Thomas Hartwell Horne.

Crosby's complete pocket gazetteer of England and Wales, or Traveller's ... online

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of a great commercial company. The
South Sea house in Threadneedlest.
is a handsome building, but the Ge-
neral Post-office in Lombard-street, is
rather convenient than splendid. Mea-
sures have been taken by parliament,
with concurrence of the lorporation
of London, for buildine a new f>ost
office at the lower end of Cheapside j
more capacious, as well as more com-
modious than the office now used for
tlie convey-tnce of letters. Of the
structures which more particularly be-
long to the chy, the most distinguish-
ed IS the Mansion house, erected in
1759, for the residence of the L'trd
Mayor, it is miumficent but ponrtrr-
ous. The Monument is a grand fluted
Doric coltimn, 905 feet hi]^h, erei ted
in commemoration of the gnat fire in
Kiffi; Sir Christopher Wren was the
architect. The bridges are a great
ornuintnt as well as advuntafte to the
metropolis. The most antient, Lon-
don-bri<«go, was begun in the year
1 176, and fintshed in i';09. The length
of it is 915 feet, the number of arches
was 19, of uneqtial dimensions, Uii



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deformed by the enormons sterlinKS
and by houses on each side, which
overhunir in a terrifir manner. These
were removed in 17&6, when the upper
part of the bridge assumed a modem
, appeaiance; but the sterlings still

' remain, although they contract the

space between the piers so rourh as
to produce, at the ebb of tide, a fall
of Ave feet, era number of^tcmporary
cataracts, which have occasioned tl»e
loss of many lives. A new bridge is
in contemplKtion to be erected, mid-
way between London and Blackfriars
bridges, to be called tlie Southwark
bridge. Westminster bridge, one of
the finest in the world, wa^ built by
, Labelye, a native of Switzerland The

first stone was laid in 1739: the last
fn 1747; but on account of the sink*
ing of one of the piers, the opening
of the brid-je was retarded till 1750.
The whole » of Portland stone, except
the spandrels of the arches, which are
of piirbeck. It is \va feet in length ;
it has IS large and 9 small semicircular
arches ; the centre arch is 76 feet wide,
the other arches on each side, decrease
in width 4 feet, Blackfriars-bridge
built by Mr. Milne, the city architect,
was begun in 170O> and complfated in
l7rt». hs length is ggb feet j the breadtli
•fthe carriage-way 28, and of the foot-
paths 7 feet each It consists of 9
elliptical arches,the centre oneof which
is 100 feet wide; and both this and
the arch on each side are wider than
the celebrated Ilialto at Venice. This
noble structure is built of Portland
stone. A u«w bridge is in very consi-
derable forwardness across tlie Thames,
opposite Somerset House, to be called
the Strand -bridae; according to the
designs we have seen, it will be a sim-

{)le but classically elegant, and singu-
arly commodious structure. And an-
other bridge from Vauxhall across the
Thames is proceeding with all conve-
nient speed. In London are several
truly valuable museums. The British
museum which is open to the public,
gratis, was founded by parliament in
\fbS, pursuant tn the will of Sir Hans
Sloane, who directed his executois to
make an offer to the public of his col-
lection of natural and artificial curiosi-
lies, and books, for the sum of 20,000/.
and the noble building called Monta-
gue-boUse was purchased for their re-
ception. At the same time were pur-
ch<ised the MSS. collected by Edward
Harley, Earl of Oxford. Here are
likewisethe collections made by Robert
and John Cotton; and large sums
have since been voted by parliament to
augment this noble repository. George
II, |im«nted to the British museum



