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7,000 men against Lorraine's 9,000 and Tavanne's 5,000
or 6,000, would have been in an exceedingly perilous posi-
tion. As soon as Tavannes had learned what had just
occurred, he withdrew his army and retired to St. Cloud.

If the royal army had been defeated at this con-
juncture the political history of France would have
been considerably altered. Great credit is due to
Turenne ; but Napoleon slightly qualifies it by saying
that "Turenne's march against the Prince of Lorraine
was attended by every possible advantage ".

The Parisians were furious with Lorraine for sub-
mitting to the terms of Turenne, and they were very
angry with Charles II. and the Duke of York for their
reputed share in the negotiations. The Queen of
England and Charles II. and their household "were
kept in the Louvre without daring to go out ; for the
people said : ' You wish to render us as miserable as
yourselves, and are doing as much to ruin France, as
you have done, and are doing, to ruin England ' ",^

^ Memoirs of Mademoiselle de Montpensier.
12 *


Shortly after the events recorded in the last chapter
the Court was arain in a fidgret and on the move.
First it went to Melun, about twenty-five miles to the
south-east of Paris, and, a little later, to Lagny on the
Marne, about fifteen miles due east of Paris. Thither
also went Turenne with his army and he was joined
by La Fert6, who reinforced him with 3,000 men,
bringing up the strength of the royal army to between
10,000 and 11,000. The Court presently moved on
to St. Denis, and Turenne went there, too, encamp-
ing his army about three miles from the town. Mean-
while Conde, who had been ill, joined the army of the
Fronde, which had marched towards Paris from Ville-
neuve St. Georges, and he encamped at St. Cloud.

In Paris the Duke of Orleans, the head of the
New Fronde, became in a fever of alarm when he
found that the royal army was on the north of the city,
and that the rebel army was on the south-west of it.
Apart from any question of the shame of betraying
his own party, he was afraid to admit the royal army
into Paris, because, as head of the Fronde, he dreaded
the venoreance of Mazarin. And as that vengeance

would be greatly increased if he should make an arrned


1652 yET. 41] THE DUKE OF ORLEANS 181

resistance in the case of an attempt by the royal army
to enter Paris by force, he was equally afraid to admit
the rebel army, which was the army of his own party,
the Fronde.

To make matters worse, the temper of the Parisians
themselves was very undecided, and many of them
were as much frightened as Orleans himself: more
they could not have been ! The civic authorities were,
indeed, in a very awkward predicament ; for on the one
hand they had denounced Conde as a traitor, and,
on the other, they had set a price upon the head of
Mazarin. Under these distressing circumstances the
heroic Duke of Orleans gave orders that neither army
was to be allowed to enter Paris ; and, pretending to be
very ill, this leader of men got into bed and refused to
see anybody.

Turenne was now determined to force a battle upon
Conde, and, to understand his movements, we must
consider their relative positions. Conde was south-
west of Paris, at St. Cloud, which is on the west bank
of the Seine. From St. Cloud the Seine flows in a
north-easterly direction for about eight miles to St. Denis,
which is on the east of the river. To get at Cond^,
therefore, it was necessary for Turenne to cross the
Seine somewhere, and he chose to do so by making a
bridge of boats at Epinay, about a mile from St. Denis.
Conde, hearing of this, hurried towards Epinay with a
small force, hoping to be in time to prevent Turenne's
army from crossing the bridge ; but he was too late, as
Turenne had already got most of his artillery upon an


island in the Seine, so as to guard both banks, and had
landed a strong force of musketeers on the west bank of
the river. There was no alternative then left for Conde
but to retire upon St. Cloud. But St. Cloud was no
longer a place of safety for his army, since that of
Turenne, double its size, was on the eve of advancing
upon it ; therefore Conde decided to remove it to the
east of Paris and to place it between the Marne and
the Seine at their junction, near Charenton, a position
which it would be v^ery difficult for Turenne to attack.
In fact, Conde proposed to occupy very much the
same position as that on which the modern Fort of
Charenton now stands.

