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stances. ^^ It embraces articles for the protection,^^ instruction or amuse-



practice which can be relied on by pas-
sengers as a. general regulation of the
railroad company. Runj^an v. Central R.
Co.. 64 X. T. L. 67, 44 Atl. 985, 48 L. R.
A. 744.

28. Usage must be distinguished from
mere acts of accommodation. — Runyan z\
Central R. Co., 64 X. J. L. 67, 44 Atl.
985. 4S L. R. A. 744.

29. Enforcement of rule. — Delaware,
etc., R. Co. V. Bullock, 36 Atl. 773, 60 N.
J. L. 24, 37 L. R. A. 417.

30. Rule as to place for delivery of bag-
gage. — I'itt.-burgh, etc., R. Co. t'. Lyon,
123 Pa'. 140, 16 Atl. 607, 10 Am. St. Rep.
517, 2 L. R. A. 489.

31. The terms "baggage" and "lug-
gage" signify one and the same thing.
The former is the term in general use
in the United States, while in England
the latter prevails. The term "luggage"
obtains in legal expression in California
rather than the term "baggage." Plister
V. Central Pac. R. Co., 70 Cal. 100, U
Pac. 686, 59 Am. Dec. 404.

"Ordinarily baggage is made up of two
elements. I'"ir-.t. icrtniii things which
may Ijccome such. Second, the bags,
trunks, valises. satchels, packages or
other receptacles in which these things
are to be put before they can be deemed
baggage. In other words, the bag or
other receptacle and their contents are
both necessary components of the legal
idea conveyed by the term baggage. See
Century Dictionary." State v. Missouri
Pac. R. Co.. 71 .Mo. App. 385, 7 Am. &
Eng. R. Cap., X. S.. 66.



32. Missouri, etc., R. Co. v. Meek, 33
Tex. Civ. App. 47, 75 S._W. 317.

"As to the things which may become
baggage when properlj'- contained, cr as
to what may be called the subjects of
baggage, the definitions given in the de-
cisions and by the text writers, though
necessarily wanting in explicitness, from
the difficulty of enumerating all the ar-
ticles which may become baggage, are
yet full, comprehensive and in perfect ac-
cord in their statements of the n^les of
law." State z: Missouri Pac. R. Co., 71
Mo. App. 385, 7 Am. & Eng. R. Cas., N.
S., 66.

33. Necessary and usually carried by
passengers. — United States. — Hannibal,
etc., R. Co. 7: Swift. 12 Wall. 262, 20 L.
Kd. 423: Railroad Co. v. Fraloflf, 100 U.
S. 24. 25 L. Ed. 531.

Alabama. — Cooney v. Pullman Palace
Car Co., 121 Ala. 368, 25 So. 712, 53 L. R.
A. 690.

Arkansas. — Kansas, etc., R. Co. v. Skin-
ner. 88 Ark. 189, 113 S. W. 1019, 31 R.
R. R. 423, 54 Am. & Eng. R. Cas., N. S.,
423, 21 E. R. A., N. S., 850; Chicago, etc.,
R. Co. 7'. Whitten. 90 Ark. 462, 119 S. W.
835. 32 R. R. R. 152, 55 Am. & Eng. R.
Cas., X. S., 152.. 21 Am. & Eng. Ann. Cas.
726.

California. — Motz r-. California, etc., R.

34. Articles for protection. — Parmelee
7.'. iMScher. 22 111. 212, 71 .Am. Dec. 138;
Denver, etc., R. Co. 7>. Johnson, 50 Colo.
187, 114 Pac. 650, Ann. Cas. 101 2C, 627.
Sec post, "Weapons," § 3111.



3429



CARRIERS.



3114



ment of the passenger on the way,^^ and articles usually carried as baggage, such
as writing materials, books, etc.^^ The obligation of the carrier, as to baggage,
is not limited absolutely to wearing apparel and other appliances of necessity,
comfort and convenience, suited to the condition of each traveler, but may em-
brace other articles of limited value and ordinary bulk, which he may think
proper to take with him.^"^ Thus, it has been held that a passenger's baggage will
include such articles, if of trifling value and reasonable in amount, which may be
purchased while abroad for the use of the traveler's family at home, such as,
ordinarily, men are in the habit of bringing to their family in that way.^^

For Personal Use of Passenger, — To constitute a ])art of his baggage, as



Co., 85 Cal. .329, 24 Pac. 610, 9 L. R. A.
431, 20 Am. St. Rep. 228.