the libraries of the kings of England,
from the reign of Henry Vll. His
present majesty gave it an interesting
collectit)n of tracts published in the
reigns of Charles I. and II. and a vari-
ety of antiquities brought from Italv,
were purchased by parliament for the
sumof84,000(. in 1763. The Leverian
museum contained the most astonish-
ing collection of subjects in natural
history that had ever been formed bgf
an inaividual. This valuable trea&ure
was transferred from the original cot-
lector Sir Ashton Lever, to its late pos~
sessor Mr. Parkinson, who erected a
building in Great Surrey-street, on the
S. side of Blackfriars-bridge for its re-
ception. This magnificent museum
is now no more, havmg been lately dis-
posed of by lottery agreeably to act of
parliament. The building is now oc-
cupied by the Surry Institution, a vala-
able establishment for the diffusion of
science, litecature, and a knowledge of
the useful arts: besides a very commo-
dious laboratory «id theatre for lec-
tures, this establishment contains a
well selected library of upwards of
b,000 volumes; with funds far less
ample than thos&of similar establish-
meats (the Royal uiid London fnstitii-
tions) the Surry Institution has done
considerably more for the spread of
reully useful knowledge. The* Russell
Institution, on a similar plan, is abiy
conducted. Of the inns of court or
societies for the study of the law, the
principal are the Middle and Inner
Temples, Lincoln's Inn, and Gray's
Inn. These are very spacious ranges
of buildings, and have large gardens,
which are open to the public. The
other law societies are Clifford's Jmi,
Clement's Inn, Serjeant's Inn, New
Jnn, Rarnivrd's Inn, Furnival's Inn,
and Staple's Inn. Tl>e ollege of phy-
sicians, which was built by Sir Chris-
topher Wren, is in Warwick-lane.
Sion College ne^r London Wall, found-
ed in the year 1603, by the Rev. Tlio.
White, is governed by a president, «
deans, and 4 assistants; and ail the
clergy resident within the bills of mor-
tality are its fellows. Here is a li-
brary for their use, and alms-houses for
the reception and support of 10 men
and 10 women. The society tur the
encouragement of arts, manufactures*
and commerce, have a handsomehooae
in the adelphi. Of public seuiinarieSf
the most distinguished are Westmin-
ster-school. St. Paul's-school, the
Charter-hnuse, and IV^rchantTaylor's-
school. The places of diversion are
numeroits and magnifieent, paitidu-
lurly the Theatres Royal of Druiy-
Lane and Covent Garden^ which havk
D4



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»ri»en from thvir aahH (botli were a
few year* since burnt down) with aug-
mented splendor, and may justly be
ranked among: the most magnificent
theatres in Eumpe. The exierior of the
"Opera House, where Italian pieces are
performed by foreigners lo whom im-
mense sums are paid for gratifying the
Yotarits of fashion, is any thing but
hnndiome. The Hiymarlcet Theatre
is a neat edifice. The other minor
theatres do not merit particular ob-
aervation. Of the halU of tlie city
companies, the most distinguished io
point of architecture are Goldsmith's
hall in F«ster-lane, Ironmonger's hall
in Fcncliurth-Eireet.and Fishmonger's
hall near London -bridee. The princi-
pHl hospitals are Christ's-hospital,
near NewKate-street, which is proper-
ly speaking, a royul foundation for the
receiition and education of orphans
and poor children; St. Bartholomew's
hospital in West Smithfield, another
royal foundation for the sick, mnimed,
and lamej Bridewell in Blackfriars,
once a royal palade, but now a city
hospital for the apprenticing of indus-
triotis youths, and a prison for the dis
snlutej Bethelem in Moor Fields an-
other royal hospital for lunatics, which
huTing become ton small as well as too
old tore<eive patients, another superb
edifice is just finished in St. George's
Fiel(ls,a splendid monument ofnational
wiuniticencej St. Luke's in Old-street*
also fbr lunatics, St. Thomas's in the
Borough, the fourth royal hospital for
the sick, mniined, and lame, and for
the same purpose Guy's hospital ad-
joining; tlie London hospital in
White\hapel-road : tiie Middlesex hos-
pital in Berner's-street; the Westmin-
1 Bter infirmary in Petty France j and

