Thomas Heywood.

A woman killed with kindness, and The fair maid of the west online

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" Then smiled sweetlye brave Mary Ambree *' —

she admitted her sex, thus callmg out the unbounded admiration
of her enemies.

** But art thou a woman, as thou dost declare.
Whose valor hath proved so undaunted in warre ?
If England doth yield such brave lasses as thee,
Full well may they conquer, fair Mary Ambree.*'

And presently, despbing the courtship of the Prince of Panna,
'*this virtuous maiden ** returned home,

** Still holding the foes of faire England in scome.**

Mary Ambree is mentioned by several of Heywood*s contem-
poraries, — by Jonson (Epieeent, iv, ii, 124; Ta/e of a Tub, i, ii,
127; TAe Fortunate Lies, where she and Long Meg of Westmin-
ster are among the dancers in the antimasque); by Fletcher (Ti^
Scornful Lady, v, iv, 102) 5 hy Fields {Amends for Ladies, n, i,
47, together with Long Meg), and ponibly by Butler {Hudibrat,
Part I, u, 367).

The life of longe megg of fFestminster was entered S. R. Aug. 1 8,
1590, but the earliest niition now known is dated 1620. This
brisk narrative is reprinted in Miscellanea Antiqua Anglieana, 1 8 16.
The full tide runs: TAe Life of Long Meg of Westminster, Con^
taining the Mad Merry Pranks she played in her life time, not onely
in performing sundry quarrels ivith divers ruffians about London,
But also how valiantly she behaved her selfe in the ivarres of BuU
loingne. The address To the Gentlemen i^Mi^rx speaks of her kindly:
" a woman she was of late memory, and well beloved, spoken on
of all, and knowne of many.** The tract states that Long Meg,
so called "for her excesse in height,** was bom in Lancashire
" of very honest and wealthy parents ** in the time of Henry VIII.
At eighteen, she ** would needs come up to London to serve, and
to Icarne City fiuhions.** She entered into service with a West-
minster landlady, who had •* a great Suter,** Sir James of Castile,
but who preferred the poet Skelton and loved fun best of all. So

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she " made a match betweene her and Long Meg, that she [Long
Meg] should goe drest in Gendemans apparell, and with her
sword and buckler, goe and meet Sir James in Samt Georges
field.** The mistress dressed Meg for her part in a suit of white
satin belon^ng to one of the lodgers and then told Sir James how
she had been insulted by <* a squaring long Knave in a white Sattin
doublet,** who was awaiting in St. George* s Fields any champion
that she might send. Sir James was no mere bully, like Rough-
man, and there ensued a sharp combat, but soon Meg had the
Spaniard at her mercy, giving him his life on condition that he
wait on her trencher at supper and confess his adversary*s better
swordsmanship. Sir James confided to Sir Thomas More, who had
been bidden to supper, with other gentlemen, to see the jest, " what
had befallen him, how entring in a quarrell of his hostesse, hee
fought with a desperate Gentleman of the Court, who had foiled
him, and given him in charge to wait on his trencher that night.**
Then, when '*in came Meg marching in her man*s attire** and
** putting off her Hat, and heir haire falling about her earcs,** re-
vealed the identity of his victor, '*all the company fell in a great
laughmg. * * Meg presently undertook a house of her own, in South-
wark, and became much beloved of the poor, << for whatsoever shee
got of the rich (as her gettings were great) she bestow* d it liberally
on them that had need.** She liked to roam the streets in man*s
apparel, a London Robin Hood, plundering thieves and making
restitution to their victims. Meg, too, went on foreign adventure.
She enlisted for the French war and, at Boulogne, accepted the chal-
lenge of the French champion, fought with him before the walls
and cut off his head. On her return home, she married, but not
even the entreaties of her husband, who wanted a match of strength,
could induce her to lift her hand against him. Gendest and most
submissive of wives, she preferred to bear his Mows in all domestic
submission. In Islington was one of Long Meg*s taverns, which
Heywood probably knew as such. She kept the best of order in her
inns, one of her rules being : ** That if any Ruffler came in and
made an Alehouse-brawle, and when he had done, would not man-
fully goe into the field and fight a bout or two with Long Meg, the
Maides of the house should drie beat him, and so thrust him out
of doores.** In ch. xvn of the tract figures a ** huffing Dick,**

