me-
tropolis of the country, and the seat of the Jewish worship. After
the return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity, they rebuilt
Jerusalem, which had been destroyed by the Chaldaeans ; and in the
account of the rebuilding of the wall, under the direction of Nehe-
miah, ten gates are distmctly enumerated, viz. three on the south,
four on the east, and three on the western side of the wall.

1%« three gates on the south side were, 1. Sheep Gate (Neh.
iii. 1.), which was probably so called from the victims, intended for
sacrince, being conducted through it to the second temple. Near
this gate stood the towers of Meah and HananeeL The pool of
Bethesda was at no great distance from this gate, which was also
called the Gate of Benjamin. — 2. The Fish Gate (Neh. iiL 3.
xiL 39.\ which was also called the First Gate. — 3. The Old Gate^
also called the Comer Gate. (Neh* iii 6., xii. 39. ; 2 Eangs xiv. 13. ;
Jer. xxxi. 38.)

The gates on the eastern side were, 1. The Water Gate (Neh.
iiL 26.), near which the waters of Etam passed, after having been
used in the temple service, in their way to the brook Kedron, into
which they discharged themselves. — 2. The Horse Gate (Neh. iiL 28.;
Jer. xxxL 40.), which is supposed to have been so called, because
horses went through it in order to be watered. — 3. The Prison Gate
(xiL 39.), probably so called from its vicinity to the prison. — 4. The
Gate Miphkad. (Neh. iii. 31.)

The gates on the western side were, 1. The Valley Gate (Neh. iiL
13.), also termed the Gate ofEphraimy above which stood the Tower
ofFurruaces (Neh. iiL 11., xiL 38.) ; and near it was the Dragon Well
(Neh. iL 13.), which may have derived its name from the represent-
ation of a dragon, out of whose mouth the stream flowed that issued
from the welL — 2. The Dung Gate (Neh. iiL 13.), which is supposed
to have received its name from the mth of the beasts that were sacri-
ficed being carried frt)m the temple through this gate. — The Gate
of the Fountain (Neh. iiL 15.) had its name either from its proximity
to the fountain of Grihon, or to the spot where the foimtain of Siloam
took its rise.*

IV. Previously to the fatal war of the Jews with the Romans, we
learn from Josephus^ that the city of Jerusalem was erected on two
hills, opposite to one another, with a valley between them, which he
subsequently calls the Valley of the Cheesemongers. The loftiest of
these hills contained the Upper City (Ji Avca irokis) ; and the other
called Aera^ contained the Lower City (^ xarfo iroXxs), which seems to
have been the most considerable part of the whole ci^. Over against

' Obsermtioncs Philologies ac GeograpMca. AmstdAdami, 1747. Svo. pp.91 — 29.
The probable 9>ch of the gates of Jerosalem are stated, with corroboratiye proofs, by Mr.
Fuller, in his disquisition on the tme dte of Calmry, in the ** Mnsenro of Classiod Anti-
quities,** vol it pp. 41 1—428. See also Mr. Lewio*s •♦Jerusalem**, pp. 57—81.

» Dc Belt Jud. lib. rL c. 6.



c 4



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24 Historical Geography of the Holy Land.

this was a third hill, lower than Acra, and formerly divided from the
other by a broad valley ; which was filled op with earth during the
reign of the Asmonaeans or Maccabsean princes, in order to join the
city to the temple. As population increased, and the city crept
beyond its old limits, Agnppa joined to it a fourth hill (which was
situated to the north of the temple), called Bezetha, and thus still
further enlarged JerusalenL