' St. George's hosj-.itar at Hyde-nark

comer. The Foundling-hospital in
Lamb's Conduit- fields} the Atylnm at
Lambeth lor orphan girls j the Magda-
len hospital in St. George's fields, for
penitent prostitutes, the Asylum for
the deaf and dunib in the Kent road ;
thel'hilanthrophicsocletyatSt. George's
Fields; the Refuge for the Destitute,
Hackney road ; the London Female Pe-
nitentiary, Pentonville; the Marine So-
ciety in Bishopsuate st. the *mall Pox
hospital at Pancras ; the Lock hospital
near Grosvenor-place ; the Westmin-
ster Lying-in-hospital, and many
others for the same purpose, are all ex-
cellent institutions; and there are
ma- y dispensaries for distributing me-
dicines to the sick who keep to their
own houses, under the direction of a
phyfician to each dispensaiy, and pro-
per assistants. 'Vhe prisons are nu-
merous; the principal are Newgute, a



stupendous structure; the New Comp-
ter in Gtltspur-street, a new prison
for debtors erecting in the ward of
Cripplegate, upon a most commodious
plan; the Fleet Prison for debtors;
the King's Bench pn^n in St. George's
Fields for the same purpose, and a new
county jail, including a new sessions-
house m Southwark. Some of the
squares and streets in the metropolis
merit parti ular attention; many of
those which cannot boast of grandeur
are long, spacious, and airy. Port-
land-place lorms, perhaps, the most
cuperi) street in the world; Stratford-
place is truly elegant ; and the Adelphi
terrace is the admiration of foreigners,
for the noble riew which it affords of
the river, the bridges and oilier public
buildings, and of the fine hills beyond
Lambeth and Southwark. The broad
stream of the Thames flowing between
London and Southwark, continually
agitated by a brisk current or a rapid
tide, brings constant supplies of fresh
air which nn buildings can intercepts
The country round London, especially
on the N. side of the river, is nearly
open to some distance; whence by tlie
action of the sun and wind on a gra-
velly soil, it is kept tulernbly dry at all
seasons, and affords no lodgment fur
stagnant air or water. The cleanliness
of tlie metropolis, as well as its supply
of water, are greatly aided by its situ-
ation on the banks of the Thames; and
the New river, with many good springs
in the city itself, further contributes
to the abundance of that necessary
element. All these are advantages,
in respect of health, in which the Bri-
tish capital is exceeded by few. Ua
situation, with regard to the circum-
stance of navigation, is eoually well
chosen ; had it been placed lower on
the Thames it would have been an-
noyed by the marshes, and more liable
to the insults of foreign foes ; had it
been higher it would not havel)een ac-
cessible, as at present, to ~hip& of large
burden. London now possesses every
advantage that can be derived from a
sea-port, without its dangers, and at
the same time, by means of its noble
river, enjoys a very extensive commu-
nication with the internal parts of the
country, which supply it with neces-
saries, and, in return, receive from it
such commodities as they require.
With the great article of fuel, the
metropolis is plentifully supplied by
seji, from the northern collieries. Corn,
and various other articles, are, with
equal e<^se, conveyed hither from all
the maritime parts of the kingdom,
and grept numbers of coasting vessels
are contiaually emi»loye4 f that pur



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pose. London, therefore, unites in
Itself all the benefits arising from navi
gatinn and commerce vith those of a
wetropoliSy at which all the public
business of a great nation is transacted,
and i«. at the same time the mercan-
tile and political head of these liing-
doms. It is also the seat of many
considerable manufactures; some al-
most peculiar to itself, as ministering
to the demands of studied splendour
and refined luxury ;. others, in which
it participates with (he manufacturing
towns in general, with this difference,
that only the finer and. more costly of
their worke are performed here. The
most important of its peculiar manu-
&ctures is that of silk weavintr, es-
tablished in Spitalflelds by refugees
from France. A variety of works in
gold, silver, and jewellery, the engrav-
mg of prints, the casting of types, to*
gether with the most important ar-
ticles of typography, the making of
optical and mathematical instruments
are likewue either urincipally or solely
executed here, and some of them in
greater perfection than in any other
country. The porter brewery, ' a busi
oess of very great extent, is also chiefly
oarri<^on in London, To its port (of
late greatly improved, enlarged, and
rendered more important^ -safe, and
convenient, bv the adoption, and
partial execution of a vast plan of
docks and warehouses for the West
India trade, in the Isle of Dogs, and
another for general purposes in Wap-
ying, and anorher for the East-country
tr.^de,) are likewise confined some par-
ticular branches of foreign comm.erce,
as the immense East India trade, and
those to Turkey and Hudson's Bay.
Thvts Londi>n has g adually risen to its
present nink of the first city in Europe,
with respect to opulence, and nearly,
if not entirely, so as to number of in*
habitants. The population indeed can-
not be accurately stated; the number of
inhabitants, returned under the census
of 1811, stands thus :— London within
the walls, ftft,484. London without the
walls, 6&,4&& : the city of Westmilister,
Ifift,065, forming an aggregate of
<89,g94. As, however, what are called
the out-parishes, extend into the coun-
ties of Essex, Midtilcsex and Surry, it
is highly probable that the residents
in London, Westmifister, ^outhwark,
and all the out- parishes, do not fell
short of, but rather exceed 1,000,000.
London is a bishop's see, and sends
4 members to parliament. To enume-
rate all the events by which this great
capital has been distinguished, would
greatly exceed our limhs ; we shall
only mention therefore the great



