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THE



HISTORY



OF THE



LIFE AND REIGN



O F



PHILIP



KING OF MACEDON.



Vol. I.



lojL



THE

HISTORY

OF THE

LIFE AND REIGN

O F

PHILIP

KING OF MACEDON;
THE FATHER OF ALEXANDER.

BY
THOMAS LELAND, D. D.

FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE, DUBLIN.

THE SECOND EDITION.

IN TWO VOLUMES.

VOL. I.



LONDON:

Printed for E. Johnston, in Ludgate-ftreet.
MDCCLXXV.



THE

PREFACE.

TH E hiftorles of ancient times, which
feem moft likely to engage the ge-
neral attention, are fuch as abound with
extraordinary and furprifing events, great
and glaring adlions, aftonifhing viciffitudes
of fortune, and ftriking inftances of fuccefs,
apparently difproportioned to the powers
and abilities, or even to the expedatlons,
of thofe, whofe bold attempts were thus
wonderfully crowned. The hiftory now
prefented to the reader, it muft be confefled,
is of another nature. It leads him on gra-
dually through a feries of afllons and
events, many of them feemingly inconfi-
derable, but all operating regularly to pro-
duce one of the greateft revolutions of
A 3 power,

865056



MIS'
v./



VI



PREFACE.

power, winch the annals of the heathen
world afford. The flow and painful fteps,
by which PHILIP king of Macedon
warily and fagacioufly proceeded, with a
patient refolution, to ftrengthen and to ag-
grandize his kingdom, to incorporate it
with the illuftrious nation of Greece, to
fubdue that nation, and to place himfelf at
the head of its united powers ; as they dif-
cover no lefs merit and abilities than that
rapidity of conqueft, which cafts fuch glory
round his fon, and other heroic characters ;
fo they may ppffibly appear no lefs worthy
of attention, although the detail be fre-
quently addrefled rather to the judgment
than to the imagination.

In this cafe indeed, the tafk of the hiflo-
rian is by far more difficult : his errors and
impcrfed:ions more obvious and ftriking.
Great and furprifmg actions fupport them-
felves, and animate the writer with that
fpirit and energy with which they fhould
5 be



PREFACE. vil

be defer Ibed. But to condiid the reader
through the labyrinths of policy ; to trace
the progrefs of an artful, penetrating, and
fagacious prince, furrounded with dangers
and difficulties, exad:ly and inceflantly at-
tentive to his defigns, and wifely chufing
and proportioning his inftruments and
means to the great ends which he pro-
pofed ; to difclofe the latent caufes of the
declenfion and ruin of nations, of the gran-
deur of kings, and the eftablifliment of
empires ; — thefe call for all the accuracy,
all the judgment, of a writer.

In difplaying the difficulties of his tafk,
the author means not to infmuate, that he
is poflefled of any extraordinary abilities ;
but to befpeak the indulgence and pardon
of the reader, for thofe imperfedions,
which his tafle and judgment' may, or ra-
ther muft, neceffarily difcover in the fol-
lowing work ; however the writer hath
endeavoured, by a painful and laborious
A 4 application.



viii PREFACE,

application, to avoid the guilt of any eflen-
tial omiflions. And he may poflibly ap-
pear to have a better claim to this indul-
gence, when it is confidered from what a
variety of authors the following hiftory is
colleded ; and that his materials lie de-
tached, and difperfed through fo many of
the great writers of antiquity : which were
to be colleded with care, united with pro-
priety, and reconciled, where they difa-
greed, with truth, or at leaft with the ap-
pearance of probability : a tafk which re-
quired attention and accuracy, and other
ftill higher accomplifliments.

Theopompus, an hiilorian cotemporary
with Philip, colleded a large and copious
account of this prince's adions, of which
time hath unhappily deprived us. The
fragments of this hiftorian, which Athe-
naeus hath preferved (if genuine) confirm
the reprefentations, which we find in an-
cient writers, of the feverity and acrimony
6 of



PREFACE. ill

«f Theopompus. Poflibly, the corruption
of thofe with whom Philip contended, as
well as many parts of this prince's con-
dud, (whatever greatnefs of foul, or ele-
vation of genius, he poflefTed) might have
juftly merited this feverity. Had we not
been deprived of his work, or even if Pho-
tius had tranfmitted to us the plan and
general heads of his hiftory, poifibly we
might have had rqany particulars both to
admire and cenfure in this hero, which are
now buried in eternal oblivion.