Accordingly that night he made his forces cross
the Seine by two bridges, at St. Cloud, to the eastern
or Parisian side of the river. He cherished a lingering
hope that his army might be admitted into the city,
notwithstanding hints that its admission would be re-
fused ; and to put the matter to the test, he marched
his forces through the Bois-de- Boulogne, led them up
to the gate of La Conference, and asked, not to be
allowed to take up his quarters in the city, but merely
for permission to march through it on his way to

To his vexation, although scarcely to his surprise,
admittance was refused ; the reason given for this
refusal, says the Duke of York, being that although
the Parisians "were indeed against the cardinal, and
wished his ruin, yet it was unworthy of the Parisians,
as they were good Frenchmen, to suffer an army,

i652 Mt. 41] FAUBOURG ST. ANTOINE 183

partly composed of Spanish troops, and the greatest
number of whose officers were either subjects to that
King, or in his pay, to enter within the walls. . . .
That it would look as if they had already submitted to
the Spanish yoke, to see so many red scarves strutting
through the streets of Paris." Conde, to some extent
prepared for the refusal, proceeded to reach the east
of Paris by marching under the north wall, which
stood near where the Boulevardes de la Madeleine,
des Capucines, des Italiens, de St. Denis and de St.
Martin now run ; and then to make his way south-east
to the junction of the Marne and the Seine, near

Although the Duke of Orleans had refused ad-
mittance to the army of his own party, his sympathies
were with it, and orders had been given that nobody
was to be allowed to pass out of any of the gates of
Paris, lest an intimation might be given to the enemy
of the movements of Conde. Turenne, however, had
friends in Paris who put a messenger into a basket and
let him down in it by a rope over the wall. On
reaching the ground on the other side, he made off
with all speed to carry the information to Turenne that
Conde was leading his army round the north wall of
the city.

It was early in the morning- of the 2nd of July battle of

IT. . 1 , . . . „. THEFAU-

wnen i urenne received this important intelligence, bourg st.
After a brief conference with Mazarin, he collected his 2nd July, '
troops in his camp and started at about 4 a.m. in pur-^ ^^"
suit of Conde, sending orders to General la Ferte to


hurry after him with the artillery, which had been
placed on the island in the Seine, as well as with the
infantry which had been posted on the western side of
it ; an operation which, be his expedition what it might,
would necessarily occupy considerable time.

Conde had passed between Montmartre and the
walls of Paris before Turenne came within sight of
him. When Turenne, who had ridden forward with
ten or a dozen horsemen, reached La Chapelle, a place
about a quarter of a mile inside the modern fortifica-
tions on the north of Paris, but more than a mile from
the walls at the period which we are studying, he caught
a glimpse of the rear of Conde's infantry passing
through the Faubourg St. Martin, and rounding what
was then the north-eastern corner of the walls of Paris.
He observed that Conde had posted some infantry
about the windmills and small houses in the suburb to
protect his rear ; and, as soon as he could get some
cavalry up, he attacked them and routed them. A
strong force of his horse having arrived shortly after-
wards, it attacked a rearguard of Conde's, consisting
of 200 or 300 horse, close to the Hospital of St.
Louis, a little to the south-west of Belleville, and cut
them to pieces. Then it made several charges against
the rear of Conde's infantry, took a good many
prisoners, and spread disorder in the ranks, much
where the Boulevard Voltaire now runs.

Things were going so badly now in Conde's rear
that he faced about and ordered his artillery to return
and fire upon Turenne's cavalry ; and he recalled his

i652 yET. 41] FAUBOURG ST. ANTOINE 185

van, part of which was already at Charenton. Turenne's
cavalry was now near the Faubourg St. Antoine ; but
he ordered a halt to await the arrival of his infantry and

When his infantry came up, Turenne still thought
it dangerous to advance against Conde's guns until
the arrival of his own, and another difficulty against
which he had to contend was that Conde's musketeers
had taken up their positions behind barricades, which
they found ready-made. " These barriers," wrote
Turenne, "the people of Paris had made, on purpose
to secure themselves against the scouts of M. de
Lorraine's Army, while he was at Villeneuve St.

Conde's infantry, therefore, though inferior in
numbers to the troops of Turenne, had superiority in
position. Yet Turenne felt confident that he had only
to await the arrival of his artillery to insure the capture
of his enemy. On the south of Conde's army ran the
river Seine ; on its western side stood the walls of Paris,
with the gate of St. Antoine closed against it and the
great towers of the fortress of the Bastille frowning-
above it. On the north of it, and commanding its
eastern side also, was the powerful army of Turenne ;
for Conde, finding his rear hard pressed, had brought
back his troops from the front and had concentrated
them in the Faubourg St. Antoine. In fact his rear
had now become his front. Turenne, accordingly, had
caught Conde in a trap and was only pausing until his
guns came up to demolish him. As those guns had


been carried across the water in two ferry-boats,^ and
mounted upon the island in the Seine, near St. Denis,
he did not expect to see them for some time.