Georgia. — Hutchings & Co. v. Western,
etc., R. Co., 25 Ga. 61, 71 Am. Dec. 156.

Illinois. — Chicago, etc., R. Co. v. Boyce,
73 111. 510, 24 Am. Rep. 268; Parmlee v.
Fischer, 22 111. 212, 74 Am. Dec. 138; St.
Louis, etc., R. Co. v. Hardway, 17 111.
App. 321; Werner v. Evans, 94 111. App.
328; Atwood v. Mohler, 108 111. App. 416.

Kentucky. — American Contract Co. v.
Cross, 8 Bush 472, 8 Am. Rep. 471; Il-
linois Cent. R. Co. v. Matthews, 114 Ky.
973, 72 S. W. 302, 6 R. R. R. 769, 29 Am.
& Eng. R. Cas., N. S., 760, 24 Ky. L. Reo.
1766, 60 L. R. A. 846, 10 Am. St. Rep. 316,
construing Ky. St., § 783.

Maryland. — Pettigrew v. Barnum, 11
Md. 434, 49 Am. Dec. 212.

Xczv Hampshire. — Smith v. Boston,
etc., Railroad, 44 N. H. 325.

New Jersey. — Bullock v. Delaware, etc.,
R. Co., 60 N. J. L. 24, 36 Atl. 773, 37 L.
R. A. 417.

Xezv York. — Grant v. Newton, 1 E. D.
Smith 95; Hawkins z'. Hoffman, 6 Hill
586, 41 Am. Dec. 767; Nordemeyer ?'.
Loescher, 1 Hilt. 499; Pardee v. Drew, 25
Wend. 459; Weeks v. New York, etc.. R.
Co., 72 N. Y. 50, 28 Am. Rep. 104, affirm-
ing 9 Hun 669.

Ohio.— Smith V. C. H. & D. R. Co., 3
O. Dec. 192. 2 N. P. 29; Jones i: Voor-
hees, 10 O. 145.

Oklahoma. — Choctaw, etc., R. Co. v.
Zwirtz, 13 Okla. 411, 73 Pac. 941, 8 R. R.
R. 914, 31 Am. & Eng. R- Cas.. N. S.. 914.

Oregon. — Oakes v. Northern Pac. R.
Co., 20 Ore. 392, 26 Pac. 230, 23 Am. St.
Rep. 126, 12 L. R. A. 318.

Pennsylvania. — Bullard v. Delaware,
etc., R. Co., 21 Pa. Super. Ct. 583.

Tennessee. — Bomar v. Maxwell, 28
Tenn. (9 Humph.) 621, 51 Am. Dec. 682;
Coward v. East Tennessee, etc., R. Co.,
84 Tenn. (16 Lea) 225, 57 Am. Rep. 227.

Texas. — Galveston, etc., R. Co. v. Pales,
33 Tex._ Civ. App. 457, 77 S. W. 234, af-
firmed in 98 Tex. 617, no op.; Mexican
Nat. R. Co. V. Ware (Tex. Civ. App.), 60
S. W. 343; Missouri Pac. R. Co. v. York,
2 Texas App. Civ. Cas., § 638; Texas, etc.,
R. Co. V. Capps, 2 Texas App. Civ. Cas.,
§ 33, 16 Am. & Eng. R. Cas. 118; Jones
V. Priester, 1 Texas App. Civ. Cas., § 613.



Comfort and convenience of passen-
ger and family — In Saunders v. Southern
R. Co., 62 C. C. A. 523, 128 Fed. 15, 11 R.
R. R_. 596, 34 Am. & Eng. R. Cas., N. S.,
596, it is held that a railroad's obligation
to carry a passenger's baggage is limited
to such articles as are reasonably re-
quired for the comfort and convenience of
the passenger and his family.