DioDORUs SicuLUs, in his fixteenth
book, hath given an abftradt of the hiftory
of Philip, collected, not only from Theo-
pompus, but fome other ancient writers,
whofe names only have defcended to us.
His detail is frequently interrupted by the
hiftory of the affairs of Sicily ; fo as, in
fome fort, to diftradt the attention of the
reader, by the variety of objeds. But this
cannot fo properly be cenfured as a fault,

fince



PREFACE.

fince the fcheme of his hiftory was general ;
and, whatever errors or omiflions may be
difcovered in his account of Philip's ac-
tions, by comparing him with other wri*
ters, yet we muft juftly acknowledge our
obligations to him, both as an hiftorian,
and as an accurate chronologer.

Trogus Pompaeus intitled his uni-
verfal hiftory, Historia Philippica,
ekher in imitation of Theopompus, or from
a particular veneration for the king of Ma-
cedon. " Although he hath employed*'
(faith Olivier, an author of whom we fhall
immediately give fome account) " but three
** books in reciting the actions of this
** prince ; yet he was perfuaded that thefe
*' gave a new appearance to the affairs and
" interefts of the world. And, in effeO:,
" the empires formed on the ruins of that
" of Alexander, owe their foundation to
" men trained up and taught by Philip,
*' It is to be prefumed, that Trogus pre-

" ferved



P R E F A C E.

** ferved many particulars which his abbre-
" viator hath negledled. There is even a
*' literal proof that this latter did not value
" himfelf on his accuracy. Among fome
" ancient manufcripts is found a fummary
** of the Philippic hiftory, called Periochae
** Trogi : from which it appears, that Ju-
** ftin hath not contented himfelf with re-
*' verfing the order of fads, with omitting
** feveral effential ones, and adding others:
*' but that he hath related fome, in a man-
** ner totally different from his author."—
If this be fo, it affords an additional reafon
to juftify the author of this work, in fome-
times negleding, and fometimes contro-
verting, his authority.

And, if Juftin endeavoured to difFufe
fome portion of the fpirit and acrimony of
Demofthenes into the hiftory of TroguB,
Paulus Orofms hath proceeded fomewhat
further. His point was to prove, that the
Kiiferies and enormities of the pagan world

exceeded



XI



icii PREFACE.

exceeded thofe which mankind felt, froiA
the time that Chriftianity was firft propa-
gated : and his zeal to fupport his argument
hath rendered his account of Philip's ac-
tions rather bordering on an invedive, than
a difpaffionate hiftory : although he hath
colleded the fads from Juftin into a fmaller
compafe, with fufficient art ; and hath been
rather more careful to preferve the order
of time.

Though we have no life of Philip
written by Plutarch ; yet in thofe of Pelo-
pidas, Phocion, Demoilhenes, and Alex-
ander, we have many particulars relative
to this prince. And, had fuch a valuable
piece of antiquity defcended to us, we
might have found it rather made up of pri«
vate anecdotes, calculated for marking out
the temper and character of Philip, than
a regular detail of fads, which might fully
explain the whole fcheme and fyftem of his
condud. In the lives of Phocion and De-

mofthenes,



PREFACE. xm

mofthenes, he feems, as ufual, to fuppofe
the reader already acquainted with the
liiftory of their time, which he relates in
fuch a manner, a? that no common reader,
who hath not recourfe to other works, can
form a clear idea of it : and fometimes in
a manner by no means confiftent with other
accounts of high authority. A regular and
ample comment on his truly valuable Lives,
to fupply his defeds, and to corre6: his
inaccuracies as an hiftorian, might make
him to be read with greater fatisfadtion
and utility. But, at prefent, the reader
is to guard not only againft thefe, but
fometimes againft his prejudices ; at leaft,
critics have attributed his unfavourable re-
prefentations of Philip, in his Lives,
to this latter caufe. In his moral works,
however, he frequently does him fufficient
honour. He dwells on his maxims and
fallies of wut, on the inftances of his con-
defcenfion and humanity, with feeming
pleafure : and hath preferved many agree-
able



jjcii PREFACE.

exceeded thofe which mankind felt, froitl
the time that Chriftianity was firft propa-
gated : and his zeal to fupport his argument
hath rendered his account of Philip's ac-
tions rather bordering on an invedive, than
a difpaflionate hiflory : although he hath
colledled the fads from Juftin into a fmaller
compafe, with fufficient art ; and hath been
rather more careful to preferve the order
of time.