Soon after Turenne had left St. Denis, Mazarin
had awakened the King and the Court. Both King
and cardinal wished to see the battle, and the rising
ground above Charonne offered them a splendid oppor-
tunity of doing so. While the Queen went to the
chapel of the Carmelite convent at St. Denis and
spent the whole day on her knees before the Sacra-
ment, only rising from them to go to the grating when
messenorers from the Kinof brought news of the battle,^
Mazarin and Louis XIV., then a boy of fifteen, took
up their position on the hill of Charonne, probably
somewhere near where the cemetery of Pere la Chaise ^
now stands.

The King and cardinal reached this eminence when
Turenne had driven the enemy into the Faubourg St.
Antoine with his cavalry and had halted to await the
remainder of his forces. His inactivity puzzled the
cardinal, who sent a message to him asking why he
did not attack. Turenne replied that he was waiting
for the remainder of his forces. When Mazarin
presently saw the infantry arrive and Turenne still
stationary, he sent another message asking what he
was waiting for now. Turenne replied that he was

^ Memoirs of James II., vol. i., p. 98.

^Memoirs of Madame de Motteville (1902), vol. iii., p. 75.
3 Pere la Chaise, from whom the cemetery takes its name, was
then living, and he became confessor to Louis XIV,

i652 ^T. 41] FAUBOURG ST. ANTOINE 187

waiting for his artillery, and also for his implements
for breaking or pulling down the barricades and garden
walls behind which the enemy was sheltered. Mazarin
sent again to advise him to waste no more time, but
to attack with his infantry and cavalry. Turenne
replied by begging him to have a little more patience ;
but a^ain the cardinal sent a message to Turenne,
and this time it took the form of an order to attack at
once. Turenne also received a message from his
brother, the Duke of Bouillon, who was with the
Court, to which he had only recently been reconciled,
warning Turenne that, if he put off his attack any
longer, it would be thought that he did so out of friend-
ship for Conde. Indeed, as the Duke of York wrote,
Turenne himself was fully aware that he "was not yet
so well established in the opinion of the Court, nor his
integrity so thoroughly known that he durst hazard it
by refusing to act against their orders, though they
were contrary to his own judgment ".

Much against his will, therefore, Turenne gave
orders for an immediate attack upon the barricades.
The suburbs of St. Antoine consisted of three principal
streets leading to the gate of the city, with narrow
streets crossing them, forming "a kind of duck's foot,"
as one historian of the battle described them. Havinof
extended his troops in a curve as far as the river, so
as to guard every outlet, Turenne ordered three simul-
taneous attacks. One of these attacks was made upon
a barricade in a narrow street, which ran into the
market-place of the faubourg. It was gallantly carried


by the infantry, in spite of musketry fire and peltings
with stones from the windows of the houses on either
side. Unfortunately, the Marquis of St. Maigrin, who
was in support of the infantry with the King's Horse-
Guards, instead of waiting until the infantry had dis-
lodged the enemy from the houses on each side of the
narrow street, pushed through the ranks of the infantry
with his cavalry to pursue Conde's men as they fled
from the barricades. Just as they nearly reached the
market-place, they were met by five and twenty officers,
headed by Conde himself, who charged them in the
narrow street, while a heavy fire was poured down
upon them from its windows on both sides. The
Marquis of St. Maigrin, the Marquis of Nantouillet,
and many of the troopers were killed on the spot, and
the Marquis of Mancini, a boy of seventeen and a
nephew of Mazarin, received a wound from which he
afterwards died. The King's Horse-Guards then
retired in something very like a rout, scattering the
infantry of their own side before them in their panic.
Turenne's own regiment valiantly ousted the enemy
from several gardens and houses ; but when it heard
of the flight of the Horse-Guards and the infantry
accompanying them, it refused to proceed farther.
A regiment of cavalry was behind it, and, suddenly,
such a heavy fire was opened from loop-holes in a
wall on the flank of these horsemen that all their
captains, except one, were killed, as well as many of
the men. The rest, says the Duke of York, " ab-
solutely ran " ; but they were rallied by their few

i652-^T. 41] FAUBOURG ST. ANTOINE 189

remaining officers, and showed great bravery during
the rest of the action. "This particular deserves the
rather to be remarked," says he, "because 'tis very
seldom known, when soldiers have been once frightened
so as to run, that they have ever performed any good
action the same day."