plague in 1655, which cut off 90,000 in*
dividuals, and the dreadful conflagra-
tioii in 1666, by which 13,000 bouses
were destroyed.

LONGTOWN, or LANGTOWN,
(Cumberland) a m. t. seated at the
northern extremity of the county, on.
the borders of Scotland, at or near the
confluence of the Esk, and a small,
river called the Kirkso(). It contains
an hospital, and a charity-school, for
the education of 60 poor children,
foimded and endowed by Mr. Keginal
Grahme, or Graham. There is also a
free-school of industry for girls, and
likewise two friendly societies. Thuugh
small, this town is neatly built, in a
very pleasant sporting country,, and ia
the centre of Sir James Graham's vei^
extensive estate, whose properly it- is
on, the tenure of building leases. The
streets are regular and spacious, ^nd
the buildings in general good; the
number of inhabitants in 181 1 was
1579, an increase of three- fourths within
the last SO years. The manufiicturer*
arc trifling, being chiefly carried on
by manuracturers in Carlisle, • who
come here on the market-days and
give oiit their work.

Market Day and Fairs.^ The mar.
is on Thurs. formerly the town was
supplied merely with butchers meat,
and the produce of the dairy, but in
1810 a market for corn was established
which promisojs in time to add to the
consfqiience and opulence of the place.
There is also *» great bacon market
every Mon. Most of the b ic«n i»
brought fi-om Scotland, and pays 8s.
percwt. duty on its arrival, producing
nearly 150ui. per ann. to the revenue;
The annual amount of bucon and but-
ter sold here is computed at I00,00n/.

Fairs.] Thurs. in Whitsvm week,
Thurs. after Martinmas, ana Nov. 83.

Inns.'] TheGiaham*B Arms, and Globe.

Coaches.'] The Edinburgh coaches
pass dailv through this town.

Cf€ntlemen*8 Seals.] About 1^ m. t<»
the E. is Mossknow, the seat of W.
Graham, esq. and beyond tKat, on the
right, at the distance of about 9 ra.
is Netherby, the seat of Sir J. Graham,
bart,

Longtown is dist. from London, by
Boroughbridge, 910 m. and by Lancas-
ter, 314, and 9 from Carlisle, After
crossing the Eek, at the distance of
about a quarter of a m. on the right,
there ia a T. R. to Edinburgh, througli
Looffbolm.