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who bullied maids and tmashed utentils till Meg came down. ** Sir,
quoth the very mildely, what is the reason you breake my pots, and
then beat my servants ? ** In the end, she made him put on wom-
an's dress and, herself in man's attire, attend her on a swagger
through the streets, to his great shame. The tradition of Long
Meg's extraordinary size associated her name with a large blue
gravestone in the South Walk of the Westminster Abbey cloisters,
— a stone which, according to Fuller, ** was placed over a number
of monks who died of the plague and were all buried in one grave. **
A cannon in Dover Castle was named for her, and ** As long as
Meg of Westminster ** passed into a proverbial phrase. The ballad
on Long Meg, entered S. R. Aug. 27, 1590, seems to be lost, as
is the play Long Meg of fFeaminster. (See Sources, ) Long Meg
is mentioned by several of Hey wood's contemporaries, — by Gabriel
Harvey, who calls her (in Piercers Supererogattortf 1 600, Grosart
ed., II, 129) ** a lustie bounsing rampe '*; by Jonson (in TA4 For-
tunate lsles)i twice by Field (in Amends for Ladies^ n, i, 47 and
14s) 9 ^y Dekker and Middleton (in The Roaring Girle^ t, i,
2-3). See Collier's Biblit^raphical Account of Early English Lit-
eraturCy vol. iv, pp. 181-83 (ed. 1866), for Tyros Roring Megge,

1 82, 44 ; alto 1 90, 4. Hector, fi-equent in the seventeenth cen-
tury for blusterer. It is often used with an epithet, as Bully Hector.

Z90, 6. Little Davy, Cutting; Dick. Collier's annota-
tion: *<Two characters of the time celebrated for their bravado
and exploits" is echoed in Verity's: <' Contemporary bravoe of
note." For Little Davy I cannot be more explicit. Davy was a
common name in the seventeenth century and, like Tom, Dick
and Harry, easily slipped mto persistent phrases, as ** Davy Jones*
locker." *' Cutter," according to Nares, *' was a cant word for a
swaggerer, a bully, or sharper," and ''cutting" is defined by
N. £. D. as applied to one who '' is a ' cutter * or swaggering blade.**
In the collection of Shirbum Ballads is given (no. xxv, p. 106)
** The lamentation of Henry e Adlington^ a fencer, one of the cut-
tinge crewe of London, who, for murther, was executed without
A/gate f and yet hangeth in chaines." Harvey has in Piercers Super-
erogation (Grosart ed., n, 42) <*come olde cutten, you that use
to make dowty frayes in the streetes, and would hack-it terribly.'*
An Elizabethan highwayman to whom Nash alludes in Saffron-

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Walitn (Groeart ed., ni» 79) was known as Cutting Ball. \^ Dick
was often used in the sense of fellow, generally with an epithet, as
Desperate Dick or Dapper Dick. In Long Mtg of H^titminster
(ch. xvii) we read of "huffing Dicke.** Heywood*s generation
was familiar with the term ** cutting Dick,** which he uses again
b The fyUe-woman of Hogsdon (fVorksy v, 296). Yet certain of
the contemporary allusions seem to indicate a particular person, as
in Kemp*8 Nint Dayes M^on^fr (1600, ed. Camden Soc., p. 14):
** A boy arm*d writh a poating stick
Will dare to challenge Cutting Dicke.**

Wither, too, speaks (vnAbutet Stript and Whipt^ 161 1, Lib. 2,
Sat. 2) as if CCitting Dick were a well-known highwayman. The
latirist ironically advises men who would be deemed brave to

'< seek for gain
With Ward, the pirate, on the boisterous main ;
Or else well mounted, keep themselves on land,
And bid our wealthy travellers to stand
Emptying their full-cramm*d bags ; for they *11 not stick
To speak in honor still of Cutting Dick.**

Cf. Worhtfor Cutleft (Sieveking*s ed. ), p. 42. There was a play
on his exploits, one of those in which Heywood had *< a maine
finger,** for on September 20, 1 602, Henslowe, in behalf of
Worcester's Men, paid Heywood one pound for << the new a die-
yens of cuttyng-dicke. * *

191, 5. roaring. See note on 171, 100.
'95> ^3* Brianus. To this mytJiological giant Heywood re-
fers in the introductory lines to his sketch of Queen Elizabeth
(Nine Women WortUes) saying that he could not **patteme her
aright,** had he

** More hands than great Brianus (to be wondred)
Whose active skill (at once) could moove an hundred,
In every one a pen.**

X99> ^7- the kinfifS lieftenant. As Collier pomted out,
the Mayor of Foy was the Queen*s lieutenant in 1597.