Toilet articles constitute baggage. —
Hawkins v. Hoffman (N. Y.), 6 Hill 586,
41 Am. Dec. 767.

35. Articles for instruction or amuse-
ment. — Parmelee v. Fischer, 22 111. 212,
74 Am. Dec. 138; Hawkins v. Hoffman
(N. Y.), 6 Hill 586, 41 Am. Dec. 767; Mis-
souri, etc., R. Co. V. Meek, 33 Tex. Civ.
App. 47, 75 S. W. 317; Seawell- ?:;. Green-
way Bro. & Co., 22 Tex. 691, 75 Am. Dec.
794. See post, "Property to Be Used for
Recreation," § 3440.

36. Writing materials, books, etc. —
Hawkins v. Hoffman (N. Y.), 6 Hill 586,
41 Am. Dec. 767.

37. Dibble v. Brown. 12 Ga. 217, 56 Am.
Dec. 460.

38. Articles purchased for use of family.
— Jones V. Priester, 1 Texas App. Civ.
Cas., § 613.

In Dexter v. Syracuse, etc., R. Co., 42
N. Y. 326, 1 Am. Rep. 527, it is held that
common carriers are liable for the loss
of such property of a passenger received
bv them as baggage, as is designed for
the personal use of himself and members
of his family and is of a kind customarily
carried by travelers as baggage, although
such property is not intended to be used,
and is not necessary for the use, comfort
or convenience of the passenger on the
journey. See also, Duffy v. Thompson
(N. Y.), 4 E. D. Smith 178.

Dress pattern for member of family. —
In Kansas, etc., R. Co. v. Skinner, SS Ark.
189, 113 S. W. 1019, 31 R. R. R. 423, 54
Am. & Eng. R. Cas., N. S., 423, 21_ L. R.
A., N. S., 850, it was held that a suit case
purchased en route by a passenger for
his own use, and a dress pattern contain-
ing 12 yards of goods valued at $8.85, also
purchased en route, to take home to a
member of his family, were baggage
when placed in his trunk, so that he
could recover therefor if the trunk was
destroyed.



3115



PASSENGERS EFFECTS.



§ 3429



a general rule, an article must be intended for the personal use of the passenger
only.^'-'

Length, Nature and Purposes of Journey. — The length of the journey, its
nature and objects, nuist be considered in determining what the passenger is en-
titled to carry with him as baggage. ■*•' So the mode of conveyance and the char-
acter of the country through which the journey is made may be considered in
determining what is or is not baggage."*^ The character of the baggage carried
by a passenger is not to be limited to the requirements of any particular \):\vt of



39. For personal use of passenger. —

United States. — Saunders v. Southern R.
Co., (52 C. C. A. 52:!. 128 Fed. 15, 11 R. R.
R. 596, 34 Am. & Eng. R. Cas., N. 8., 596.

California. — Metz v. California, etc., R.
Co., 85 Cal. 329, 24 Pac. 610. 9 I... R. A.
431, 20 Am. St. Rep. 228.

Illinois. — Chicago, etc., R. Co. v. Boyce,
73 111. 510, 24 Am. Rep. 268; Atwood v.
Mohler, 108 111. App. 416; Parmelee v.
Fischer, 22 111. 212, 74 Am. Dec. 138.

Massachusetts. — Connolly v. Warren, 106
Mass. 146, 8 Am. Rep. 300.

Mississippi. — Mississippi Cent. R. Co. v.
Kennedy, 41 Miss. 671; New Orlep.ns, etc.,
R. Co. V. Moore, 40 Miss. 39.

Missouri. — State v. Missouri Pac. R.
Co., 71 Mo. App. 385, 7 Am. & Enq-. R,
Cas., N. S., 66.

AVzu Jersey. — Runyan v. Central R. Co.,
61 N. J. L. "537, 41 Atl. 367, 43 L. R. A.
284, 68 Am. St. Rep. 711.

Xczv York. — Hasbrouck v. New York,
etc., R. Co., 95 N. E. 808, 202 N. Y. 363,
35 L. R. A., N. S., 537, Ann. Cas. ]912D,
1150; Hawkins v. Hoffman (N. Y.), 6 Hill
586. 41 Am. Dec. 767.