LODE, EAST, (Cornwall,) a m. U
situated at the mouth of the river,
which bears the same name, on a
small flat piece of ground which ha«
the river on the W. and the sea on Um
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d. It U coonectfid vitH Weac Looe
by means of a long, nariow. irreguUr
bridge, of I& arcbn. East Looc U ft
labyrinth of short, furrow, diriy
street*, or rattier alle«, fbove which
rises the low einb«ltled tower of a
litile chapel. Vtett Looe lies in a bay
yii the opuosite bank, which, aM:pna-
ioj; immediately from the wjaer, pie-
scuta tlie appearance of a long street,
consisting of mean, irregular hutises,-
crccpin^, as it were, up the side of a
hill, with a small town- hull, Hncieutly
a chapel, and a few other buildings on
the brink of the river. The bird's eye
VK.w of both towns, incirclcd with
^cry high, steep hills, the sides of
«-hich are cow-red with gurdeps, etrag-
glitiK cottages, &c. impending over one
another, is singulurty picturesque.
The iuhabttants of both these places
are chiefly supported by theuilchard
fishery, and by some little trade which
is connected with the port. A snail-
battery and breait-work protect the
mouth of the river. Both East and
West Looe are boronghs, and e^Ji
]-eturn 4 members to parliament. The
numbei of voters in £ust Looe is about
50, and in West liooe there are about
ftf many. The former ol these, bo-
roughs is governed by a mayor, a
recorder, and 9 burgesses, and the
latter by a mayor and 12 capital bur-
gesses. The number of houses which
are built with slate in East Looe is
about 200, and in West Looe (which
was originally unmed Port Pigham)
ftbout 109. Opposite 'he mouth of
the Looe r\v&, which is oavi^abie €wr
vessels of 100 tons burden, is Looe,
or 8t. George's island, a snail tract
)>eIonging to Sir Harry Trelawny, and
which is chiefiy visited and inhabited
by sea- pies, and different kinds of
sea-fowl, that resort to the rocks av
the spring for tlie purpose of incuba-

tio^. " At this period," says Carew.
' you shall see yn^r beads shadowed
witli a cloud or old ones, through
their diversi&ed cries, witnessing their
^lisiike of your disturbance of their
young " 4i$n this island was formerly
^chapel, dedicated to St. Geoige, of
which nothing now remains except
ihe fpundations. The population of
Bast Looe is im, that of West Looc
ls4S3.

Marfut Dq9 and Fafm,'} <in both
boroughs.) S«t>-^airs, Feb. 13, and
Oct. 10.

Po»t.^ The post is up about IS in the
U^otA. and down about 7 in the ev.
A bye post passes through this place
every day, except Friday, from Ply-
mouth toLiskeard.

Jim»*l U^fn are two, h«K on » iwall
ceale.



GeaOemn'* SsaCs.l Near W. Looe
on the N. is PdveUan, tbe arat of
Colonel Lemon. Also dist, about 9
n. from the river is TreUwny H«itfes
a venerable mansion, the seat of the
Trelawney family. in the diawiog xooia
is an exeeUettt portrait, by Sir God-
frey Knellar, of Sir Jonathan Trelaw*
ney, bishop pf Winchester* who was
bom here.

East Looe is dist. front London 8S
miles, and 16 W. of Plymouth, in the
post road from which it ilea, and s
from Fow«r.

LOUGHB0BOU6H. (Leicestershire>
a m. t. situated near the banks of the
river Soar, in a ri( h soil, a healthy-
air, and among agreeable and beau-
tiful meadow gvounds* In the tinDueol*
the Anglo Saxon kings. Loughborough
was a royal village. Its extent frma
N. to S. is almost a m. and its breadth
from E. to W. nearly half a ra. Hhe
houses in general are built with brick
and covered witJh sUte j the latter pro-
cured from the pits at 6wjthluad. A.
^reat part of the town is a( Mee e oi t
m a state of rebaiJda»g> aJad there
ace alceady vtome atr««u which b»v«
M elu^t appeacMice, beiag w«U
fronted wkth neat tradcameo's shffw*
ef vanaus descriptions. Foa^adatioM
are aUo laid for «ther etreeta «u»4
hottses of a simitar nature, wliieli«
when Gompleated, will not only «4d
to the beaiUy, hut likewise to the
magnitude of the Dla^ce. The market-
place, much distorted and C4Mifiaed aft
present, by tlie inur^ierence nt some
old houses, yet staadina in the mhlst
of it, is tikeiy to he made aa commo-
dious and oinaniental as any in the
kingdom, ofe^ual extent, as it is in.
tended to remove the said old build-
logs, and to ereipt m5>dern edifices on
the front sides of the mark&t-plaee
ia their stead. The market-ccoss, el-
thougli of no mean appearance, ia to
be taken down and rebftiik in the
centre of the market-pla^e. Here is
a laxge old church, the r«ctory of
which, worth liool. per annum, be*
Imgi to Emanuel College, Cpunbridge,
aad a well en^yiMfred free grammar
school, the diiferent masters nf wliich
aiw provided with lai^ con ven lent
hP««es for the recef^ioa of boarders.
Here ia likciwiae • <:h»rity school fur
90 bf^s, and luioiber for 20 girls. The
chief manttfaOmy ftt Louehborough is
woollen in the stocking branch, and
cotton spini^ing, and the new canals
that have been cut in the neighboer.
hood, have made the coal .trade here
very brisk and extensive> Here is a
stone bridge over the Soar, which
divides tiie meadows of Leicestershire
from those of Nottinghamshire, and



