INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS LIBRARY
THEORY AND PRACTICE
THOMAS HERBERT RUSSELL, A. M., LL. D.
Author of "Business Principles and Methods," "Natural Resources
and National Wealth," etc., etc.; former Editor-in-Chief
Webster's Universal Dictionary
A CORPS OF BUSINESS EXPERTS
COPYRIGHT 1910 BY
INTERNATIONAL LAW A BUSINESS INSTITUTE
WHITMAN PUBLISHING CO.
RACINE - CHICAGO
"Ever judge of men by their professions. For
though the bright moment of promising is but a mo-
ment, and cannot be prolonged, yet if sincere in its
moment's extravagant goodness, why, trust it, and
know the man by it, not by his performance."
"A lawyer without history or literature is a mechanic,
a mere working mason ; if he possesses some knowledge
of these he may venture to call himself an architect."
Sir Walter Scott.
What counts infinitely more than any possible outside
reward is the spirit of the worker himself. The prime
need is to instill into the mind * * * a true apprecia-
tion of real as distinguished from sham success * * *
Combine the power of devotion to a lofty ideal with prac-
tical common sense in striving to realize the ideal.
RICHABD CANNING, President Northwestern Finance Company,
H. M. COOMBS, special lecturer on Credits and Collections, In-
ternational Law and Business Institute.
JAMES J. CRAIG, A. B., special lecturer on Insurance, International
Law and Business Institute.
C. A. ECKLUND, special lecturer on Accounting and Auditing and
Financial Management, International Law and Business Institute.
G. A. OBTH, LL. B., adjuster Travelers' Insurance Co.
C. N. SMITH, special lecturer on Business Systems, International
Law and Business Institute.
J. T. THOMPSON, formerly of the Ontario bar.
A. C. WILKINSON, special lecturer on Salesmanship and Advertis-
ing, International Law and Business Institute.
GEO. E. YOUNG, of the Minnesota bar, special lecturer on Commer-
cial Law and Corporations, International Law and Business Institute.
C. E. ZIMMERMAN, expert on Publicity and Sales Promotion,
CYRUS C. ADAMS, author of "A Text-Book of Commercial Geogra-
JOSEPH A. ARNOLD, Editor and Chief of Division of Publications,
U. S. Department of Agriculture.
W. J. ASHLEY, M. A., professor of Economic History in Harvard
University; author of "An Introduction to English Economic History
HARRY C. BENTLEY, C. P. A., author of "Corporate Finance and Ac-
RIGHT HONORABLE JAMES BRYCE, British Ambassador to the United
States; author of "The American Commonwealth."
ANDREW CARNEGIE, author of "The Empire of Business," "Tha
Gospel of Wealth," "Triumphant Democracy." etc. etc.
CHARLES U. CARPENTER, author of "Profit-Making in Shop and Fac-
AUTHORITIES CONSULTED. 9
A. HAMILTON CHUBCH, author of "The Proper Distribution of Ex-
THOMAS CONYNGTON, of the New York bar; author of "Corporate
Organization," "Corporate Management" "The Modern Corporation, Its
Mechanism, Methods, Formation and Management," etc.
WILLIAM AMELIUS CORBION, author of "the Principles of Salesman-
ship, Deportment and System."
DR. STUART DAGGETT, University of California, author of "Railroad
LAWRENCE R. DICKSEE, F. C. A. professor of Accounting at the
University of Birmingham; author of "Office Organization and Man-
HON. JOHN F. DBYDEN, former United States Senator; president of
The Prudential Insurance Company of America; author of "Life In-
surance as a Career," "Uniform Law and Legislation on Life Insur-
ance," etc., etc.
E. DANA DURAND, Director of the Census Bureau, Washington, D. C.
SEYMOUR EATON, Director of the Department of Industry and Fi-
nance, Drexel Institute, Philadelphia; author of "How To Do Business."
JAMES H. ECKELS, former Comptroller of the Currency; author of
"The Methods of Banking," etc.
HARRINGTON EMERSON, author of "Efficiency as a Basis for Opera-
tion and Wages."
A. NORTON FITCH, of the Tacoma (Wash.) bar, formerly of tkt
Rochester (New York) bar; author of "New Commercial Law."
E. K. FOLTZ, author of "The Federal Civil Service as a Career."
DAVID R. FORGAN, president of the National City Bank of Chi-
H. L. GANTT, member of the American Society of Mechanical En-
gineers; author of "Training Workmen in Habits of Industry and Co-
operation," etc., etc.
JAMES C. GIPE, Secretary Joint Committee on Conservation, Wash-
ington, D. C.
