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^ithn thL .t./ '"^ or canal les party ,;. Hall, 174 U. S. 70, 43 L. Ed. 899, 19

•within the state and partly without, only s Ct 599

such part of the net earnings shall be "" - rr. ' , , i • <• •,

subject to the tax as is in that proportion ^°- ^^"^ computed upon relation of mile-

to the whole net earnings which the f^^ ^^r-^'^cf mcome.— Delaware Railroad

length of the road or canal within the ?^:^ ^^ " S-), 18 Wall. 206, 21 L Ed. 888;

limits of the state bears to the length of ^"11 ,00 oo^^t ^","'^l-''"i^ .^^'t.^-?' ^
the whole road or canal; and § 4 provides y^">-^92, 22 L. Ed. 59d; State Railroad
for a tax upon the actual cash value of Jv^ ,^^'^.^' ^2 U S 57t>, 23 L. Ed 6G3:
every share of capital stock of such com- ^•"S"''^ V r':. .S''\'',- c ''S"^'..^^^ ^■
panics, with a proviso that, when a line ^- ^^^' ^^ ^•. ^^- ^^^^' ^"^ ^- ^^- ^l^"*-
of road or canal lies partly within and 51. The prima facie measure of the rail-
partly without the state, the company road's gross income is substantially that
shall be required to pay the tax on only w'hich was approved in Maine v. Grand
such number of shares of stock as is in Trunk R. Co., 142 U. S. 217, 35 L. Ed.
that proportion to the whole number of QQ"*- 12 S. Ct. 121, 163. See, also, West-
shares which the length of the road or ern Union Tel. Co. v. Taggart, 163 U.
canal within the state bears to its whole S. 1, 41 L. Ed. 49, 16 S. Ct. 1054; Wis-
length. Held, that such statute does not consin, etc., R. Co. v. Powers, 191 U. S.
unlawfully interfere with interstate com- 379. 48 L. Ed. 229, 24 S. Ct. 107.
mcrce, since there is no discrimination 52. Tax computed upon relation of mile-
against rights held in other states. Minot age to capital stock. — Kehrer v. Stewart.
r Philadelphia, etc., R. Co. (U. S.). 18 197 U. S. GO, 49 L. Ed. 663. 25 S. Ct. 403.
Wall. 20(;, 21 L. Ed. 888,



§§ 3980-3981



CARRIERS.



3594



prospective, actual and anticipated. There is no pecuniary value outside of that
which results from such use. The amount and profitable character of such use
determines the vahie, and if property is taxed at its actual cash value it is taxed
upon something which is created by the uses to which it is put.°-^

Tax on Express Companies. — The property of an express company dis-
tributed through diti'erent states is an essential condition of the business united
in a single specific use. It constitutes but a single plant, made so by the very
character and necessities of the business.

"Doubtless there is a distinction between property of railroad and telegraph
companies and that of express companies. The physical unity existing in the
former is lacking in the latter ; but there is the same unity in the use of the entire
property for the specific purpose, and there are the same elements of value aris-
ing from such use."' ■^•^

§ 3981. Stamp Duty on Bills of Lading. — A state statute imposing a
stamp duty on bills of lading for gold or silver transported from a port within to
a port without the state, was held to affect a matter national in its character, re-
quiring uniformity of regulation, and therefore to be invalid, though not in conflict
with any regulation prescribed by congress."'^



53. Value of use of property. — Cleve-
land, etc., R. Co. V. Backus, 154 U. S. 439,
38 L. Ed. 1041, 14 S. Ct. 1122.

54. Express companies.^-Adams Exp.
Co. V. Ohio State Auditor, 165 U. S. 194,
41 L. Ed. 683, 17 S. Ct. 305; American Re-
frigerator Trans. Co. v. Hall, 174 U. S. 70,
43 L. Ed. 899, 19 S. Ct. 599; American
Exp. Co. V. Indiana, 165 U. S. 255, 41 L.
Ed. 707, 17 S. Ct. 991.