206, 84-88. Claret . . . Malmsey. In his Philocothonhta
Heywood says of the English relish for foreign wines :

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** It is unqoetdonable, but that where other oatioiis and Pror-
inces are contented with luch wines or other liquors as their owne
Climats affoord ; Yet we, as if doting upon insatiety, borrow from
them all: From the Frenck ,• ReJ^ fyhite^ Claret^ Graves, HigA-
eountrey^ GalHcktj from Gascoynty Roche!, Orleance, ice. From
the Spaniard, all kinds of Sacks, as Ma/iigo, Charnio, Sherry,
Canary, Lactica, Palerno, Frontiniack, Peter-see-mee, Vino dcriba
datna, Vino Mta Frontina, Vino bianco, Moscatell perarsarvina
Ca/es, Gallon gallo paracomer. Sec. And from other Islands, sweet
wines, Bastard vfhite and browne, Raspis, Tent, Halligant, Mel-
nisee, Muskadell. From Germany, Rhennish, Backre^, &c. And
besides these, sundry Greek wines j to every of which, as they but
vary in taste, so they give them new adulterate names never before
heard of. We have moreover Wine of the Vintners owne maUng
conjured from the rest : Ipocras white and red, Boxt Alligant with
Sugar and Eggs \ Stitch-hroth brew*d with rose-water and Sugar,
BumM-Sacke j Bum'd-Wine ; Muld-Wine j Tomlons-Balderdaoh,
&c. And notwithstanding we have it in our owne dominions, Me^
theglin from Wales, and nearer hand, Whey, Ferry, Syder, Beare,
Braggatf and Ale : To adde to these chiefe and multiplicity of
wines, before named, yet there be Stills and Limbecks going,
swelling out Aquavitae and strong waters, deriving their names
from Cynamon, Lemmons, Balme, Angelica, Anniseed, Stomach"
Hoater Humm, tec. And to fill up the number, we have plenty both
of Usque-ba^he and Scotch- Ale ; neither can I thinke that any
nation under the Sunne thirst more after variety of variety.

<< But I could wish all our deep Carowsers and health-quaffen to
listen to the words and counsell of Zenophon, who thus saith, I
would have all my friends to drinke Wine, but with a limit and

George Wither, in Abuus Stript and Whipt (Poems, i6a»,
vol. I, pp. 200-01) gives a like testimony.

" What shall I say of our superfluous fare ? **
He says of the commoners,

** their drinks are good and stale.
Of perry, cyder, mead, metheglin, ale
Or beer,**

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but at for the rich,

** They with all sorti of foreign wines are sped,
Their cellars are oft fraught with white and red }
Be*t French, Italian, Spanish, if they crave it,
Nay, Grecian or Canarian, they may have it }
Gate, Pument, Vervage (if they' do desire)
Or Romney, Bastard, Capricke, Osey, Tire,
Muscadell, Malmsey, Clarey ; what they will.*'

Cf. Howell's letter to Lord Cliff, October 17, 1634. See, too,
the clown* s appreciative account of wines and revels in The Englitk
Traveller (fForks, iv, 25).

As for the sevoral wmes specifically mentioned here, claret does
not need definition.

Metheglin is a spiced mead, originally peculiar to Wales. Hey-
wood says (PAilocotAonista^ i, iv): "The Russian hath his quaffe,
the Scot his Ale, the fFelsA his Metheglin, the Iris A hb Usque-
ba'he.** Also (in ff^orks, v, 65) : " TAe Brittaine Ai MetAeglin
quaffs,^ ^ <* Marveile it is to see,** adds Dr. Cogan {^Havin of
HealtAf p. 256) ** how the Welchmen will lye sucking at thii
drinke. . . . It is as naturall a drinke for them as Nectar for the
gods. And I have heard some of that narion defend that it is the
very Nectar which Jupiter and Juno drank.** fFitts^ Recreatiotu
(1641) has an epitaph On a fFelsAman^ who