JOHN H. GRAY, Ph. D., professor of Economics and Political Sci-
ence, University of Minnesota.
W. C. HOLMAN, former editor of Salesmanship Magazine.
EBNEST W. HUFFCUT, former Dean of the Cornell University Col-
lege of Law; author of "The Elements of Business Law."
JINKIN LLOYD JONES, Abraham Lincoln Center, Chicago.
HON. W. L. MACKENZIE KING, C. M. G., M. P., Minister of Labor,
Dominion of Canada.
M. G. LAROCHELLE, Joint Commissioner, Civil Service Commission
of Canada, Ottawa, Canada.
PROF. J. LAURENCE LAUGHLIN, former head of the Department of
Political Economy, University of Chicago.
6 AUTHORITIES CONSULTED.
PAUL MORTON, president of The Equitable Life Assurance Company.
ALEXANDER DANA NOTES, financial editor "New York Evening Post"
GEORGE W. PERKINS, 23 Wall Street, New York.
CARL HORTON PIERCE, lecturer on "Salesman-Making," New York
Y. M. C. A.; author of "Scientific Salesmanship."
CHAS. F. ROLAND, Secretary of the Winnipeg Development and
Industrial Bureau, Winnipeg, Manitoba.
WILLIAM A. SCHONFELD, attorney and counselor-at-law ; author of
"A Compendium of Laws."
WM. A. SCOTT, director of Course in Commerce, University of
Wisconsin; author of "Money and Banking," etc., etc.
EDWIN R. A. SELIGMAN, LL. D,, author of "Essays in Taxation,"
"The Economic Interpretation of History," "Principles of Econom-
ics," etc., etc.
ARTHUR B. SHELTON, Secretary of the National Monetary Commis-
sion, Washington, D. C.
ADAM SMITH, LL. D., author of "The Wealth of Nations."
GOLDWIN SMITH, D. C. L., LL. D., author of "The Relations Be-
tween America and England," "Canada and the Canadian Question,"
"History of the United States," "Essays on Questions of the Day," etc.,
SAMUEL E. SPARKLING, Ph. D., author of "Business Organization."
EDWARD W. SPENCER, of the Milwaukee bar, author of "Manual of
Commercial Law," and "The Elements of Commercial Law."
F. W. TAUSSIG, professor of Political Economy in Harvard Uni-
versity; author of "Wages and Capital."
FREDERICK WINSLOW TAYLOR, expert in Industrial Organization,
Philadelphia, Pa.; author of "A Piece-Rate System," "Shop Manage-
ment," etc., etc.
R. WHATELY COOKE TAYLOR, author of "Introduction to a History
of the Factory System."
HENRY W. THURSTON, head of the Department of Social and Eco-
nomic Science in the Chicago Normal School; author of "Economics
and Industrial History."
HON. JOHN WANAMAKER, Philadelphia.
ALGERNON WARREN, author of "Commercial Traveling: Its Feature*,
Past and Present."
SALESMANSHIP - THEORY AND PRACTICE.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
ASSOCIATE EDITORS AJSTD AUTHORITIES
Chapter I. SELF-TRAINING IN SALESMANSHIP 21
Development of Selling Power Essen-
tials of Salesmanship General Knowl-
edge Desirable Training the Senses
Exercise of Judgment Combating Evil
Passions Why Knowledge is Necessary
Concentration Imagination a Valua-
ble Asset Training the Will Power
Originality and Initiative Steps in Self-
Chapter II. PRINCIPLES OF SALESMANSHIP 31
Finding the ' ' Prospect ' ' Preliminary
Preparation The Approach Gaining
Attention "Sizing Him Up " - The
Demonstration The Selling Talk The
Convincing Argument Closing the Sale
Elements of a Sale (Salesman, Goods,
Buyer) Selling Force Enthusiasm
Keeping Up Steam Reading the Cus-
tomer Various Types of Buyers Power
of the Will Power of the Voice Sugges 1 -
tion Auto-Suggestion Character and
Health Practical Hints for Salesmen.
MARKETING A PRODUCT
Organization of Distribution The Job-
ber or Wholesaler Modern Methods of
Marketing Advantage of a Sales Force
Assisting the Jobber The Advertising
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Chapter IV. PERSONALITY OF THE SALESMAN
Trained Faculties Required Personal
Appearance Personal Character Use
of the Intellect Tact Makes Friends
The Armor of Self -Control Value of
Politeness Be Cheerful and Prompt
Earnestness of Purpose.