Though we have no life of Philip
written by Plutarch ; yet in thofe of Pelo-
pidas, Phocion, Demofthenes, and Alex-
ander, we have many particulars relative
to this prince. And, had fuch a valuable
piece of antiquity defcended to us, we
might have found it rather made up of pri-
vate anecdotes, calculated for marking out
the temper and charader of Philip, than
a regular detail of fads, which might fully
explain the whole fcheme and fyftem of his,
condud. In the lives of Phocion and De-
mofthenes,



PREFACE. xiii

mofthenes, he feems, as ufual, to fuppofe
the reader already acquainted with the
hiftory of their time, which he relates in
fuch a manner, a? that no common reader,
who hath not recourfe to other works, can
form a clear idea of it : and fometimes in
a manner by no means confiftent with other
accounts of high authority. A regular and
ample comment on his truly valuable Lives,
to fupply his defeds, and to correct his
inaccuracies as an hiftorian, might make
him to be read with greater fatisfadtion
and utility. But, at prefent, the reader
is to guard not only againft thefe, but
fometimes againft his prejudices : at leaft>
critics have attributed his unfavourable re-
|)refentations of Philip, in his Lives,
to this latter caufe. In his moral works,
however, he frequently does him fufficient
honour. He dwells on his maxims and
Tallies of wit, on the inftances of his con-
defcenfion and humanity, with feeming
pl^afure : and hath preferved many agree-
able



xInt preface.

able anecdotes, which it would have been
unpardonable in a modern compiler to pafs
over, whatever pains the collecting and in-
troducing them might coft.

Besides the hiftorians now mentioned,
we are confiderably indebted to others of
the ancient writers, from whom many-
particulars are collected relative to the pre-
fent fubjed. Such are Athenaeus, Strabo,
Paufanias, Lucian, i^lian, Polybius, Se-
neca, Pliny, and others. But the greateft
lights, the ampleft fupplement to the
omifTions and defedts of hiftory, are fur-
nifhed by the noble and valuable remains of
the great Athenian orators. And here the
author muft befpeak all the candour of the
learned reader, in judging of the ufe he
hath made of their materials. They were
undoubtedly the mofl capable of giving the
clearefl: and moft authentic account of af-
fairs, in which they themfelves had fo con-
fiderable a fhare. Yet, in afcertaining the

force



PREFACE. XV

force and extent of their teftlmony, in
diftinguifliing between truth and artifice,
between the real or probable ftate of fa(^s,
and the reprefentations of a vehement,
impajGTioned, and perhaps interefted fpeaker,
judgment, fagacity, and attention, are
required : and here the defeds of a writer
muft be particularly obfervable : not to men-
tion the difference of fentiment which ne-
ceffarily arifes in fuch a cafe. If Ifocrates
reprefents all the adions and defigns of
Philip in the faireft and moft advanta-
geous light, the learned and judicious may
not be entirely agreed, how far this is to
be afcribed to the inexperience and unfuf-
peding honefty, the benevolence and fim-
plicity, of a reclufe rhetorician, unac-
quainted with the wiles of policy, and the
corruptions of the great world. If, on the
contrary, Demofthenes burfts forth into the
^loft animated indignation and abhorrence
of this prince; he loads him with the
blackeft imputationsj it may not be agreed,

how



xji PREFACE.

how far we are to guard againft the extra-
vagance of an honeft zeal, or the artifice of
a popular leader. When two great rivals
are contending for reputation, power, and
all that is valuable in human life, if not for
life itfelf, although the difpute happily fur-
nifhes us with many particulars of their
public condud, as well as that of their co-
temporaries ; although it hath preferved
many important inftances of the policy,
abilities, fentiments, and paffions, of the
great adors in that fcene in which the con-
tending parties were engaged; yet what
credit is to be given to their different repre-
fentations, may fometimes be thought by
no means eafy to determine, but a matter
which may admit of fome variety in opi-
nion. When two competitors are violent
againft each other ; when their moft mo-
mentous interefts are concerned in the con-
tefts ; when they know that fuccefs depends
in a great meafure on the prefent imprellion
made on the paffions and imaginations of