At this time the city was surrounded by three walls on such parts
as were not encompassed with impassable valleys, where there was
only one wall. The first wall began on the north side at the tower
called Hippicus, whence it extended to the place called the Xistits, and
to the council-house, and it terminated at the western cloister of the
temple. But, proceeding westward, in a contrary direction, the histo-
rian says, that it began at the same place, and extended through a
place called Bethso, to the gate of the Essenes, then taking a turn
towards the south, it reached to the place calleil Ophlas, where it was
joined to the eastern cloister of the temple. The second wall com-
menced at the gate Gennath, and encomi)assed only the northern
quarter of the city, as far as the tower Antonia. The third Yrdll began
at the tower Hippicus, whence it reached as far as the north quarter
of the city, passed by the tower Psephinus, till it came to the monu-
ment of Helena, queen of Adiabene. Thence it passed by the sepul-
chres of the kings; and taking a direction round the south-west
comer, passed the Fuller's monument, and joined the old wall at the
valley of Kedron. This third wall was commenced by Agrippa, to
defend the newly erected part of the city called Bezetha ; but he did
not finish it, from apprehension of incurring the displeasure of the
emperor Claudius. His intention was to have erected it with stones,
twenty cubits in length by ten cubits in breadth ; so that no iron
tools or engines could make any impression on them. What Agrippa
could not accomplish, the Jews subsequently attempted: and, when
Jerusalem was besieged by the Romans, this wall was twenty cubits
high, above which were battlements of two cubits, and turrets of
three cubits, making in all an altitude of twenty-five cubits.
Numerous towers constructed of solid masonry were erected at cer -
tain distances : in the third wall, there were ninety ; in the middle
wall, there were forty ; and in the old wall, sixty. The towers of
Hippicus, Phasaelus, and Mariamne, erected by Herod the Great,
and dedicated to the memories of his friend, his brother, and his wife,
were pre-eminent for their height, their massive architecture, their
beauty, and the conveniences with which they were furnished. Of
the two last-mentioned towers no remains exist : but there is every
reason to believe that what is now called the castle of David (a
strong-hold on Mount Zion, a littie to the south of the Jaffa Gate
which overhangs the vale of Gihon) is none other than the Tower
of Hippicus, which was spared by Titus, when the temple and city
were destroyed. The stones of this fortification are very large.'
According to Josephus the circumference of Jerusalem, previously

' Robinson's Biblical Bcscai'ches, vol. L pp. 453—457. Narrative of Scottish Mibsioo
of iuquiry to the Jews, p. 190.



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Account of Jerusalem. 25

to its siege and destructioii by the Romans, was thirty-three furlongs,
or nearly four miles and a half: and the wall of circumvallation, con*
Btructed by order of Titus, he states to have been thirty-nine fur-
longs, or four miles eight himdred and seventy-five paces.^ At
present, a late traveller states that the circumference of Jerusalem
cannot exceed three miles.' Modem Jerusalem is surrounded by a
wall, varjring in height from twenty to sixty feet according to the
undulations of the ground. There are seven gates, three of which
are generally shut. The four open gates are, the Damascus Gate
on ue nor&; St Stephen's gate on the east; Zion gate on the
south; and the Jaflb gate on the wes^

y. Diuin^ the time of Jesus Christ, Jerusakm was adorned with
numerous edifices, both sacred and civil, some of which are mentioned
or alluded to in the New Testament. But its diief glory was the
temple, described in a subsequent part of this volume ; which mag-
nificent structure occupied the northern and lower top of Sion, as
we learn from the Psalmbt (xlviiL 2.) : Beautiful far situation, the
joy (or delight) of the whole earth is Mount Sion. On her north side
is the city of the great king. Next to the temple in point of splendour,
was the very superb palace of Herod, which is largely described by
Josephus' ; it afterwards became the residence of the Roman pro-
curators, who for this purpose generally claimed the royal palaces
in those provinces whidi were subject to kings.^ These dwellings
of the Roman procurators in the provinces were called Prcstoria^:
Herod's palace therefore was Pilate's prsetorium (Matt xxviL 27. ;
John xviiL 28.); and in some part of this edifice was the armoury
or barracks of the Roman soldiers that garrisoned Jerusalem^,
whither Jesus was conducted and mocked by them. (Matt, xxvii.
27. ; Mark xv. 16.) In the front of this palace was the tribunal,
where Pilate sat in a judicial capacity to hear and determine weighty
causes ; being a raised pavement of mosaic work (XiOoaTpanoy), the
Evangelist informs us that in the Hebrew language it was on this
account termed Gabbatha (John xix. 13.), L e. an elevated place.
In this tribunal the procurator Florus sat, a. d. 66 ; and, in order to
punish the Jews for their seditious behaviour, issued orders for his
soldiers to plunder the upper market-place in Jerusalem, and to put
to death such Jews as they met with ; which commands were exe-
cuted with savage barbarity.^