Chapter V. THE SCIENTIFIC SALESMAN .............. 81
Scientific Salesmanship Involves Study-
Education Application Personal Qual-
ities Self -Control A Student of Men
A Cultivated Memory Shrewdness and
Honesty Knowledge of the Goods In-
dustry and Perseverance Getting out of
Chapter VI. SELLING AT WHOLESALE
Turning Failure into Success Watch-
ing Expert Methods Selling to Expert
Buyers The Use of ' ' Leaders "Forc-
ing the Buyer's Attention Keeping the
Customer It Pays to be Obliging "At
Wholesale " Foundation of Success
Machinery of Wholesaling Responsibili-
ties of Buyers Granting of Credit-
Qualifications of Salesmanship Up-to-
date Methods Needed Details of Daily
Routine In the Order Department
Filling and Shipping Orders Work of
Other Departments The Young Man's
Beginning Preparation for Business
SELLING AT RETAIL Ill
Securing Attention Arousing Interest
Creating Desire The Purchasing Im-
pulse Everyone a Prospective Filling
Orders not Salesmanship.
PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS TO SALESMEN 119
THE APPROACH 125
How to Introduce Yourself Have a
Fixed Idea The First Interview Gain
a Hearing How to Approach a Store-
keeperTake in the Situation Prepare
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Your Brief Getting at Him Don't be
Sidetracked The First Five Minutes
Get His Attention Put Yourself in His
Place Keep your Temper Say It
Quickly Purpose of the Interview No
Imaginary Demonstration Don 't Be
Too Blunt Be Brief if Necessary
Have Definite Answers Ready Make an
Appointment Some Good Appeals for
THE DEMONSTRATION 145
Know Your Goods Don't Take the De-
fensive Be Polite Make Him Feel Its
Importance Know His Business Aid
Him in Choosing Size Your Man
Speak Deliberately Convince Him
Be Natural and Sincere The First
Stage The Second Stage The Third
Stage The Money-Saving Feature.
CLOSING THE SALE 157
Getting the Order Signed Be on the
Alert Don't Talk Him Out of It-
Verbal Agreements Unbusinesslike
Things to Remember Things to Avoid.
GETTING THE ORDER SIGNED 165
Learning When to Close The Closing
Summary A Systematic Method Needed
Recall Favorable Admissions Acquie-
scence May Be Assumed Shutting Off
Controversy Enumerate the Strong
Points The Push That Lands the Order
" Rushing" the Prospect.
Chapter XIII. SALES ORGANIZATION 179
Methods of Selling Manufactured Goods
Developing a Selling Force Training
of Salesmen A Scientific Selling System
Salesmen 's Weekly Demonstration
Meetings Program of Salesmen's Dem-
onstration Meetings Creating the Sales-
man's Interest Handling Competition
12 TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Salesmen's Training Department Im-
portance of the Instructor Work of the
Training School Keeping Track of
Salesmen Salesman's Daily Report of
Sales The Prospective Customer's
Record Executive Reports from Selling
Chapter XIV. A MANUFACTURER'S CAMPAIGN 199
Locating a New Industry Determining
Grade of the Product Development of
Sales Field Advertising Methods Or-
ganization of Sales Force Relation of
Output to Credit.
Chapter XV. THE TRAINING OP AGENTS 209
No. 1. Talk on -Salesmanship Over-
crowded Callings A Thing for Which
the Demand is Greater than the Supply
How to Acquire Salesmanship Your
Personal Attitude Dignity of the Work
Your Calling an Honorable One.
No. 2. Talk on Starting Work When to
Start A Knowledge Worth Working
for Weather Conditions Don 't Watch
the Clock The Great Importance of Re-
ports The First Plunge Try It on a
No. 3. Talk on Success Experience and
Inexperience Theory and Practice-
The Three Factors Which Produce Suc-
cess Master Your Proposition Study
These Lessons Ideas Are the Product of
Thought Preparation for the Canvass
Know What You Are Going to Say
Adapt Your Answers to Your Customers
Chapter XVI. SELLING A BUSINESS SERVICE, Part 1 223
General Instructions Working Your
Territory Initiative Decision
Dispatch Perseverance Master the
Proposition Origin of Advertising
Early Attempts Presentation of the
Proposition Introductory Talk.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
SELLING A BUSINESS SERVICE, Part 2 243
Closing Arguments How to Answer All
Kinds of Objections.