0/no.— Smith v. C. H. & D. R. Co., 2
X. P. 29, 3 O. Dec. 192; Jones r. Voor-
hees, 10 O. 145.

Oklahoma. — Choctaw, etc., R. Co. v.
Zwirtz, 13 Okla. 411, 73 Pac. 941, 8 R. R.
R. 914. 31 Am. & Eng. R. Cas., \. S.,
914.

Tennessee. — Bomar v. Maxwell, 28
Tenn. (9 Humph.) 621, 51 Am. Dec. 682;
Johnson t'. Stone, 30 Tenn. (11 Humph.)
419.

Texas. — Mexican Nat. R. Co. v. Ware
(Tex. Civ. App.), 60 S. W. 343; Texas,
etc., R. Co. V. Capps, 2 Texas App. Civ.
Ca?., § 33, 16 Am- & Eng. R. Cas. 118;
Jones v. Priester, 1 Texas App. Civ. Cas.,
§ 613; Mexican Cent. R. Co. v. Dc Ro-
scar (Tex. Civ. App.), 109 S- W. 949.

Enfiland. — Macrow v. Great Western
R. Co., L. R., 6 Q. B. 612. 40 L. J. (J. W.
300, 24 L. T. 618. 19 W. R. 8. 3 Ry. & C.
T. Cas. xix.

40. Length, nature and purposes of
journey. — United Slates. — Railroad Co. v.
l-roloff. 100 U. S. 24. 25 L. ICd. 531; llan-
niljal, etc., R. Co. v. Swift, 12 Wall. :.'6-.'.
20 L. Kd. 423; Hopkins v. Westcott, 6
Bhuchf. 04. Fed. Cas. No. 6.C92-

.trhansas. — Kansas City, etc., R. Co. v.
.Mi-C.ahey, 63 .Ark. 344, 38 S. W. 6.'>9, 36
L. k. A. 7H1, 5H Am. Si- Uv]>. Ill: Chi-
cago, etc., R. Co. 7'. Whittcn, '.id Ark. 16:.',



119 S. W. 835, 32 R. R. R. 152, 55 Am. &
Eng. R. Cas., N. S., 152, 21 Am. & Eng.
Ann. Cas. 726; Kansas, etc., R. Co. v.
Skinner, 88 Ark. 189, 113 S. W. 1019, 31
R. R. R. 423, 54 Am. & Eng. R. Cas-, N.
S., 423, 21 L. R. A., N. S., 850.

Georgia. — Dibble v. Brown, 12 Ga. 217,
56 Am- Dec. 460.

Illinois. — Parmelee v. Fischer, 22 111.
212, 74 Am. Dec. 138; Werner v. Evans, 94
111. App. 328; Atwood v. Mohier, 108 111.
App. 416.

Indiana. — Toledo, etc., R. Co. v. Ham-
mond. 33 Ind. 379, 5 Am. Rep. 221.

Mississippi. — Mississippi Cent. R. Co.
T'. Kennedy, 41 Miss. 671; New Orleans,
etc., R. Co. V. Moore, 40 Miss. 39.

Missouri. — Spooner v. Hannibal, etc.,
R. Co., 23 Mo. App. 403.

Nezv Jersey. — Runyan v. Central R. Co.,
61 N. J. L. 537, 41 Atl. 367, 43 L. R. A.
284. 68 Am. St. Rep. 711.

Xezv York. — Davis v. Cayuga, etc., R.
Co., 10 How. Prac. 330; Hawkins v. Hoff-
man, 6 Hill 586, 41 Am. Dec. 767; Van
Horn r. Kermit, 4 E. D. Smith 453; Has-
brouck V. New York, etc-, R. Co., 95 N.
E. 808, 202 N. Y. 363, 35 L. R. A., N. S.,
537, Ann. Cas. 1912D, 1150; Fairfax v.
New York, etc., R. Co., 73 N. Y. 167, 29
Am. Rep. 119.

