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part from the letters and diaries of William Hawkins and those of his
successor, Sir Thomas Roe. As did Brian Hawksworth, William Hawkins
adopted the Indian style of life in dress and diet, much to the
astonishment of his European contemporaries. Brian Hawksworth's love
affair with Shirin was suggested by William Hawkins' marriage to an
Indian women of noble descent, possibly a member of the Moghul's court,
on the encouragement of Jahangir, who suspected the Jesuits of
attempting to poison him and wanted his food monitored. Hawkins' wife
later journeyed to London, where she caused the East India Company
considerable disruption over their responsibilities toward her, and
eventually she returned to India.

Although most of the early Englishmen in India resembled our George
Elkington far more than they did Brian Hawksworth, there was one early
traveler, Thomas Coryat, whose cultural and human sensibilities would
not have clashed greatly with those of Brian Hawksworth at the end of
his story.

The sudden appearance of the bubonic plague in India was taken from the
court history of the Moghul Jahangir. Similarly, the capture of the
Moghul's trading vessel by the Portuguese, intended to intimidate him
and forestall an English trade agreement, and his retaliatory closure
of Jesuit missions happened essentially as described. The Jesuits were
allowed to reopen their missions a few years later, but the damage was
done. There seems evidence that the Portuguese did conspire to assist
the forces opposing the succession of Shah Jahan, whom they justifiably
feared. The rebellion of Shah Jahan extended over several years, and
did include at one point a stay on the Udaipur island of Jagmandir,
where some historians now believe he first saw inlay work of the type
that later became a distinguishing feature of his crowning creation,
the Taj Mahal.

For those who may wish to gain more familiarity with Moghul India,
various sources can be recommended. Lively historical works on the
Moghul period include Waldemar Hansen's classic panorama The Peacock
Throne and the even more recent Cities of Mughul India by Gavin Hambly,
to mention two of my favorites. For those still more curious, and
adventurous, there are the original writings from the seventeenth
century, which will require more digging but are decidedly worth the
effort. Readers with access to a major library may be able to find
reprinted editions of the diaries of several seventeenth-century
English and European travelers in India. These are the works, with
their trenchant firsthand accounts, that all students of the era find
indispensable. Perhaps the most easily obtainable is a collection
entitled Early Travels in India, William Foster, ed., which contains
edited versions of the diaries of William Hawkins and several others.
Following this, the most thorough account of England's early diplomacy
in India is contained in the diary entitled The Embassy of Sir Thomas
Roe (1615-1619), written by England's first real ambassador to India.
Many subsequent diaries and letters of seventeenth-century European
travelers have been reprinted by the Hakluyt Society, whose
publications comprise a virtual bibliography of the era.

The most relevant Indian writings, also obtainable in English
translation from a fine library, are the memoirs of the Great Moghul
Jahangir, entitled the Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri, and an encyclopedic
description of court life in late sixteenth-century India entitled the
Ain-i-Akbari, set down by Akbar's chief adviser and close friend, Abul
Fazl.



In fashioning a story such as this, a writer must necessarily be
indebted far beyond his ability to acknowledge adequately. The scholar
who provided the greatest assistance was Professor John Richards of the
Duke University Department of History, a widely respected authority on
Moghul (he might prefer it be spelled Mughal) India, who graciously
consented to review the manuscript in draft and offered many
corrections of fact and interpretation. He is, of course, in no way
accountable for any liberties that may have remained. Thanks are
similarly due Professor Gerald Berreman of the University of California
at Berkeley, a knowledgeable authority on Indian caste practices, who
agreed to review the relevant portions of the manuscript. I am also
indebted to Waldemar Hansen, who generously provided me with the
voluminous notes accumulated for his own history, The Peacock Throne.
Historians in India who gave warmly of their time and advice include
Dr. Romila Thapar, Professor P. M. Joshi, and Father John Correia-
Alfonso, the preeminent Jesuit authority on the early Moghul era and a
scholar whose characteristic integrity and generosity roundly revise
the period depiction of his order in the story.

Thanks also are due Mrs. Devila Mitra, Director-General of the
Archaeological Survey of India, for special permission to study the
now-restricted _zenana _quarters beneath the Red Fort in Agra; to Nawab
Mir Sultan Alam Khan of Surat, for assistance in locating obscure
historical sites in that city; to Indrani Rehman, the grande dame of
Indian classical dance, for information on the now-abolished _devadasi
_caste; to Ustad Vilayat Khan, one of Indian's great sitar masters, for
discussions concerning his art; and to my many Indian friends in New
York, New Delhi, and Bombay.

I am also obliged to Miss Betty Tyres of the Indian Department of the
Victoria and Albert Museum in London, who kindly provided access to the
museum's extensive archives of Indian miniature paintings, and to the
National Maritime Museum in Greenwich for information on early English
sailing vessels.