SELLING A BUSINESS SERVICE, Part 3 259
An Occasional Introduction Make Your
Man Understand Drive Your Points
Home Causing Decision The Time to
Close Some Price Arguments Why We
Don't Pay Freight Getting a Reference
A Good Argument Payments
TRAVELING SALESMEN 277
Ancient Travelers Held in Respect-
Evolution of the Modern Traveler Im-
proved Means of Transit Nineteenth
Century Development Origin of the
" Bagman" Was He an Insect-Des-
troyer? Changes Noted in England
Margins of Profit Reduced Quality
Standards Higher Buyers Know More
Nowadays Effects of Cooperative Trad-
ing Market Information Was Scarce
Travelers 7 Information Welcome Collec-
tions by Travelers Commercial Travel-
ing in America Two Classes of Roadmen
Division of Territory Systems of
Traveling Compensation of Roadmen
The Question of Expenses Selection of
Salesmen Control of the Salesman.
KEEPING TRACK OF PROSPECTS 303
The Card Index The Follow-up File
A Working Partner Sales Department
Records Suggestions for Handling In-
quiries "Follow Ups" Keeping up
Prospect System Rules.
PSYCHOLOGY OF SALESMANSHIP, Part 1 315
Confidence and Suggestion The Basis
of Confidence Securing the Customer's
Interest The Use of Suggestion Per-
suasion an Important Weapon Chang-
ing a Sentiment Mental Processes
14 TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Direct Appeal Appeal to Emotion-
Suggestion in Retail Selling Three Es-
sentials of Persuasion Elements of Sug-
gestive Salesmanship Action in Sugges-
Chapter XXII. PSYCHOLOGY OF SALESMANSHIP, Part 2 329
A Mighty Motive Power Soul Power or
Psychic Force Power Can be Cultivated
Effect of Earnestness Harmony with
Conditions No Mental Reservations-
Mental Influence on Bodily Functions
Coping with Antagonism.
ChapterXXIII. SELLING AN AGENCY 343
BUSINESS SUCCESS, by Walter H. Cot ting-
Opportunities of the Present Day The
Choice of a Career The Start Training
for the Race Work to a Plan The
Value of Time Be Enterprising Busi-
ness Ability System Enthusiasm
Questions for Review . . . '. 389
THEORY AND PRACTICE
For many centuries the art of selling goods was re-
garded as a special quality inherent in certain men or
certain classes of men, and transmitted from father to
son as a hereditary trait.
Up to within the last few years the word "salesman-
ship" was not to be found in dictionaries of the English
language. It was not recognized as a distinct word.
Modern salesmanship is therefore a comparatively new
step in the development of business. It is variously de-
scribed as a science and an art, and it truly partakes of
the character of both.
Salesmanship is an art because its successful exercise
implies the skill, dexterity, and power of performing
certain actions, acquired by experience, study or observa-
tion. If art be defined as "a system of rules serving
to facilitate the performance of certain actions," then
modern salesmanship is indeed an art, because it is based
upon well-defined principles and established rules, the
observance of which facilitate every sale.
The salesmanship of today is often called scientific
salesmanship. As a distinctive branch of study, it may
well be called a science, because it implies "knowledge,
comprehension and understanding of the truths and
facts regarding the subject of selling goods."
It is knowledge of the mental attitudes of buyer and
seller, "co-ordinated, arranged and systematized."
It answers to the definition of a science also because
it represents "art or skill derived or resulting from pre-
cepts, principles or training."
Like every other science, it is the result of general
laws, and it may be taught like any other science.
Art is the application of knowledge to practice. A
principle of science is a rule in art. Science is knowl-
edge; art is skill in using it.
Thus, modern salesmanship being both an art and a
science, it may be acquired by the study and practice
of the principles and knowledge on which it is based,
these being now generally recognized and understood.
Science embraces those branches of knowledge which
give a positive statement of truth, either as founded in
the nature of things, or established by observation and
Art is that which depends upon practice and skill in
performance. So we may acquire the science of sales-
manship or a knowledge and comprehension of its prin-
ciples, and we practice the art of salesmanship when we
exercise our knowledge in actual business transactions.
What is Salesmanship?
A common definition of salesmanship is "the ability
to sell goods and merchandise," or "the making of a con-
tract for the transfer of property," but a better defini-
tion of modern salesmanship is "the power of selling"
For the scientific salesman of today must possess and
feel the power to sell. This power he acquires by knowl-
edge. He must know how to sell before he can hope for
How can this knowledge be acquired? The answer
is, first, by study of the principles of salesmanship as
they are understood today. Second, by the cultivation
of the mind so as to be able to exercise the power of the
will and thus acquire selling force; by character-build-
ing; by conservation of the health; by proper deport-
ment under all circumstances; by learning to read the
customer, so as to be able to influence his mental atti-
tude by suggestion and auto-suggestion; by a careful
study and accurate knowledge of the goods one has to
sell in short, by equipping one's self thoroughly with
all possible knowledge that may affect a sale or tend to
create the desire to purchase.