Oklahoma. — Choctaw, etc., R. Co. v.
Zwirtz, 13 Okla. 411, 73 Pac. 941, 8 R. R.
R. 914, 31 Am. & Eng. R. Cas., N. S.. 914.

South Carolina. — Godfrey v. Pullman
Co.. 87 S. C. 361, 6;) S. E. 666.

Tennessee. — Coward v. East Tennessee,
etc., R. Co., 84 Tenn. (16 Lea) 225, 57
Am. Rep- 227; Yazoo, etc., R. Co. z'. Bald-
win, 113 Tenn. ;205, 81 S. W. 599, 12 R. R.
R. 856, 35 Am. & Eng. R. Cas., N. S., 856.

Te.ras. — International, etc., R. Co. f.
McCown, 2 Texas App. Civ. Cas., § 712;
Missouri Pac. R. Co. 7-. York, 2 Texas
App. Civ. Cas., § 038; Texas, etc., R. Co.
7\ Morrison's Faust Co., 20 Tex. Civ.
A])]). 144, 48 S. W. 1103; Missouri, etc..
K". Co. V. Meek. 33 Tex. Civ. App. 47. 75
S. W. 317; Bonnrr v. Pdinn (Tex. Civ.
Ai)p.). 25 S. W. <■'"'.

Wisconsin.— (\\v:[^i<\\ :'. ('.nodrich Trans]).
Co., 32 Wis. 85. 11 Am. Kep. 716.

I'.njiland. — Macrow v. Great Western Iv.
Co.. L. R. 6 Q. W. 612, 40 L. J. Q. W. 300,
2 1 I.. T. 6 IS, 19 W. K. S, 3 Ry. X: C. 'I\
Cas. xix.

41, Missouri I'ac. R. Co. v. \ny\<.. 2
Irxas App. Civ. Cas., § 03H.



§ 3429



CARRIERS.



3116



the journey, nor of any particular line of connecting carriers, and the passenger
is entitled to carry sufficient personal etlects as baggage, as will reasonably sup-
ply his wants during the entire journey.^^

Class and Habits of Traveler. — The class to which the passenger belongs,
his habits and needs, and his financial resources have an important bearing on
the question, for what articles he may hold the carrier responsible for as his per-
sonal baggage.''^

During Continuance of Journey. — The term baggage includes such articles
of necessity or convenience as are usually carried by passengers for personal use,
comfort, or protection during the continuance of a journey .■*"*

For the Use after Termination of Journey. — In order that articles may
constitute Ijaggage, however, it is not essential that they shall be necessary and
intended only for the use, comfort or convenience of the traveler on the journey.
And the fact that such articles will last and satisfy his requirements for a rea-
sonable length of time after the termination of his transportation by the carrier
will not destroy their character as baggage; nor will the fact that they are not
intended to be used until after the relation of carrier and passenger has ceased
to exist."*^ Thus, baggage includes whatever the passenger takes with him for
his own personal use and convenience according to the habits or wants of the
particular class to which he belongs, either with reference to the immediate ne-



42. Godfrey v. Pulhnan Co., 87 S. C.
361, 69 S. E. 660.

43. Class and habits of traveler. —
United States. — Hannibal, etc., R. Co. v.
Swift, 12 Wall. 262, 20 L. Ed. 423; Rail-
road Co. V. Fralofif, 100 U. S. 24, 25 L. Ed.
531; jMauritz v. New York, etc., R. Co.,
23 Fed. 765, 21 Am. & Eng. R- Cas. 286.

Arkansas. — ^Chicago, etc., R. Co. v.
Whitten. 90 Ark. 462, 119 S. W. 835, 32 R.
R. R. 152, 55 Am. & Eng R. Cas., N.
S., 152,. 21 Am. & Eng. Ann. Cas. 726; St.
Louis, etc., R. Co. v. Berry, 60 Ark. 433,

30 S. W. 764, 28 L- R. A. 501, 46 Am. St.
Rep. 212; Little Rock, etc., R. Co. v. Rec-
ord, 74 Ark. 125, 85 S. W. 421, 16 R. R.
R. 664, 39 Am. & Eng. R. Cas., N. S., 664,
109 Am. St. Rep. 67; Kansas, etc., R. Co.
v. Skinner, 88 Ark. 189. 113 S. W. 1019,

31 R. R. R- 423, 54 Am. & Eng. R. Cas.,
N. S.. 423, 21 L. R. A., N.S.. 850.

California. — Metz v. California, etc., R.
Co., 85 Cal. 329, 24 Pac- 610, 9 L. R. A.
431, 20 Am. St. Rep. 228.