"This being clear, it is held reasonable
and constitutional to get at the worth of
such a line in the absence of anything
more special, by a mileage proportion.
The tax is a tax on property, not on the
privilege of doing the business, but it is
intended to reach the intangible value due
to what we have called the organic rela-
tion of the property in the state to the
whole system. Western Union Tel. Co.
V. Taggart, 163 U. S. 1, 41 L. Ed. 49, 16
S. Ct. 1054. And this principle, estab-
lished by many cases, has been extended
by the cases first cited above to the lines
of express companies, although those
lines are not material lines upon the face
of the earth. There is the same organic
connection as in the other cases." Fargo
V. Hart, 193 U. S. 490, 48 L. Ed. 761, 24
S. Ct. 498. See, also, Adams Exp. Co. v.
Ohio State Auditor, 165 U. S. 194, 41 L.
Ed. 683, 17 S. Ct. 305: American Exp.
Co. V. Indiana. 165 U. S. 255, 41 L. Ed.
707, 17 S. Ct. 991.



55. Stamp duty on bills of lading.—

Almy V. California (U. S.J, 24 How. 169,
16 L. Ed. 644; Case of the State Freight
Tax (U. S.), 15 Wall. 232, 21 L. Ed. 146;
Fairbank v. United States, 181 U. S. 283,
45 L. Ed. 862, 21 S. Ct. 648.

"In Almy v. California (U. S.), 24 How.
169, 16 L. Ed. 644, a stamp tax had been
imposed by the state on bills of lading
for the transportation of gold or silver
from any point within the state to any
point without it, and was held by this
court to be invalid; and in Woodruff v.
Parham (U. S.), 8 Wall. 123, 19 L. Ed.
382, it was said by this court, Mr. Justice
Miller delivering its opinion, that that
jtamp tax 'was a regulation of commerce,
a tax imposed upon the transportation of
goods from one state to another, over the
high seas, in conflict with the freedom of
transit of goods and persons between one
state and another, which is within the rule
laid down in Crandall v. Nevada (U. S.),
6 Wall. 35, 18 L. Ed. 744, and with the
authority of congress to regulate com-
merce among the states.' " Pickard v.
Pullman Southern Car Co., 117 U. S. 34,
48, 29 L. Ed. 785, 6 S. Ct. 635.

"In Almy r. California (U. S.), 24 How.
169, 16 L. Ed. 644, it was held that a duty
on a bill of lading was the same thing
as a duty on the article which it repre-
sented." Fairbank v. United States, 181
U. S. 283, 45 L. Ed. 862, 21 S. Ct. 648.



CHAPTER XXXVII.
Interstate Commerce Act.

I. Statutory Provisions. §§ 3982-3989.

A. Purpose and Object. § 3982.

B. History of Act, § 3983.

C. Constitutionality of Act, § 3984.

D. Construction of Act, § 3985.

E. Operation and Effect, § 3986.

F. Time of Taking Effect, § 3987.

G. Repeal, § 3988.
II. Definitions, § 3989.

III. Carriers Subject to Act, §§ 3990-3991.

A. In General, § 3990.

B. Particular Carriers, § 3991.

IV. Duties Imposed upon Carrier, §§ 3992-4015.

A. Transportation, § 3992.

B. To Establish Through Routes, § 3993.

C. Continuous Carriage, § 3994.

D. Facilities, §§ 3995-3997.

a. In General, § 3995.

b. Switches, § 3996.

c. As to Connecting Carriers, § 3997.

E. Just and Reasonable Rates, § 3998.

F. Printing and Publishing Schedules of Rates, § 3999.

G. Reports to Commission, § 4000.

H. Unloading, Feeding and Watering Stock, §§ 4001-4014.

a. Statutory Provision, § 4001.

b. Carriers Liable for Penalty, § 4002.

c. Knowingly and Willfully, § 4003.

d. Separate Offenses, § 4004.

e. Negligence of Servant, § 4005.

f. Preparation and Facilities. § 4006.
g. Shipment Through Foreign Country, § 4007.
h. Shipment under Agreement, § 4008.

i. Where Stock Confined by Another Carrier, § 4009.

j. Where Penalty Exacted from Another Carrier, § 4010.
k. Excuses for Failure to Unload, etc., § 4011.