On a steep rock adjoining the north-west comer of the temple
stood the Tower of Antonia, on the site of a citadel that had been

> M. lyAnville has elaborately investigated the extent of Jerusalem, as described bj
Josephns, in his learned ** Dissertation sor I'Etendae de Tancienne Jerusalem et de son
Temple," the accuracy of whose details Viscount Chateaubriand has attested in his
Itinerary to and from Jerusalem. This very rare dissertation of D'Anville is reprinted in
the Bible de Vence, torn. vi. pp. 43 — 84. 5th edition.

' JoUiffe's Letters from Palestine, p. 103-

• Antiq. Jud. lib. xv. c 9. J 3. De Bell. Jud. lib. i c 21. § 1. et lib. v. c. 4. § 3.

• Cicero contra Verrem, action, ii. lib. v. c 12. (op. torn. iv. p. 96. ed. Bipont)

• Ibid. lib. v. c 35. et 41. (torn. iv. pp. 125. 142.) «

• Compare Josephiis. dc Bell. Jud. lib. v. c 15. § 5. e. 17. § 8.
' Josephus. de BeU. Jud. lib. ii. c 14. 3 S.



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26 HUUrical Geography of the Holy Land.

erected by ADtiochus Epiphanes^ in order to annoy the Jews, and
which, after being destroyed by them*, was rebuilt by the Macca-
ba&an prince John Hyrcanus, B.G. 135.' Herod the Great repaired
it with great splendour, uniting in its interior all the conveniences
of a ms^nificent nalace, with ample acconmiodations for soldiers.
This citadel (in which a Boman legion was always quartered) over*
looked the two outer courts of the temple, and communicated with
its cloisters by means of secret passages, through which the military
could descend and quell any tumult that might arise during the
great festivals. This was the guard to which Pilate alluded, as
already noticed. (Matt xxvii. ^5») The tower of Antonia was
thus named by Her«l, in honour of his friend Mark Antony ; and
this citadel is ** the castle" into which St Paul was conducted
(Acts xxL 34, 35.), and of which mention is made in Acts xxiL 24.
As the temple was a fortress that guarded the whole city of Jeru-
salem, so the tower of Antonia was a fortress that entirely com-
manded the temple.^

Besides the preceding edifices, Josephus mentions a house or palace
at the extremity of the upper city, which had been erected by the
princes of the Asmonaean family, from whom it was subsequently
called the Asmonaean Palace. It appears to have been the residence
of the princes of the Herodian family (after the Romans had reduced
Judaea into a province of the empire), whenever they went up to
Jerusalem. In this palace, Josephus mentions Berenice and Agrippa
as residing*, and it is not improbable that it was the residence of
Herod the tetrarch of Galilee when he went to keep the solemn fes-
tivals at that city ; and that it was here that our Saviour was ex-
posed to the wanton mockery of the soldiers, who had accompanied
Herod thither, either as a guard to his person, or from ostentation.
(Luke xxiii. 7 — 11.)*

VI. " Jerusalem lies in the midst of a rocky limestone re^on,
throughout which foimtidns and wells are comparatively rare. In
the city itself little, if any, living water is known : yet, with all these
disadvantages of position, the Holy Citv would appear always to
have had a full supply of water for its mhabitants both in ancient
and in modem times." ^ The main dependence of Jerusalem for
water, at the present day, is on its cisterns. Immense cisterns still
exist, as they anciently existed, within the area of the temple, which
are supplied partly from rain water and partly from an aqueduct
** In addition to these, almost every private house in Jerusalem, of
any size, is understood to have at least one or more cisterns, ex-
cavated in the soft limestone rock on which the city is built Most
of these cisterns have undoubtedly come down from ancient times,
and their immense extent furnishes a ftdl solution of the question as
to the supply of water for the city."^

" Josephus, Ant Jad. Kb. xil c ff. § 4. « Ibid. lib. xiil c 6. § 6.