** By meer Metheglm dy*d, and tosted Cheese.**

Mutkadincy or muscatel, b a golden wine, strong and sweet,
made from the grape called muscat, with a flavor of musk. Hey-
wood has several mentions of it. {fForkSy vi, 347 ; 425.) An egg
was sometimes broken into it. (Bullen*s Old Plays ^ iv, 341.) *< It it
on the shores of the Mediterranean,** says Alex. Henderson, who
discusses almost all these varieties in his History of fFines^ pp. 298-
308, " that the choicest Muscadine wines are grown.**

Cyder or Pyrrey, Perry is a fermented beverage, like cider, but
made from me juice of pears instead of apples. Dr. Cogan was
inclined {Haven of Health , p. 254) to disapprove of cider, ** which
maketh even in youth, the colour of the face pale, and the skinne
riveled.** This view is upheld in the anonymous Pasquils Palinodia,
and Ais progresse to the TavernCy 1619 :

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** Matheglin it too fulsome,

cold Cyder and raw Perry^
And all drinks stand with cap in hand
In presence of old sJkerry.**

jiragoosa is a word disguised bejrond recognition. Verity conjec-
tures Saragossa. There may be some confusion of Saragossa witfc

Peter-set'Mte is thought to be a corruption of Pedro Xiraenet.
*• The Pedro-Ximenes/* says Henderson {History of fFlnes, p.
193), ** is said to have been imported from the banks of the Rhine
by an individual called Pedro Simon (corrupted to Ximon, or
Ximenes), and is one of the richest and most delicate of the Mal-
aga wmes.** Dekker calls it {Dramatic fTorks, n, 160) ** Peter sa
meene/* and Pasptils Palinodia plays another variation on the

" It is a place whereas old Sktrry Sackt
Is kept in durance in a dungeon deepe. . . •
In dreadful darknesse Alligant lies doomed. . . .
Strong hoopM in bonds are here constrained to tarry
Two kinsmen neere allyde to Skerry Sack,
Sweet MaJIigOf and delicate Canary,
Which warms the stomachs that digestion lacke ;
They had a page whom, if I can make meeter,
He let you know, they call*d him See mee Peter,**

The merry poet goes on to tell of Bastard, Muscadine and Malm-
sey, and elsewhere speaks of the ** Brisk blushing Claret.**

Canary is a light, sweet wine that, like Madeira, bears the name
of the i^ands where its grape is grown. It is mentioned again by
Heywood m The English Traveller (fyorks, iv, 16). Tonson says
of it (in the Induction to Every Man out of his Humour^ " Here *s
a cup of wine sparkles like a diamond. . . . Canary, the very elixir
and spirit of wine.** He apostrophizes it in The Staple of News
(v, iv, s) as

" Wine o* my worship ! sack ! Canary sack ! '*

Howell claims (Familiar Letters, part u, 71) that Canary is
accounted " the richest, the most firm, the best bodied, and last-

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ingest wine, and the most desecated from all earthly gronnets of
any other whatsoever. *' Dr. Cogan asks {Haven of Health, p.
238), ** who doth not know that sacke is hoter than white Wine
or Claret, and Malmsay or Muskadell hotter than Sacke, and Wine
of Madera or Canary to bee hottest of all ? **

CJkarnicOf mentioned by Shakespeare as chameco {j Henry Vl^
n, iii, 63) is said to derive its name from a village near Lisbon,
where the grape was grown.

Malmsey, A strong, sweet wine formerly obtained only in the
Grecian Archipelago, but later from the Madeira Islands. <' On
certain rocky grounds,** says Henderson (History offVtnes^ p. 250),
« which are exposed to the full influence of the sun*s rays, the
celebrated malmsey wine is grown.** It was in a <*butt of mal-
mesie,** according to Holinshed, that the Duke of Clarence was

306, 97. Graves wine. See note on Z53, 40.

ao6, 98. bastard, white or browne. Varieties of a
•weet Mediterranean wine often punned upon by the old dramatists,
as by Shakespeare in Measure for Measure, ni, ii, 4. It was not
one of the choicest wines. See Bullen*s Old Plays, iv, 315 : <* Ca-
narie b a Jewell, and a Figge for Browne-bastard.**

215, 22. strappadoes. See note on Woman Kilde, 87, 100.

a 1 6, S. D. a table set out, and stooles. Albright cites
this direction (Tkt Shaksperian Stage, p. 143) as an indication
that the Elizabethan stage was provided, on occasion, with a cur-
tained inner stage.