1. Cars Provided for Food, Water and Rest, § 4012.
m. Damages, § 4013.
n. Proceedings, § 4014.
I. Icing Perishable Goods, § 4015.

V. Prohibitions upon Carriers, §§ 4016-4049.

A. Discrimination and Preferences, §§ 4016-4044.

a. In General, § 4016.

b. Undue and Unreasonable, § 4017.

c. Similar Service and Circumstances, § 4018.

d. Persons Discriminated against, § 4019.

e. Determining Discrimination or Preference, § 4020.
f. In Charges, § 4021.

g. In I-'acilities, § 4022.

h. In Distril)Ution of Cars, §§ 4023-4035.



INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT. " 3596

<1) In General, § 4023.

(2) Between Mining Companies, §§ 402-1-4033.

(a) In General, § 4024.

(b) Ownership of Cars, § 4025.

(c) Fuel Cars, § 4026.

(d) Cars Used in Intrastate Commerce Only, § 4027.

(e) Determining Mining Company's Share of Cars, §§ 4028-4033.
aa. In General, § 4028.

bb. Facts Considered, §§ 4029-4033.
(aa) Agreement of Parties, § 4029.
(bb) Rule of Carrier, § 4030.
(cc) Capacity and Output of Mine, § 4031.
(dd) Unfulfilled Contract of Alining Company, § 4032.
(ee) Prompt Return of Cars by Mining Company, § 4033.

(3) Between Mining Companies on Main and Branch Lines, § 4034.

(4) Between Warehousemen, § 4035.

i. In Acceptance and Delivery of Freight, § 4036.
j. In Taking on and Letting Of? Passengers, § 4037.
k. In Manner of Shipment, § 4038.
1. In Time of Transportation, § 4039.
m. In Reshipping Privileges, § 4040.
n. In Allowances to Shipper, § 4041.
o. Remedies, §§ 4042-4044.

(1) Burden of Proof, § 4042.

(2) Mandamus, § 4043.

(3) Summary Remedy, § 4044.

B. Combinations and Monopolies, § 4045.

C. Pooling Agreements, § 4046.

D. Transportation of Goods Alanufactured by Carrier, §§ 4047-4048.

a. In General, § 4047.

b. Manufactured from Wood, § 4048.

E. Limiting Liability, § 4049.

VI. Connecting Carriers, §§ 4050-4057.

A. Discriminations, § 4050.

B. Facilities, §§ 4051-4052.

a. In General, § 4051.

b. Use of Tracks, § 4052.

C. Joint Through Routes, § 4053.

D. Rates, § 4054.

E. Liability of Initial Carrier, §§ 4055-4057.

a. In General, § 4055. *

b. Limiting Liability, § 4056.

c. Recovery over against Other Carrier, § 4057.

VII. Rates and Charges, §§ 4058-4149.

A. In General, § 4058.

B. Just and Reasonable, § 4059.

C. Established by Carrier, § 4060.

D. Established by Commission, §§ 4061-4065.

a. Under Original Act, § 4061.

b. Under Amendment of 1906, § 4062.

c. Prerequisites to Establishing, § 4063.

d. Form and Requisites of Order, § 4064.

e. Review of Courts, § 4065.

E. Established by Court, § 4066.

F. Determination of Reasonableness of Rate, §§ 4067-4074.
a. In General, § 4067.



3597 INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT.

b. Judicial Act, § 4068.

c. Question of Fact, § 4069.

d. Facts Considered, § 4070.

€. Mode of Determination, § 4071.
f. Burden of Proof, § 4072.
g. Evidence, § 4073.
h. Review of Determination, § 4074.
G. Discrimination and Preference, §§ 4075-4096.

a. In General, § 4075.

b. Like and Contemporaneous Service, § 4076.

c. Persons Discriminated against, § 4077.

d. Determining Discrimination and Preference, §§ 4078-4083.

(1) Competition, § 4078.

(2) Quantity of Goods Shipped, § 4079.