Finally, I am most indebted to a number of tireless readers who
reviewed the manuscript in its various drafts and supplied many
insightful suggestions: including my editor, Lisa Drew, my agent,
Virginia Barber, and my patient friends Joyce Hawley, Susan Fainstein,
Norman Fainstein, Ronald Miller, and Gary Prideaux. Most of all I thank
Julie Hoover, for many years of assistance, encouragement, and
enthusiasm.




GLOSSARY

affion - opium

aga - concentrated rose oil

akas-diya - central camp light

alap - opening section of a raga

ankus - hook used for guiding an elephant

arak - Indian liquor

areca - betel nut used in making pan

art ha - practical, worldly "duty" in Hinduism

Asvina - Lunar month of September-October

azan - Muslim call to prayer

bhang - drink made from hemp (marijuana)

biryani - rice cooked with meat and spices

bols - specific hand strokes on the Indian drum

cartaz - Portuguese trading license

charts - cattle sheds

chapattis - unleavened fried wheat cakes chapp - seal or stamp

charkhi - fireworks used to discipline elephants in combat chaturanga -
chess

chaudol - traveling conveyance similar to palanquin chaugan - Indian "polo"
chauki - weekly guard duty at the Red Fort chaupar - Indian dice game

chelas - mercenary troops beholden to single commander

chillum - clay tobacco bowl on a hookah

chitah - Indian leopard

dai - midwife nurse

dal - lentils

darshan - ceremonial dawn appearance of Moghul devadasi - temple dancer, a
special caste

dey - Turkish ruler

dharma - purpose or duty in life of Hindus

dhoti - loincloth

diwali - Indian New Year

Diwan-i-Am - Hall of Public Audience

Diwan-i-Khas - Hall of Private Audience

durbar - public audience

feringhi - foreigner

fil-kash - elephant-drawn cannon

firman - royal decree

frigalla - Portuguese frigate

gau-kash - ox-drawn cannon

ghee - clarified butter

ghola - blend of opium and spice

gopi - milkmaid

gulal bar - royal compound in camp

gur - unrefined cane sugar

guru - teacher

gurz - three-headed club

hal - goalposts for chaugan

harkara - confidential court reporters

hookah - water pipe for smoking tobacco

howdah - seat carried on back of elephant

jagir - taxable lands granted to a nobleman

kama - love, sensual pleasure

karwa - Indian seaman

katar - knife designed for thrusting

khabardar - "take heed"

khaftan - quilted vest worn under armor

kos - approximately two miles

kamar-band - ceremonial waist sash

lakh - a hundred thousand

lapsi - preparation of gur, ghee, and wheat

lila - play or sport

lor langar - chain attached to elephant's leg

lungi - long waist wrap worn by men

mahal - palace

mahout - elephant driver

maidan - public square

mansab - rank given a nobleman

mansabdar - nobleman granted estates to tax

mardum-kash - small cannon

masala - blend of spices, "curry powder"

mihaffa - wooden turret suspended between two animals

mina bazaar - mock bazaar held on Persian New Year

mirdanga - South Indian drum

mohur - gold coin

mudra - hand signs in the Indian classical dance

musallim - navigator on Indian ship

mutasaddi - chief port official

nakuda - owner-captain of Indian trading vessel

naqqara-khana - entry to royal compound

nashudani - "good-for-nothing"

nautch - suggestive dance

nezah - lance

nilgai - Indian deer

nim - plant whose root is used for cleaning teeth

nimaste - Hindi greeting, "Hello"

pahar - three hours

pakhar - steel plate elephant armor

palas - wood used for chaugan stick

pan - betel leaf rolled around betel nut and spices and

chewed panch - wine punch pandit - Hindu scholar pice - Indian "penny"

postibangh - mixture of opium and hemp extract

prahna - spirit, life force

Puranas - Hindu scriptures

qamargha - hunt using beaters to assemble game

qarawals - beaters for hunt

qazi - judge

qur - hunting enclosure containing game rasa - aesthetic mood

rasida - "arrived"; a piece that reaches center in chaupar

board game sachaq - marriage present sandali - type of eunuch sarachah -
royal platform

sarangi - Indian musical instrument, resembling violin

sari - woman's wrap

sati - immolation of Hindu wife with body of her husband sehra -
bridegroom's crown sharbat - lemon and sugar drink shikar - the hunt

sitkrita - intake of breath signifying female orgasm

strappado - Portuguese torture device

sum - climax of rhythmic cycle in Indian music

sutra - Hindu scripture

suwar - "horse rank" granted noblemen

swanih-nigar - special spy

tari - species of palm

tavaif - Muslim courtesan

teslim - prostrate bow to Moghul

tithi - day in the lunar calendar

todah - mound of earth for bow and arrow target practice

topiwallah - "man who wears a hat," i.e., a foreigner

tundhi - drink made from seeds and juices

vama - Aryan scriptures

wakianavis - public court reporters

wallah - man

wazir - counselor

yogi - Hindu contemplative

zat - personal rank given a nobleman

zenana - harem

zihgir - thumb ring for shooting bow






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Online LibraryThomas HooverThe Moghul → online text (page 52 of 52)