• Ibid. lib. XV. c. IJ. § 4. * De BelL Jud. Ub. t. c. 5. § 8.

• Ibid. lib. ii. c. 15. § 1. and c. 16. § 3.

' Schulzii Ardueologia Biblica, pp. 27 — 30.

' Robinson's BibllciJ Researches, vol. i. pp. 480, 481. The house of M. Lanncan, So



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Account ofJeruBalem, 27

The following arc the principal fountiEuns and pools montiuned in
the Old and New Testaments : —

1. The Fountain op En-Rogel (the fountain of the Scout, or,
according to the Targum, the Fullers' Fountain) is mentioned in
Josh. XV. 7., xviil 16., and 2 Sam. xvii. 17. By the Frank Chris-
tians it is called the Well of Nehemiahj and by the natives Bxr Eyuby
or the Well of Joby whidi is most probably a misnomer for Joah.
^ En-Rogel was the scene of Adonijah's attempt on the kingdom
at the close of his father David's life (2 Chron. xxxii. 4. 30.), and
Joab was the most noted of his partisans ; and this may have given
occasion to call the well after the son of Zeruiah."' En-Roeel is
a very deep well, situated just below the junction of the valley of
Hinnom with that of Jehoshaphat, and is ^^ of an irregular quadri-
lateral form, walled up with large squared stones terminating above
in an arch on one side, and apparently of great antiquity : Uiere is
a small rude building over it, furnished with one or two large troughs
or reservoirs of stone, whidi are kept partially filled for the con-
venience of the people. The well measures one hundred and twenty-
five feet in depth, fifty of which were full of water," when this well
was visited and described by the Rev. Dr. Robinson, in 1838.
" The water b sweet, but not very cold, and is drawn up by the
hand. In the rainy season the well becomes quite full, and some-
times overflows at the mouth. More usually, however, the water
runs ofi* under the surface of the ground, and finds an outlet some
forty yards below the welL"*

2. The Ufpeb and Loweb Pools of Gihon are situated in the
valley of Gihon or of Hinnom, southward from the Jafia gate. The
Lower Pool, which is mentioned in Isa. xxiL 2.^ is by far the largest
reservoir of the Holy City, though it is much dilapidated and per-
fectly dry. It is formed in a very simple manner, by throwing a
massy wall across the lower end of the valley, the stones of which
are closely cemented, and the work is evidently ancient. Having
no springs of its own, it is filled only when the abundant rains cause
the waters of the Upper Pool to overflow. This wall answers the
purpose of a bridge, which is crossed in going to Bethlehem. The
walls of the Upper Fool are in a much more perfect condition tlian

which Dr. Bobinson and his fellow-trayellen resided, had not less than four cisterns of
the following dimensions: —

Leogth. Breadth. Depth.

**L ISfoet 8 feet 12 feet

n. 8 4 15

m. 10 10 1ft

IV. 30 30 20

* This last is enormously large, and the numbers given are the least estimate. The cis-
terns have nsaallr merdj a roand opening at the top, sometimes built ap with stone-work
above, and furnished with a cnrb and wheel for the backet, so that they have externally
much the appearance of an ordinary welL The water is conducted into them from tihe
roofiB of the houses daring the rainy season, and, with proper care, remains pure and sweet
daring the whole summer and autumn. The Latin convent in particuUr is said to
be amply furnished" [with not fewer than twenty-eight cisterns]; **and in seasons of
drought is able to detd out a sufficiency for all the Christian tnhahit^ntff of the city.**
(Ibid. p. 481.)
' Williams^s Holy City, vol. it p. 491.
' llobinson*s Biblical Researches, voL i. pp. 491, 492.



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28 Hutorial Creography of the Holy Land.

those of the Lower PooL These piools may be r^arded as unqae^-
tionablj Jewish works, perhaps of the time of Solomon. The Lower
Pool is about forty feet deep ; the Upper Pool, eighteen or twenty
feet.*

3. SiLOAM is a fountidn or pool under the walls of Jerusalem,
east, between the city and the brook Kedron. The spring issues
from a rock, and runs in a silent stream, according to the testimony
of Isiuah (viiL 6.). The modem descent to this fountain is by fif-



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