(3) Long and Short Haul, § 4080.

(4) Disparity between Through and Local Rates, § 4081.

(5) Disparity in Rates between Different Localities, § 4082.

(6) Division of Freight by Connecting Carriers, § 4083.

e. Special Rates, § 4084.

f. Free Transportation, § 4085.
g. Reduced Rates, § 4086.

h. Rebates, §§ 4087-4090.

(1) In General, § 4087.

(2) What Amounts to Rebate, § 4088.

(3) Effect of Granting Rebate, § 4089.

(4) Criminal Liability, § 4090.
i. Payment of Charges, § 4091.
j. Demurrage Charges, § 4092.

k. Purchase and Sale of Goods, § 4093.
1. Justified Discrimination, § 4094.
m. Effect of Discrimination, § 4095.
n. Remedies, § 4096.
H. Long and Short Haul, §§ 4097-4110.

a. Statutory Provision, § 4097.

b. Similar Circumstances and Conditions, § 4098.

c. Competition, § 4099.

d. Shipments Over Same Line, § 4100.

e. Through and Local Rates, § 4101.
f. Group Rates, § 4102.

g. Cartage Charges, § 4103.

h. Shipment Through Foreign Country, § 4104.

i. Interest of General Public, § 4105.

j. Destination of Shipment, § 4106.

k. Consent of Commission to Charge, § 4107.

1. Determining Right to Different Charge, § 4108.

m. Establishing Zones, § 4109.

n. Remedies, § 4110.
L Pooling Freights, § 4111.
J. Mileage Tickets, § 4112.
K. Party-Rate Tickets, § 4113.
L. Excursion Tickets, § 4114.
M. Terminal Charges, § 4115.
N. Industrial Track Service, § 4116.
O. Demurrage Charges, § 4117.

P. Charges for Reconsignmcnt of Goods, § 41 IS.
Q. Tlirough I>;ates, § 4119.



INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT. 3598



R. Allowance for Service of Shipper, §§ 4120-4124.

a. In General, § 4120.

b. For Elevation of Grain, § 4121.

c. For Construction of Grain Doors for Cars, § 4122.

d. For Cartage, § 4123.

e. For Lighterage, § 4124.

S. Printing and Publishing Schedules, §§ 4125-4145.

a. In General, § 4125.

b. Statutory Provision, § 412G.

c. Shipment Over Connecting Carrier, § 4127.

d. Shipment Through Foreign Country, § 4128.

e. Form, Requisites and Validity, §§ 4129-4131.

(1) In General, § 4129.

(2) Printed, § 4130.

(3) Validity, § 4131.

f. Contents, § 4132.
g. Publishing, § 4133.
h. Posting, § 4134.

i. Filing v^nth Commission, § 4135.
j. Distributing in Offices of Agents, § 4136.
k. Construction of Schedule. § 4137.
1. Operation and Effect of Schedules, §§ 4138-4145.

(1) In General. § 4138.

(2) As Standard Charge, §§ 4139-4141.

(a) In General, § 4139.

(b) Contractual Rate, § 4140.

(c) Presumed Legal Rate, § 4141.

(3) As Constructive Notice to Shipper, § 4142.

(4) As to Joint Rates, § 4143.

(5) As to Privileges and Facilities, § 4144.

(6) As to Contract for Exemption from Liability, § 4145.
T. Change of Rates, § 4146.

U. Payment of Charges for Transportation, § 4147.
V. Enjoining Enforcement of Rates, § 4148.
W. Charges of Connecting Carriers, § 4149.

VIII. Interstate Commerce Commission, §§ 4150-4154.

A. In General, § 4150.

B. Salaries and Expenses, § 415].

C. Rules, § 4152.

D. Powers and Duties, §§ 4153-4154.

a. In General, § 4153.

b. Particular Powers, § 4154.

IX. Civil Proceedings against Carrier, §§ 4155-4219.
A. Proceedings before Commission, §§ 4155-4190.

a. In General. § 4155.

b. Exclusive Jurisdiction, § 4156.

c. Summons and Process, § 4157.

d. Parties, § 4158.

e. Limitation and Laches, § 4159.

f. Pleadings, § 4160.

g. Burden of Proof and Presumptions, § 4161.
h. Evidence, §§ 4162-4165.