Georgia. — Dibble v. Brown, 12 Ga. 217,
56 Am. Dec. 460.

Illinois. — Chicago, etc., R. Co. v. Boyce,
73 111. 510, 24 Am. Rep. 268; Chicago,
etc.. R- Co. V. Collins, 56 111. 212, 4 Am.
R. Rep. 453.

Maryland. — Giles v. Fauntleroy, 13 Md.
126.

Mississippi. — Mississippi Cent. R. Co. v.
Kennedy. 41 ;r\Iiss. 671; New Orleans,
etc., R. Co- V. Moore, 40 Miss. 39.

Missouri. — Hubbard v. Mobile, etc., R.
Co., 112 AIo. App. 459, 87 S. W. 52;
Spooner v. Hannibal, etc., R. Co., 23 Mo.
App- 403.

Neiv York. — Fairfax v. New York, etc.,
R. Co., 73 N. Y. 167, 29 Am. Rep. 119 ;
Hasbrouck v. New York, etc., R. Co., 202
N. Y. 363. 95 N. E. 808, 35 L. R. A., N. S.,
537, Ann. Cas. 1912D, 1150.



Tennessee. — Bomar v. Maxwell, 28
Tenn. (9 Humph.) 62, 51 Am. Dec. 683;
Coward v. East Tennessee, etc., R. Co.,
84 Tenn. (16 Lea) 225, 57 Am. Rep. 227.

Texas. — International, etc., R. Co. v.
McCown, 2 Texas App. Civ. Cas., § 712;
Missouri Pac. R. Co. v. York, 2 Texas
App. Civ. Cas., § 638.

Wisconsin. — Gleason v. Goodrich Transp.
Co., 32 Wis. 85, 14 Am. Rep. 716.

England. — Macrow v. Great Western
R. Co., L. R. 6 Q. B. 612, 622. 40 L. J. Q.

B. 300, 24 L. T. 618, 19 W. R. 8, 3 Ry. &

C. T. Cas. xix; Cadwallder v. Grand
Trunk R. Co., 9 L. C. Rep. 169.

44. During continuance of journey. —
Denver, etc., R. Co. v. Johnson, 50 Colo.
187, 114 Pac. 650. Ann. Cas. 1912C, 637.

45. For use after termination of jour-
ney. — United States. — Railroad Co. v. Fra-
loff, 100 U. S. 24. 25 L. Ed- 5:!1.

Indiana. — Toledo,, etc., R. Co. v. Ham-
mond, 33 Ind. 379, 5 Am. Rep. 221.

Xezu Jersev. — Runyan v. Central R. Co.,
61 N. J. L. '537, 41 Atl. 367, 43 L. R. A.
284, 68 .Am. St. Rep. 711.

New York.- — Curtis v. Delaware, etc.,
R. Co., 74 N. Y. 116, 30 Am. Rep. 271;
Hasbrouck v. New York, etc., R. Co., 95
N. E. 808, 203 N. Y. 363, 35 L- R. A., N.
S., 537. Ann. Cas. 1912D, 1150.

Pennsylvania. — Porter v. Hildebrand, 14
Pa. 129.

South Carolina. — Vlasservitch v. Au-
gusta, etc., R. Co., 85 S. C. 291, 67 S. E.
306, 35 R- R. R. 721, 58 Am. & Eng. R.
Cas., N. S., 721.

Tennessee. — Yazoo, etc., R. Co. v. Bald-
win, 113 Tenn. 205, 81 S. W. 599, 12 R. R.
R. S56, 35 Am. & Eng. R. Cas., N. S., 856.