their



PREFACE. xvii

their judges ; they muft have more than
ordinary integrity, if they are not tempted
to pafs the bounds of truth and juftice*
And the contentions between Demofthenea
and ^fchines have difclofed fome particu-
lars, which render the integrity of both
at leaft fufpicious. Even in their repre-^
fentations of fads, which might be fup-
pofed not fo liable to fallacy and deception,
we are often embarrafled by the weight of
contradidory evidence, and tempted to be-
lieve, that they fome times aflerted, with a
deliberate purpofe of deceiving. Of this
I fhall take the liberty of laying before the
reader one among many inftances.

In that oration of Demofthenes, in which
he accufes Jifchines of corruption and mif-
condudt in his management of a treaty
which the Athenians concluded ; in order
to load his rival with public odium, he re-
lates a particular incident highly to his dif-
honour ; and dwells upon it with all pof-

VOL. I. a fible



xviii PREFACE.

fible aggravations, and all the appearance of
truth and fincerity. He fays, that, during
his refidencc in Macedon, he (^fchlnes)
was invited to an entertainment by one of
his friends : that, in the courfe of the fef-
tivity, a w^'oman was introduced, a native
of Olynthus, a city which had been in al-
liance with Athens, which Philip had
lately fubdued, and whofe inhabitants were
now generally in a ftate of flavery. This
woman, faith Demofthenes, was treated
with the liberty which her prefent diftrefled
condition feemed to allow, not with the
decorum due to her former fortune. As
fhe was not yet enured to feverities, fhe
exprefled her uneafmefs and refentment;
which fo provoked iEfchines, and fome
other guefts, that, with unparalleled bar-
barity, they called in an attendant flave,
who was ordered to lafh her without mercy;
and would have put her to death, had it
not been for the interpofition of one man,
to whom fhe flew, imploring his protec-
6 tion ;



PREFACE. xlx

tion ; and who, with great dlfEculty, faved
her from their drunken rage. — This the
orator infifteth on as notorious ; declares
that it had raifed the utmoft indignation in
Arcadia and Theflaly, where it had been
commonly fpoken of; and offers to pro-
duce Diophantus, an Athenian of fome
eminence, as a v/itnefs to the truth of a
fad, with which this citizen was well ac-
quainted, and which he had before men-
tioned in the affembly. — One would ima-
gine that nothing could be aflerted more
plaufibly, and with a greater appearance of
truth and candour. Yet, when ^fchines
comes to make his defence, we find him
aflerting, that the bare mention of this had
raifed the utmoft fury and indignation
againft the falfe accufer ; that Demofthenes
had adually attempted to fuborn one Arifto-
phanes, a native of Olynthus, to bear
teftimony to his malicious falfehood ; that
Ariftophanes had rejected the infamous
propofition with horrour; and, to atteft
a 2 the



XX



PREFACE.

the truth of all this, he produces the evi-
dence not only of this Olynthian, but of
two citizens of Athens. — Other pafTages
may be obferved in both the rival orators,
which afford good reafons for receiving
their ^eflimony with all due caution. If
the author fometlmes appears to be deter-
mined to one particular fide, and to affume
the reprefentations of one of the parties as
authentic ; it would be prefumption to ex-
pect: that the fentiments of the learned rea-
der, who examines his authority, muft be
ever exadly confonant to his : and, if he
fometimes contents himfelf with relating
the different reprefentations of the orators,
■without attempting to decide between them,
this is a method which the hiflorians of
times and adions lefs remote and obfcure
are fometimes obliged to purfue.

The orator Ariftides, who lived about
live hundred years after the death of Phi-
lip, made two orations againft this prince,

which



PREFACE. xxi

which are yet preferved. They are writ-
ten in the character of an ambaflador fup-
pofed to be fent to Thebes, to engage this
ftate to unite with the Athenians againft
Macedon. Had the oration which Demo-
fthenes really delivered on this occafion
been preferved, it might have afforded many
illuftrations of the hiftory of his time, as
well as many noble proofs of his art and
power of fpeaking. But the topics on
which Ariftides enlarges, are common and
well known ; and fcarcely any new mate-
rials can be extracted from him.— His abi-
lities, as an orator, it is not to the prefent
purpofe to examine.