(1) In General, § 4162.
^ (2) Incriminating Testimony, § 4163.

(3) Power to Compel Witnesses to Attend, § 4164.

C4) Production of Books and Papers, § 4165.



3599 INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT.

i. Hearii.g and Determination, §§ 4166-4181.

(1) Necessity, § 4166.

(2) Extent of Hearing, § 4167.

(3) Judgment or Order, §§ 4168-4181.

(a) Contents, § 4168.

(b) Service on Carrier, § 4169.

(c) Operation and Effect, § 4170.

(d) Enforcing, Enjoining and Annulling, §§ 4171-4181.
aa. In General, § 4171.

bb. Necessity for Lawful Order, § 4172.
cc. Nature of Proceeding, § 4173.
dd. Jurisdiction and Venue, § 4174.
ee. Parties, § 4175.
ff. Pleadings, § 4176.
gg. Evidence. §§ 4177-4178.
(aa) Admissibility, § 4177.
(bb) Weight and Sufficiency, § 4178.
hh. Hearing and Determination, §§ 4179-4180.
(aa) In General, § 4179.

(bb) Particular Orders of Commission, § 4180.
ii. Injunction, § 4181.
j. Rehearing, § 4182.
k. Review, §§ 4183-4189.

(1) Right of Review, § 4183.

(2) Presumptions on Appeal, § 41S4.

(3) Harmless Error, § 4185.

(4) Scope of Review, § 4186.

(5) Modification of Decree of Court, § 4187.

(6) Remand to Commission, § 4188.

(7) Supersedeas Pending Appeal, § 4189.

1. Effect of Repeal of Statute on Pending Proceedings, § 4190.
B. Proceedings in Federal Courts, §§ 4191-4211.

a. In General, § 4191.

b. Statutory Provision, § 4192.

c. Jurisdiction and \'enue, §§ 4193-4200.

(1) In General, § 4193.

(2) Before Hearing by Commission, § 4194.

(3) After Hearing by Commission, § 4195.

(4) Offenses Arising in Several Districts, § 4196.

(5) Mandamus, § 4197.

(6) Injunction, § 4198.

(7) In Particular Instances, § 4199.

(8) Equity Jurisdiction, § 4200.

d. Proceedings at Law or in Equity, § 4201.

e. Parties, § 4202.

f. Limitation and Laches, § 4203.

g. Pleadings. § 4204.

h. Issues, Proof and \'ariance, § 4205.
i. Presumptions and Burden of Proof, § 4206.
j. Evidence, § 4207.
k. Reference, § 4208.
1. Judgment and Orders. § 4209.
m. Costs, § 4210.
n. Stipulation of Parties, § 4211.
C. Proceedings in Commerce Court, §§ 4212-4217.
a. Statutory Provision, § 4212.



§ 3982



INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT. 360O



b. Jurisdiction in General, § 4213.

c. Power to Enforce or Enjoin Orders of Commission. § 421-4.

d. Power to Enforce or Enjoin Particular Orders of Commission, § 4215.

e. Power to Review Order of Commission, § 4216.

f. Procedure, § 4217.

D. Proceedings in State Courts, § 4218.

E. Election of Remedies, § 4219.

X. Criminal Liability of Carrier, §§ 4220-4237.

A. In General, § 4220.

B. Discrimination and Undue Preference, § 4221.

C. Rebates, § 4222.

D. Failure to File and Publish Rates. § 4223.

E. Departure from Publishing Rates, § 4224.

F. False Billing of Goods, § 4225.

G. Liability for Act of Agent. § 4226.

H. Criminal Proceedings against Carrier, §§ 4227-4237.

a. Jurisdiction and Venue, § 4227.

b. Initiation of Proceedings, § 4228.

c. Parties, § 4229.

d. Indictment, §§ 4230-4234.

(1) For Failure to File Rates, § 4230.