T^.ra,y.— Missouri, etc., R. Co. v. Meek,
33 Tex. Civ. App. 47, 75 S. W. 317, citing
Hutch, on Carr., §§ 686, 687.



3117



PASSENGERS EFFE:CTS.



§ 3429



cessities or to the ultimate purpose of the journey .•^*^ This would include not only-
all articles of apparel, whether for the use or ornament,'*'^ hut also the gun case
or the fishing apparatus of the sportsman,-*^ the easel of an artist on a sketching
tour,'*^ or the books of the student,''*^ and other articles of an analogous char-
acter, the use of which is personal to the traveler and the taking of which
has arisen from the fact of journeying.^^ Articles for use as baggage at the
end of the journey or during a temporary stay at a particular place, may be as
properly baggage as those actually used in the transit, and may include an opera
glass, though the entire journey be made at night.^-

Presents for Others. — It has been held that a passenger can not include in
his persona] baggage articles intended to be presented as gifts to others/'^

Articles Usually Transported as Freight — Effect of Usage. — If it is ap-
parent from all the circumstances — from the amount, nature, bulk and value of
the articles in question — that they are such as, according to the usual course of
business, are transported as freight; or if it is manifest that they are intended
for sale, then they are not to be viewed in the light of baggage. It is certainly
right too, that usage, however indeterminate should be considered in ascertain-
ing what is baggage. This must be the usage of the time, and of the carrier and
his patrons. Nothing, subject to the limitations before stated, should be ex-
cluded, which have been usually considered in practice as baggage.^"*



46. Arkansas. — Chicago, etc., R. Co. v.
Whitten, 90 Ark. 4G'3, 119 S. W. 835, 32
R. R. R. 152. 55 Am. & Eng. R. Cas.. N.
S., 152, 21 Am. & Eng. Ann. Cas- 726;
Kansas, etc., R. Co. z: Skinner, 88 Ark.
189, 113 S. W. 1019, 31 R. R. R. 423, 54
Am. & Eng. R- Cas., N. S., 423, £1 L. R.
A.. N. S., 850.

Missouri. — State v. Missouri Pac. R.
Co., 71 Mo. Apo. 385, 7 Am. & Kng. R.
Cas., N. S., 66. '

Texas. — Missouri, etc., R. Co. v. Meek,
33 Tex. Civ. App. 47, 75 S. W. 317.

Nezu York. — Hasbrouck v. New York,
etc., R. Co., 202 N. Y. 363, 95 N. E. 808,
35 L. R. A., N. S., 537, Ann. Cas. 1912D,
1150.

England. — Macrow v. Great Western
R. Co., L. R., 6 Q. B. 612, 40 L. J. Q. B.
300, 24 L. T. 618, 19 W. R. 8, 3 Ry. & C.
T. Cas. xix.

47. Articles of apparel. — Macrow v.
Great Western R. Co. (Eng.), L. R., 6
Q. B. 612, 40 L. J. Q. B. 300, 24 L. T. 618.
19 W. R. 8, 3 Ry. & C. T. Cas. xix. See
post, "Jewelry for Personal Use," § 3436;
"Wearing .\pparol," § 3443.

48. Equipment of sportsman. — Mac-
row V. Great Western R. Co. (Eng.), L.
R., 6 Q. B. 612, 40 L- J. Q. B. 300, 24 L.
T. 618, 19 W. R. 8, 3 Ry. & C. T. Cas.
xix. See Hawkins v. Hoffman (N. Y.),
6 Hill 586, 41 Am. Dec. 767; Missouri,
etc., R. Co. V. Meek, 33 Tex. Civ. App.
47, 75 S. W. 317. See post, "Property to
Be Uscfl for Recreation," § 3M0.

49. Easel of artist. — Macrow r'. (in-.it
Western U. Co. (Eng.), E. K., 6 O. I'..
612, 40 L. J. Q. B. 300. 24 E. T. 6 is, 111
W. K. 8, 3 Rv. & C. T. Cas. xix; .Mis-
souri, etc., R. Co. V. .Meek, 33 Tex. Civ.
Aj)p. 4 7, 75 S. W- 317.