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a navigable canal now comes up close
to the siVle of the river. WeaiwHTd of
Lougttboroo^h ' is Ctiarlwood Foresr,
formerly so hjll of irood» that a squir-
rel might be hunted from tree to iree,
6 m. at length, but now, though lO
miles long and broad, it is in a man-
ner withou t timber on the waste* The
fosse way runs almost pardllel with
the river Soar. Population 5.400.

Market Day and Fairs.'] Mrfr. day,
Thuri.—Fairs, March fiR, April 2^,
Holy Thurs. Aug. i9,nrid Nov. IS.

Jianktrt.') Mc'asrs. I'horpt* and Co.
draw on Hoare, Baruetts and Co. Lon-
don.

I*o$t.2 The Leeds Mail arrives from
the N. at half past il in the morn,
and proceeds directly forward for L«n-
don. The S, mail comes in at IQ.
The Manchester mail arrives here at a
quarter past i in the aft. whence it
proceeds for Ixindon, and comes in
from the S. at t2 o'clock, mid-day, In
its mute to Manchester.

Principal /nas.l Anchor and Bull's
Head.

Coaches and WagatoTu.'] There are
no proprietors of either coaches or
waggons in the town, but as Lough-
borough is a great thoroughfare from
the Metropolis to Nottin«iham, Derby,
Blanch e8ter» Ike, ooachcs and waggons
to and from London are continually
passing and repassing with passengers
and goods.

Gentlemen^a Seats,^ Burleigh House,
(B.Tate, esq.)«m. Beaumanor, (W.
Heyrick, esq.) Quoindon Hall, (late
Hugo Meyaeli, esq.) Stunfoid Hall,
(C< V. Dashwood, esq.) and Garcndon
Hall, (T. M. Phillips, esq.) Also
Prestwood Hall, (C. J. Pack, esq.)
and Sutton House, Parkyus,) both dis-
tant 4 miles.

Loughborough is ^list. from London
109 m. from Ashby-de-la-Zouch 19,
from Derby \7, from Nottingham 14,
and from 'Manchester 73* Through
the town, on' the right, there is a turn-
pike-road to Nottingham, and one on
the left to Ashby-de-la-Zouch.

LOUTH, (Lincolnsh.) am. t. plea-
santlv situated on the -side of the
Wolds, in a valley that runs from E.
to W. at of near a small stream called
the Lud, from whence it is supposed
to have derived its name. It is a neat,
compact, thriving place, much im-
proved of late years. The number of
houtes (severul of which are justlv
considered as handsome elegant build-
ings) is about 970. and the number of
iniiabltants, in the year laii, wus
47^8, but since that time has been c«m-
tbtually increasing. Here is a spacious,
noUe vlmrch, tb« steeple of which is



universally admired, being as lofty a«
.the spire ' at Grantham, which is S88
feet high ; the exterior is neither pro-
fusely covered with ornaments, nor
yet IS it thought to be any ways de-
Acient. There are no remains now
visible of the church of St. Mary's, but
the ground where it stood is stilHised
as a burial-ground. The other public
buildings are a town-hull, a manbion-
lioase, very elegant, and a theatre,
whii h last building, however., is private
propeity, belongmg to Mr. "Edward
BIyth, merchant, to whom the town in
general is much indebted for a number
of its recent improvements. There is
a free grammar-school, founded by Ed-
ward VL now under the learned aud



Online LibraryThomas Hartwell HorneCrosby's complete pocket gazetteer of England and Wales, or Traveller's ... → online text (page 62 of 110)