(2) For Departure from Published Rate. § 4231.

(3) For Discrimination and Preference, § 4232.

(4) For Granting Rebate or Concession, § 4233.

(5) Indictment against Express Company, § 4234.

e. Burden of Proof, § 4235.

f. Evidence, § 4236.

g. Instructions, § 4237.

XL Criminal Liability of Officers and Agents, § 4238.
XII. Criminal Liability of Shipper, §§ 4239-4244.

A. Inducing Carrier to Discriminate, § 4239.

B. Receiving Rebates, § 4240.

C. False Billing of Goods, § 4241.

D. Indictment, § 4242.

E. Issues, Proof and Variance. § 4243.

F. Evidence, § 4244.

§§ 3982-3989. Statutory Provisions— § 3982. Purpose and Object. —

The purpose of the Interstate Commerce Act is to promote and facilitate com-
merce ^ by the adoption of regulations to make charges for transportation just
and reasonable, and to forbid undue and unreasonable preferences or discrim-
inations.- Commerce, in its largest sense, must be deemed to be one of the
most important subjects of legislation, and an intention to promote and facilitate
it, and not to hamper or destroy it, is naturally to be attributed to congress.^ The
provisions of the act look to the prevention of discrimination,'* to the furnishing
of equal facilities for the interchange of trafific,'^ to the rate of compensation for

1. Purpose and object. — United States Harriman ?'. Interstate Commerce Comm.,

V. Trans-Missouri Freight Ass'n, 166 U. 211 U. S. 407. 53 L. Ed. 253, 29 S. Ct. 115.

S. 290, 41 L. Ed. 1007, 17 S. Ct. 540; In- 2. United States v. Trans-Missouri

terstate Commerce Comm. v. Baltimore, Freight Ass'n, 166 U. S. 290, 41 L. Ed.

etc., R. Co., 145 U. S. 263, 36 L. Ed. 699, io07 17 S Ct 540

12 S. Ct 844. See also Pennsylvania R. 3 \ ^ ' ^ '^ Interstate Com-

Co. V. Hughes, 191 U. S. 477, 48 L. Ed. r^ \^„ tt c •!.->-. ^r, t x^a

268, 24 S. Ct. 132; Texas, etc!, R. Co. v. '^f^^^^ ^"""c'^lc} ' ^-

Interstate Commerce Comm., 162 U. S. ^"^"' ^^ ^- ^*- ^^^- . . , „ ^

197. 40 L. Ed. 940, 16 S. Ct. 666; Southern 4- See post. Discrimination and Pref-

Pac. Co. V. Interstate Commerce Comm., erences," §§ 4016-4044.

200 U. S. 536, 50 L. Ed. 585, 26 S. Ct. 330; . 5. See post, "Facilities," §§ 3995-3997.



3601



INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT.



§ 3982



what is termed the long and the short haul,'^' to the attainment of a continuous
passage from the point of shipment to the point of destination,"^ at a known and
pubHshed schedule,^ without reference to the location of those points or the lines
over which it is necessary for the traffic to pass, and to procure uniformity of
rates charged by each company to its patrons, and to other objects of a similar
nature.^ The great purpose of the act, while seeking to prevent unjust and un-
reasonable rates, is to secure equaHty of rates as to all, and to destroy favoritism,
the last being accomplished by requiring the publication of tariffs, and by pro-
hibiting secret departures from such tariffs, and forbidding rebates, preferences^
and all other forms of undue discrimination.^'^

To Destroy Competition. — It is not designed, however, to prevent competi-
tion between different roads, or to interfere with the customary arrangements
made by railway companies for reduced fares in consideration of increased
mileage, where such reduction did not operate as an unjust discrimination against
other persons travelling over the road.^^ When it is sought to show that a charge
is extortionate as being contrary to the statutable obligation to charge equally,
it is immaterial whether the charge is reasonable or not; it is enough to show
that the company carried for some person or class of persons at a lower charge
during the period throughout which the party complaining was charged more
under the like circumstances.^- But the act does not authorize an agreement be-
tween competing railroads relating to traffic rates for the transportation of ar-
ticles of commerce between the states, as will produce a restraint of trade or
commerce, nor does it authorize any other agreements which would be inconsist-
ent with the provisions of the Sherman x\nti-Trust Act.^^