Meanwhile, in the third attack, the lieutenant-
colonels of two of Turenne's battalions were killed as
they were marching to the attack. A furious fusillade
was poured upon the troops from a loop-holed wall.
Although suffering tremendous losses, the King's in-
fantry pushed on right up to this wall "till they had
placed themselves under it betwixt the holes which the
enemy had made in it. Being lodged there, a new
manner of fight began, there being only the wall be-
tween the two parties for not being able, on either
side, to do any great execution with their muskets,
they heaved massy stones against each other over the
wall, shot their pistols through the holes, and thrust their
swords through the crannies ; one party endeavour-
ing to maintain possession, and the others to make
them quit it"^

It has already been seen that Conde with a small
party of officers had turned back a whole regiment of
the King's Horse-Guards in a narrow street ; and, as
the battle progressed, the officers, on both sides, took
more and more part in the hand-to-hand fighting.
"There were then more officers than soldiers in the

1 The Duke of York, in Clarke's James II.


fray, the great Turenne and the great Conde, within
pistol-shot of each other, fighting themselves, hand to
hand, and showing an admirable contrast between
martial fury and intrepid coolness. ' Did you see the
Prince of Conde ? ' was afterwards asked of Turenne.
' I did not see one Prince of Conde,' replied he, ' I saw
more than a dozen ! ' So rapidly did this hero appear
to rush from danger to danger, from exploit to exploit.
It is related that M. le Prince, who wore a breastplate,
and was more active than anybody else, was so stifled
with his armour that he was obliged to have himself
disarmed and unbooted, and to throw himself quite
naked upon the grass in a field, where he rolled like a
tired horse. Then he dressed and armed and returned
into the conflict." ^

Ramsay says that both Turenne and Conde were
covered with blood, though not with their own ; that
Conde was in a fury, but that Turenne, if physically
hot, was mentally cool. It must have been galling to
him to reflect that much of this bloodshed might have
been spared to his own men, if he had been allowed to
await the arrival of his artillery.

When La Ferte at last came up with the artillery,
Turenne gave orders that a general attack should be
made as soon as the guns had delivered a heavy fire.
Magnificent as had been the defence of Conde against
largely superior numbers — at least 1 1,000 against 5,000

^St. Aulaire's History of the Fronde, vol. iii., p. 191, quoted
in Lord Mahon's Life of Conde, p. 230.

1652 /Et. 41] FAUBOURG ST. ANTOINE 191

• — -Turenne now felt that he had him completely at
his mercy. The combined attack of artillery, musketry
and cavalry that followed soon told its tale.

Presently Conde's troops began to retire and even
to disappear with unaccountable speed. For a moment
Turenne was puzzled ; and then, to his astonishment
and his vexation, he saw that the great gates of St.
Antoine had been thrown wide open and that his
enemy was escaping from him into the city of Paris.
Instantly he ordered his cavalry to charge his retreat-
ing foes in the rear, while the gateway was crowded
with the entering troops, and without doubt it would
have inflicted terrible slaughter; but just then the
giins on the great tower of the Bastille began to
boom, and Turenne's horsemen were exposed to a
murderous artillery fire.

Among the most interesting of the delightful pages
of Mademoiselle de Montpensier are those giving an
account of her proceedings on this eventful day. They
describe her vain attempts to persuade her cowardly
father, the Duke of Orleans, to be a man for once, and
to act quickly and decisively on that critical morning ;
they tell us how she found him shamming illness, but,
in reality, frightened almost to death, with a carriage
in waiting at a backdoor to carry him post-haste to
Orleans, in case of need, and how she alternately
coaxed and scolded him until he gave her his authority
to go in person to the Hotel de Ville, and there to
demand full powers in his name ; they inform us of the
hesitation and the vacillation, but the final consent of


the municipal authorities, and, with many graphic
details, they give us a vivid picture of Mademoiselle
hurrying — and only just in time — with the powers thus
conferred upon her to the gate of St. Antoine, which
she ordered to be thrown widely open, and of her rush
into the tower of the Bastille, where she made its
governor give orders that its guns should be fired upon
the troops of Turenne.^