221, 99. take time when time is. Suggestive of the or-
acular utterance of The Braxen Head in Greene* s Friar Bacon and
Friar Bungay, iv, i, 57.

331, 104-5. Halfe-moone. See note on 154, 63.

333, 5. Fesse. For a full and graphic description of Fes in
Heywood*s time, see Purchas His Pilgrimes, vol. n, p. 785 et seq,
Fez was the centre of trade, exporting << tin, copper, hides, wool,
dates, honey, raisins, olives, almonds, gum, ivory, ostrich feathers,
indigo and fine mats.**

334, 33. Alkedavy. Spoken of here as the royal palace, and
again (348, 105) as the inner apartments of the palace, but by the
Mnndering Clem (350, 131) as a person. Alkeid Hamet is men-

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tioned by Purchai ai *' Gorenumr oTer the women and Eunochety**
but Heywood'i Alkedavy, whaterer Clem's may be, b probabty a
perversion of Alcasana (PurcAas, ii, 855), "the King's house.**

326, 31. Since • . • first. See note on 176, 23.

228, S. D. Enter Sailer above. Albright notes this (7i«
Skakspcrian Stage, p. 64) as an instance of the use of the stage
galleiy for the upper deck of a ship.

228, 79-80. Hath . . . adventure. This b the spirit that
Heywood conunends in hb Trtu Deuripuon of . » , Tke Sovt"
raignoftJke Seas,

« There was a time, when m erery brave Souldiers mouth there
was no discourse offered, but it either began, or ended with Pugnan"
dum, non dormiendum : that b, Now b a time to fight, not to
sleepe ; to be famous for our courage, not branded for our cowardice :
which was almost no sooner spoken, than suddenly put in action.**

339, 87. Then . . . enaignes. Cf. the orders m prepa-
ration for a sea-fight in Fortune (ff^orks, n, 415) and the an-
imated descriptbn of such a battle in A Challenge for Beauty
{fTorks, V, 35), as well as m Fortune {fTorks, vi, 416-18).

234, S. D. jict long. Pearson (11, 441) suggests that these
words ** are inserted to show that, in order to make due preparation
for what follows, the interval between the fourth and fifth acts was
bnger than ordinary.** He notes the direction Hoboyes long (p.
222) before an earlier appearance of the Moorish court.

340, loi. phcenix. Even so sophbticated a traveller as Fynet
Moryson seriously reports of Arabia {Itinerary^ iv, 1 1 3):

** It hath the bird Phoenix, of wluch kinde there b never more
than one onely, which by strikmg of stones together, kindles a fier
and bumes her selfe in her nest of myrh, and of the Ashes comes
a worme, which becomes a Bird, and so the Phoenix lives againe.**
It was an attractive figure for Heywood, who claims (fForh, ni»
262) that from the ashes of Troy *< hath risen two the rarest Phoe-
nixes in Europe, namely London and Rome,** and has Agamem-
non, lamenting (fForks, ni, 355) the slain champions of Greece,
recognize Pyrrhus at

** A Phcenix out of their cold ashes rising.**

See also fTorkt, v, 28-29.

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The tenn was constantly used of Elizabeth, not merely in ele-
gies, as by I. L. in 1 603,

** See how our Phoenix mounts aboTe the skies.
And from the neast another Phoenix flyes **;

nor in later reference by professed poets, as Wither*s reminiscence,
in his Prince Henry* s Obsequies^ of the time << when Eliza, our last
Phoenix, died **; but in popular song, as well as court poetry, dur-
ing her lifetime. See, for instance, the ballad, that Clem v^rould
have liked to mouth, on The Honour of a London Prentice (Rit-
8on*s Ancient Songs and Ballads, ed. 1877, p. 319): This pren-
tice was in Turkey as a Victor for a merchant on London bridge.

<< And in that famous country

One year he had not been,
Ere he by tilt maintained
>^ The honour of his queen;

Elizabeth his princess

He nobly did make known
To be the phoenix of the world, ^
And none but she alone.**

It will be remembered that when the Cockpit was torn down hy
a mob of prentices (March 4, 161 7), it was rebuilt as the Phoenix;
and Heywood*s connection with the account of Henry Welby,
The Pheenix of this Time, will be recalled.