To Reinforce Tariff Laws. — It is not the purpose of the act to reinforce the
tariff' laws.^^

Interference with Commerce.— It can not be readily supposed that congress
intended, when regulating such commerce, to interfere with and interrupt, much



6. See post, "Long and Short Haul,"
§§ 4097-4110.

7. See post, "To Establish Through
Routes," § 3993.

8. See post, "Printing and Publishing
Schedules," §§ 4125-4145.

9. United States v. Trans-Missouri
Freight Ass'n, 166 U. S. 290, 41 L. Ed.
1007, 17 S. Ct. 540.

The principal objects of the interstate
commerce act were to secure just and
reasonal)le charges for transportation; to
prohibit unjust discrimination; in the ren-
dition of like services under similar cir-
cumstances and conditions; to prevent un-
due or unreasonable preferences to persons,
corporations or localities; to inhibit greater
compensation for a shorter than for a
longer distance over the same line; and
to abolish comljinations for the pooling
of freights. Southern Pac. Co. v. Inter-
state Commerce Comm., 200 U. S. 536,
50 L. Ed. 585, 26 S. Ct. 330.

The objects of the Interstate Com-
merce Act are to secure just rates, pro-
hibit unjust discrimination, prevent undue
preference, prohibit greater compensation
for a shorter than for a longer distance.
and abolish coml)inations. Interstate
Commerce Comm. v. Chicago, etc., R. Co.,
141 Fed. 1003, affirmed in 28 S. Ct. 493,
209 U. S. 108, 52 L. Ed. 705.

10. New York, etc., R. Co. v. Interstate
Commerce Comm., 200 U. S. 361, 50 L.



Ed. 515, 26 S. Ct. 272. See, also, Texas,
etc., R. Co. V. Abilene Cotton Oil Co., 204
U. S. 426, 51 L. Ed. 553, 27 S. Ct. 350, 9
Am. & Eng. Ann. Cas. 1075.

11. To destroy competition. — Interstate
Commerce Comm. v. Baltimore, etc., R.
Co., 145 U. S. 263, 36 L. Ed. 699, 12 S.
Ct. 844. See, also, Texas, etc., R. Co.
V. Abilene Cotton Oil Co., 204 U. S. 426,
51 L. Ed. 553, 27 S. Ct. 350, 9 Am. &
Eng. Ann. Cas. 1075; Southern Pac. Co,
V. Interstate Commerce Comm., 200 U. S.
536, 50 L. Ed. 585, 26 S. Ct. 330; Texas,
etc., R. Co. V. Interstate Commerce
Comm., 162 U. S. 197, 40 L. Ed. 940, 16
S. Ct. 666.

The act was not directed to the secur-
ing of uniformity of rates to be charged
by competing companies, nor was there
any provision therein as a maximum or
mimimum of rates. United States zk
Trans-Missouri Freight Ass'n, 166 U. S.
290. 41 L. Ed. 1007, 17 S. Ct. 540.

12. Interstate Commerce Comm. v.
Baltimore, etc., R. Co., 145 U. S. 363, 36
L. Ed. 699, 12 S. Ct. 844.

13. United States v. Trans-Missouri
Freight Ass'n, 166 U. S. 290, 41 L. Ed.
1007, 17 S. Ct. 540.

14. To reinforce tariff laws. — -Texas, etc..
R. Co. V. Interstate Commerce Comm.,
162 U. S. 197, 40 L. Ed. 940, 16 S. Ct..
666.



§§ 3982-3984 carriers. 3602

less destroy, sources of trade and commerce already existing, nor to overlook
the property rights of those who had invested money in the railroads of the coun-
try, nor to disregard the interest of the consumers, to furnish whom with mer-
chandise is one of the principal objects of all systems of transportation. ^^

Not Intended to Cover Whole Field. — Although the commerce statute may



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