Thus was Turenne foiled, at the last moment, in
his attempt to capture Conde and his army ; but while
we may sympathise with our hero in being robbed of
the fruits of his victory, it is difficult to avoid sympathy
with Conde in his escape, when we reflect upon the
inferiority of his numbers and the splendour of his

^ Mademoiselle de Montpensier gives us the story of her meet-
ing with Conde at the Porte St. Antoine : " He was in a deplorable
state : his face covered with dust, his hair dishevelled, his neck
and shirt stained with blood. Although not wounded, his cuirass
bore the marks of blows ; and he carried his naked sword in his
hand, for he had lost the scabbard. He gave it to my equerry,
and said : ' Ah, Mademoiselle, I am in despair : I have lost all my
friends '. He was much cast down ; for he wept bitterly, as he
exclaimed : ' You must excuse the grief in which you see me '. It
had been said that he cared for nobody ; but I had always found
him attached to his friends, and kind to those he loved." As a
matter of fact, several of his friends whom he then believed to be
dead, or mortally wounded, recovered.


It might be expected that rest and repose would have
been the well-earned reward of Conde, his officers and
his troops, when, wearied and blood-stained, they
stagfo-ered throuo-h the rates into Paris ; but they
neither sought it, nor obtained it. Space cannot be
spared to describe the disorders or the riots, the
massacres or the political complications which followed
during the first few days after the entry of Conde and
his troops into that city.

The riots were succeeded by a duel between the
brothers-in-law, the Duke of Beaufort and the Duke of
Nemours. It may be remembered that those two very
inefficient generals had been in command of the army of
the Fronde which opposed the army under Turenne and
Hocquincourt on the Loire, when the latter generals were
on bad terms and the former were actually quarrelling.

Although, at the batde of St. Antoine, Beaufort
and Nemours had sunk their differences sufficiently
to agree to defend a barricade together, as soon as
Nemours had partially recovered from some wounds
which he received on that occasion, he challenged
Beaufort. When they met to fight, on the ground be-
hind the Hotel Vendome, Beaufort exclaimed : "Ah !
193 13


my brother, what a disgrace this is to us ! Let us for-
get the past and be friends ! " To which Nemours re-
plied : "You rascal! I will either kill you now, or you
shall kill me ! " And then he aimed his pistol at Beau-
fort and pulled the trigger ; but it missed fire, where-
upon he rushed, sword in hand, at Beaufort, who was
obliged to fire in self-defence, when three of his bullets
struck Nemours in the head and killed him. Two of
the seconds in this duel were also killed, and one was
dreadfully wounded.^

After the battle of St. Antoine the Court returned
to St. Denis and remained there. A few weeks later
news was received that a Spanish army^ — with the per-
fidious Duke of Lorraine, who had joined it, making
in all 20,000 men — had entered France in the ex-
treme North, and was marching through Picardy
towards Paris. Mazarin was much alarmed, as the
Court might very soon be between this large force and
the much smaller army of Cond^ then in Paris. He

1 After the duel Conde, Mademoiselle de Montpensier and
several others went to condole with the widow of Nemours. She
was in bed, says Mademoiselle de Montpensier, "senseless — the
curtains open, and everybody around her. . . . Amidst all this
desolation, Madame de Bethune said something, I know not what,
in so lamentable a tone that it set off Madame de Guise laughing,
who was yet the most serious person in the world, so that the
Prince (of Cond^) and even myself, who heard it, burst out into a
violent fit, of which we were quite ashamed.'' They then went to
condole with Nemours' brother. " We were again almost tempted
to laugh ; for he, too, was in bed, with all the curtains drawn, and
spoke to us very lugubriously through them '' {Memoirs, vol. i., p.


therefore proposed to remove the Court either to
Rouen or to Dijon ; but, on inquiry, he learned that
neither of those cities would consent to receive it.

Mazarin then talked of taking the Court to Lyons ;
but Turenne begged him not to remove it so for from
Paris, pointing out that if the royal army had to go so
far South to protect the Court, all the fortresses in
Picardy would fall to the enemy. He also urged that
the moral effect of such a retreat would be most
disastrous among the Parisians, who, he had reasons

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