The modern salesman must know how to approach a
customer and how to secure a hearing; how to present
his goods and make a selling argument for them ; how to
answer objections and how to close a sale; how to handle
buyers under the varying conditions and circumstances
of frequent or occasional intercourse ; how to keep a cus-
tomer and secure his future trade.
Most of these things are matters of knowledge that
can be acquired by study and persistence. Character
can be built up by self -training. Health and deport-
ment depend upon the individual himself. In fact, all
the essentials of modern salesmanship are within the
reach of any young man who will devote himself with
care and assiduity to their acquirement.
Qualifications of a Salesman.
A well-known western wholesaler has summed up the
varied qualifications of a true salesman thus:
I.B.L. Vol. 22
"To be a good salesman is not only in itself a trade,
but an accomplishment. A first-class salesman must not
only know his goods and their values, but must be equally
well informed regarding the lines with which he will
come in competition. He must be able to win and re-
tain the confidence of the men with whom he transacts
business. In making sales, he must consider the in-
terests of both the buyer and the seller. He must know
that a sale which overstocks a customer or gives him
ground for feeling that he has been unintentionally
overcharged, or in any manner defrauded, is the most
unprofitable sale that can possibly be made. An ideal
salesman is not one who depends upon what is vulgarly
known as 'the gift of the gab.' One of the best sales-
men I ever knew was the most quiet and least obtrusive
in his manner. A thoroughly equipped salesman must
have confidence in the merchandise he is selling, and be
able to exert personal magnetism. A man who never
makes friends never makes customers."
Rewards of Salesmanship.
The rewards of successful salesmanship were never
so great as they are at the present time. Every man is a
salesman, more or less. Poor salesmen must be satisfied
with poor rewards, but good salesmen command good
prices for their services, and great salesmen are always
in demand and receive great rewards.
It would be folly to assert that every young man can
make himself a great salesman. Every man but a crip-
ple can run, but every man cannot become a great run-
ner. A course of conscientious training, however, will
improve any man's running abilities, and a course of
conscientious self -training in salesmanship will improve
any man's selling ability.
In the chapters that follow, the principles of sales-
manship on which modern methods are based are clearly
described. Approved methods of selling goods are also
entered into at length, and the student of business who
desires to pursue salesmanship as his vocation in life
may gather from these pages all the essential knowledge
he requires as a sure foundation for success.
''The heights by great men earned and kept,
Were not attained by sudden flight;
But they, while their companions slept,
Were toiling upward in the night. "
"There is no easy road to success. I thank God for it.
A trained man will make his life tell. Without training,
men are left on a sea of luck, where thousands go down
while one meets with success. " Garfield.
SELF-TRAINING IN SALESMANSHIP.
From the moment the young man throws down his
gauntlet in the arena of business life and challenges Suc-
cess, he becomes a salesman. When he applies for his
first position he attempts to sell his services and the
measure of success which he attains will depend very
largely on his selling ability. He may never be called
upon to sell actual commodities, but in every walk of life
the successful man is a good salesman. If he is a doc-
tor, lawyer, a preacher, a journalist, an accountant, or
an author, his purpose is to sell his services, his skill, or
the product of his knowledge, in the best market, and to
obtain the highest price possible. If he is a grocer, a
dry goods man, or a grain dealer, his object is to obtain
the highest going price for his commodities and to sell as
much of them as possible. Hence salesmanship begins
at the outset of every business career and is continued to
It is a mistake to suppose that the professional man
need know nothing about salesmanship. Professional
life is chock full of failures made by men who have
neglected this important part of their training, and
there are many instances, sad to relate, of professional
wrecks and derelicts who actually try to pride themselves
upon the fact that they have never striven to acquire
even the rudiments of salesmanship or any other branch
of business skill that would fit them for profitable prac-
tice of their profession.
22 SELF-TRAINING IN SALESMANSHIP.
Development of Selling Power.
Salesmanship, then, since it must be practiced by all,
should be carefully studied by all. Some men are be-
lieved to have a natural faculty for selling goods and are
called "born" salesmen. But it is a mistake to suppose
that the art of salesmanship cannot be acquired by self-
training. The power to sell lies innate in the great ma-
jority of men, and can be developed by training and by
study. The faculties and methods brought into play
by the "born" salesman are those that must be culti-
vated and developed by the man who is being trained or
is training himself in salesmanship. The whole struc-
ture is based upon individual character, and the man
who would succeed as a salesman must cultivate the
qualities upon which success depends.
If one is lacking in the characteristics of a successful
salesman he must so build up his character by study and
constant watchfulness of himself as to acquire the quali-
ties he lacks. The business character of a man can be