George Gemifthius Pletho, a modern
Greek, wrote a continuation of the hiftory
of Xenophon down to the death of Phi-
lip ; a work fufEciently accurate and well
conneded. Had he read thofe authors
which are now loft, it might have been
of confiderable ufe ; but his materials are
as taken



:xli PREFACE,

taken entirely from writers well known,
Diodorus Siculus and Plutarch : and there-
fore we are not to expert any new lights
from him, or any information which may
not be as well obtained by drawing froni
the fame fources.

The modern compilers, who have treats
ed this part of ancient hiftory, are per-
haps already well known to the reader.
Monfieur Tourrell, in his learned preface
to his tranflation of the Philippic Orations
of Demofthenes, propofes to fupply the
lofs of Theopompus, by collecting and
uniting together the fcattered remains of
Philip's hiftory. But his colledion is by
no means fuited to fo magnificent a pro-
mifc. It is confined within the compafs
of a very few pages, and is by no means
fo perfed and accurate as that of the learn-
ed Puffendorf, who hath given us fhort
but excellent and exad heads of this
prince's adions, in the fecond of his Dif-

fertationes



PREFACE. xxiii

fertationes ^cademicae fehctlores^ intltled,
de Rebus gejiis Vhilippu

The labours of Rollin, on this fubjed,
deferve great commendations, whatever
inadvertencies or omiffions may be found
in them. The nature of his work did not
permit him to give it the full extent,
which he himfelf thought that it merited ;
as appears by his wifhing that fome modern
would undertake it particularly, and collect
all the fcattered remains of antiquity re-
lative to the hiftory of Philip. The fam^^
may be faid of the authors of the Uni-
versal History, who, in their account
of this prince, have dlfcovered tafte, judg-
ment, and learning, amidft fome lefs ma-
terial errors, and fome omiffions, which
might have been avoided, even confiftently
with their plan.

What Monfieur Rollin wifhed to be

executed, was undertaken by one of his

a 4 country-



jjxir PREFACE.

countrymen, Claude-Matthieu Olivier, a
native of Marfeilles, and Member of the
Academy of Belles Lettres of that city ;
and feme time after this writer's death,
which happened in the year ij'^6tyh.\s work
was publiflied in two fmall volumes, under
the title of Hifioire de PhiUppey Sec. : a
work to which the author muft acknow-
ledge himfelf greatly indebted, and whofe
publication makes it neceffary for him to
offer fomething in j unification of his pre-
fent attempt.

Olitier appears plainly to have em-
ployed great afliduity in making his col-
ledion of materials, nor hath he difcovered
lefs genius and judgment in ufmg theni.
It is faid that his attention to this work
haftened his diffolution : and, unhappily,
his papers fell into the hands of perfons by
no means fo well acquainted with the fub-
]tdi of them as the author himfelf. This
ieems to have been the reafon that his au-
thorities



PREFACE. XXV

thorlties are frequently not quoted at all ;
fcarcely ever with any degree of accuracy ;
and, in general, the quotations even ridi-
culoufly defedive and erroneous ; v^hich
in a great meafure defeats the advantages
which a fubfequent writer might derive
from his labours. Had this author lived
to finifh and polifh his hiftory, a careful
revifal of the writers from whence he drew
it, might have fuggefted to him many al-
terations, improvements^ and corrections.
As it Hands at prefent, feveral inaccuracies
appear to have efcaped him ; many, and
fome material omiffions ; authorities fome-
times wrefted from their real and natural
purport, or ftretched beyond their due
bounds, together with many faults in his
arrangement, where we find the order of
fa6ts and adions difturbed and reverfed.
Some of thefe imperfedions the reader
will find occafionally pointed out in the
following hiftory : by which he will judge,
whether the author hath been fevere in his

cenfure,



xxvi PREFACE.

cenfure, or rafh in diffenting from Olivier;
of whom he fpeaks with greater freedom,
as he apprehends that a writer is not en-
tirely accountable for the faults of a piece,
to which he hath not put the laft finifliing
hand. But there is one objedion to be
made to the whole tenour of this writer's
hiflory, and that is an objection which


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Online LibraryThomas LelandThe history of the life and reign of Philip, king of Macedon; the father of Alexander (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 21)