341, 112. It is not now as when Andrea liv'd. Eliza-
bethan audiences never feiled to recognize and enjoy quotations
from their old fevorite, The Spanish Tragedy. Shakespeare, Dek-
ker, Jonson, Field, Fletcher, Shirley, even the young Rawlins,
all niade fun of it — see Boas ed. of Kyd*s fForksy 1901, pp.
Ixxxix-xcix — and Heywood puts scraps from it into Clem*8
mouth not only here (and see 1 13-18 below) but also in the second
part of The Faire Maid {fTorks, n, 393). Yet the extraordinary
hold the tragedy had taken on the popular imagination is indicated
by a story which has its most graphic tdling in Brathwait*s courtesy

In The English Gentlewoman (p. 299),'! 631, he tells of *' a
Gentlewoman of our owne Nation, who so daily bestowed the ex-

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pence of her best houres upon the Stage, as being surprized by sick-
nesie, eren unto death, thee became so deafe to such as admonished
her of her end, as when her Physician was to minister a Receipt
unto her, which hee had prepared to allay the extremity of that
agonizing fit wherewith shee was then asauled, putting ande the
Receipt with her hand, as if shee rejected it, in the very height and
heate of her distemper, with an active resolution used these words
unto her Doctor:

* Thankes good Horatio, take it for thy paines.* **

In his 1 641 folio, TJke English Gentleman and Englisk Gentle^
woman f the tale (p. 109) b even worse : <* But to draw in sailes,
touching this Recreation : as I approve of the moderate use and re-
course which our Gentlemen make to Playes ; so I wholly condemne
the daily firequenting of them : as some there be (especially in this
Citie) who, for want of better imployment, make it their Vo-
cation. And these I now speake of, be our Ordinary Gentlemen,
whose day-taske is this in a word: They leave their bed to put on
their clothes formally, repaire to an Ordinary, and see a Play daily.
These can find time enough for Recreation, but not a minutes space
for Devotion. So as I much feare me, it will fare with them as it
fared with a Young Gentlewoman within these few yeares ; who
being accustomed in her health every day to see one Play or other,
was at last strucke with a grievous sicknesse even unto death : dur-
ing which time of her sicknesse, being exhorted by such Divines
as were there present, to call upon God, that he would in mercy
look upon her, as one deafe to their exhortation, continued ever
crying, Oi Hieronimo, Hieronimo, me thsnkes J see thee, brave
Hieronimo ! Neither could she be drawne from this with all their
persuasions ; but fixing her eyes intentively, as if she had seene
Hieronimo acted, sending out a deep sigh, she suddenly dyed.**

24 X, 113. Andrew onr elder journeyman. Probably
the popular comedian, Andrew Cane (Kane, Keins, Kejme). His
name stands fourth among the seven in the Herbert list of Lady
Elizabeth's company, c. July 1622, and occurs again in the Herbert
list of Palsgrave's men for this same year. (Fleay*s London Stage,
264, 298.) The Fortune vras burned in 1621 (midnight, Dec. 9)
after the Palsgrave's men had been acting there three years. Fleay

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Infen {London Stage, 297-98) that while the Fortune was re-
building, Cane left the Palsgrave*! men and played with the Lady
£lizabeth*8, returning to the Palsgrave* s company when the new
Fortune was opened. (Cf. Murray* s English Dramatic Companies,
I, 214-16.) His name appears among Prince Charles* players in
1632 {London Stage, 331). He bears a part in The Stage-Player t
Complaint, In a pleasant Dialogue between Cane of the Fortune, and
Reed of the Friers, Deploring their sad and solitary condition for the
want of Imployment in this heavie and contagious time of the Plague
in London, 1 641 j and he is mentioned as late as 1673, in a ^>^ct
by Henry Chapman on the Bath waters : " Without which a pam-
phlet now a days finds as small acceptance, as a Comedy did for-
merly at the Fortune Play-house without a Jig of Andrew Keins
into the bargain.** (CoUier*8 Bibliographical jiccount of Early

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Online LibraryThomas HeywoodA woman killed with kindness, and The fair maid of the west → online text (page 21 of 23)