50. Books of student. — Missouri, etc.,
R. Co. V. Meek, 33 'l'c\. Civ. .App. 47, 75



S. W. 317: Macrow v. Great Western R.
Co. (Eng-), L. R., 6 Q. B. 612, 40 L. J.
Q. B. 300, 24 L. T. 618, 19 W. R. 8, 3 Ry.
& C. T. Cas. xix.

51. Macrow v. Great Western R. Co.
(Eng-), E. R., 6 Q. B. 612, 40 L. J. Q. B.
300. 24 L. T. 618, 19 W. R. 8, 3 Ry. & C.
T. Cas. xix.

52. During temporary stay at intermedi-
ate point. — Toledo, etc., R. Co. v. Ham-
mond. 33 Ind. 379, 5 Am. Rep. 221.

5S. Presents for others — United States.
—The Tonic, 5 Blatchf. 538, Fed. Cas. No.
7,059.

Georgia. — Dibble v. Brown, 12 Ga. 217,
56 Am. Dec. 460.

Illinois. — Cincinnati, etc., R. Co. v. Mar-
cus, ^8 111. 219.

Massachusetts. — Stimson v. Connecticut
River R. Co., 98 Mass. 83, 93 Am. Dec.
140.

.Yt'?c' York. — Nevins v. Bay State Steam-
boat Co., 17 N. Y. Super- Ct. 225.

Oliio. — Pennsylvania Co. z'. Miller, 35
O. St. 541, 1 Ky. L. Rep. 184, 35 Am. Rep.
620.

England. — Cahill v. London, etc., R.
Co., 13 C. B. N. S., 818. 8 Jur. N. S. 1063,
31 E. J. C. P. 271, 10 W. R. ■■:21.

Gold ornaments for presents. — In The
Tonic. 5 r.latchf. 5;is, I'c-d. Cas.. No. 7,0,59,
il is held that a gold watch and chain,
gold ornaments for presents and .Amer-
ican coin, arc not baggage, as l)oiwcon a
passenger and a carrier of such passen-
ger.

Toy horse for children with father's
baggage. In IlmEnii ;•. .Midl.ind R. Co.
(I'.ng.), E. R. S. n. 366, il is held that a
child's spring horse which a father was
taking home for his children was not a
]r,\r\ of his h.'iggage.

54. Articles usually transported as
freight. - I )il.ldc ,•• i'.rc.wn, i;.' Ga. 217, .'xl
\in. Dec. ICl).



§§ 3429-3430



CARRIERS.



3118



Particular Articles Not Constituting- Baggage.— It has been held that
locks or handcuffs in a trunk.-'-' a manuscript intended for ])ublication/''' engrav-
ings,-''' masonic regalia,-'"'* and masquerade costumes in a trunk for use at a ball,^^^
are not baggage. And it is held that a sacque and muff, and silver napkin rings, do
not constitute any part of gentleman's traveling baggage, and no recovery can
be had for their value in case of loss."*^*

§ 3430. Effects of Immigrants. — In some cases the rules for determining
what is baggage have been applied very liberally in favor of immigrants, that is,
lliose changing their place of residence, either in the same state or by emigrating
to a foreign country, as will be seen from the appended note.**^ But in other



55. Locks or handcuffs. — Bomar v. .Max-
well, 28 Tcnn. (.9 Humph.) 621, 51 Am.
Dec. 682.

56. Manuscript intended for publica-
tion. — llannii)al. etc., R. Co. r. Swift (U.
S.), 12 Wall. 262, 20 L. Ed. 423.

57. Engravings. — Nevins v. Bay State
Steamboat Co., 17 N. Y. Super. Ct. 225.

58. Masonic regalia. — Nevins f. Bay
State Steamboat Co.. 17 N. Y. Super. Ct.
225.

59. Masquerade costumes in trunk for
use at ball. — In Michigan, etc., R. Co. v.
Oehm, .-.6 111. 293, 4 Am. R. Rep. 451, it
appeared that the trunks of a passenger
contained masquerade costumes, which
she had undertaken to furnish for use at
a ball, on the evening of the following
day. But one of the trunks failed to ar-



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