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possible to take Amsterdam and thus finish the war. In
this respect the campaign had been unsuccessful ; but,
if the paradox be permissible, in another respect it had
been too successful.

The Dutch sued for peace, and France proposed
terms; but they were too hard to be acceptable.
Turenne had recommended more lenient conditions ;
and, if his advice had been followed, the French frontier
would have been advanced to the Rhine, and six years



i672 /Et. 6i] the imperialists 309

of war would have been saved; but Louis XIV. was
overpersuaded by Louvois. When the negotiations for
peace failed, the whole of Europe became alarmed at
the conquests made by France and the ambitions of
Louis XIV. The Emperor ordered all the members
of the Empire to unite for the protection of the Germanic
body ; and even England began to waver. Louis XIV.
returned to Paris, leaving Turenne in command of his
army.

In August the Elector of Brandenburg advanced
to the assistance of the Dutch with 25,000 men; and
the Imperial army of 18,000 started for the same pur-
pose, under Montecuculi and the Duke of Bournonville.
They all marched towards the Rhine apparently with
the object of crossing it and carrying on the war to the
west of that river. Turenne, knowing that the support
of those two allies of France, the Elector of Cologne
and the Bishop of Mi.inster, was essential to the honour
of his King, and highly important to the protection of
his country, left Holland to intercept the enemy and
marched up the Rhine, until he reached its junction
with the Lahn, after which he marched in an easterly
direction towards the enemy. With some reinforce-
ments which he received and the troops of Miinster and
Cologne, Turenne's forces were nearly equal to those
about to confront him. Meanwhile Conde, who had now
sufficiently recovered to take the field, was stationed in
the South with 18,000 men, for the defence of Alsace.

The soldiers under Turenne, most of whom had
been under arms since April and all through the long



3IO MARSHAL TURENNE [1672

campcUCTn in Holland, showed irreat discontent at being-
ordered to make long, tiring marches up the right bank
of the Rhine, in September, for what looked very-
like being a winter campaign. Napoleon says that
Turenne's march, "to support the King's allies was at
once politic and military : he was insensible to the
murmurers of his army. The soldiers were reluctant
to commence a winter campaign in a distant country,
at a moment when they were anxiously expecting to
go into winter quarters. His marches from the gates of
Amsterdam to those of Miinster, Cologne and Treves,
were rapid and worthy of remark."

In October began one of those series of marches
and counter-marches of which Turenne was so able a
master. His success in them was chiefly owing to the
importance which he placed upon scouting, the large
use which he made of spies, and his encouragement of
deserters from the enemy. " Spare neither promises,
pardon, nor recompense," he is reported to have said,
"to deserters, though accomplices in treason, if they
will discover it. Never slight the intelligence given you.
Something may seem very improbable which never-
theless may happen. Therefore you should watch the
event. . . . Have in the enemy's camp some spies. . . .
You should have secret intelligence with some of the
inhabitants, officers or soldiers (of the enemy) gained
with money or fair promises, but you must take care
you are not deceived or drawn into some scrape, by
their seeming to accept your proposals ; so you should
always have some hostage or security for his or their



1672 Mt. 61] THE RHINE 311

fidelity. . . . Spies are attached to those who give them
most, he who pays them ill is never served. They
should never be known to anybody ; nor should they
know one another. When they propose anything very
material, secure their persons, or have in your possession
their wives and children as hostages for their fidelity.
Never communicate anything to them, but what it is
absolutely necessary that they should know."

The Elector of Brandenburg and the Imperialists
were manoeuvring to cross the Rhine and Turenne
was endeavouring to prevent them from doing so.
The enemy tried to give him the slip; but he had
scouts in all directions. He found it prudent to re-
cross the Rhine to its west side, with the object of
preventing the enemy from crossing its bridges, and
when he entered the Electorate of Treves, or Trier,
the Elector made a great show of perfect neutrality.
Turenne, however, having discovered that he had been
intriguing with the Court at Vienna, felt no scruple
in laying his country under contributions to provision
the French army.

The Grand Elector of Brandenburg then retired to
Coblentz, where he received an Imperial garrison ;
and shortly afterwards he was joined by the Imperial
army. The allies proposed to cross over the bridge at
Coblentz ; but, to their surprise, they found that Turenne
was waiting in force, on the opposite side, to receive
them. They then marched fifty or sixty miles up the
river on its east bank, hoping to cross it at Mayence.
But here again they were foiled ; not this time by



312 MARSHAL TURENNE [1672

Turenne, but by the Elector of Mayence and the
Elector of the Palatinate, who, intimidated by the news
that Turenne would arrive in a day or two, feared the
consequences of giving his enemies a passage ; and,
when the Imperialists showed signs of taking the law
into their own hands and crossing the bridge at Mayence
by force, the Elector broke it down.

The Imperialist armies then started on the long
march of more than a hundred miles, in a southerly
direction, up the Rhine, with the object of crossing
the river by the bridge at Strasburg. Turenne,
having discovered their intention, sent couriers to in-
form Conde, who, as has been observed, was stationed
in Alsace. Thereon Conde sent messengers to the
Governor of Breisach, with orders to send boats loaded
with combustibles down the river to burn the bridge at
Strasburg ; and when the Imperial troops reached that
city, they found the bridge destroyed.

The Imperialists then turned back again and made
a hurried march all the way to Mayence, and, as there
was no bridge unbroken there, they made one for
themselves of boats. Just as they were going to cross
the river, on the 30th of November, Turenne appeared
on the opposite bank, "so that they were constrained
to continue in a ravaged country, though very much
wearied by sickness, want, and useless marches and
counter-marches".^ And now inhospitality was added
to scarcity, for the Electors of Mayence, Treves and
the Palatinate complained to the Emperor that the Im-
^ Ramsay.



1672 JET. 61] WINTER QUARTERS 313

perial troops were ruining their electorates by marching
backwards and forwards through them, and consuming
everything that was eatable ; therefore, to prevent the
resentment of those three electors, the Imperial army
and its allies were ordered to make their winter quarters
in Westphalia and in the territories of the Elector of
Cologne and the Bishop of Miinster.

It was now near Christmas and Louvois wrote to
Turenne telling him that the King "positively com-
manded him " to put his troops into winter quarters.
Turenne replied "that it would be prejudicial to the
King's service " to do so ; and that, if the enemy were
not prevented from invading the territories of the
Bishop of Miinster, that bishop would be certain to
ally himself to the Emperor, Then Turenne went
privately to see the Bishop of Miinster, confirmed him
in his allegiance to the King of France, and assured him
of a guarantee against any pressure or raiding by the
troops of the enemy.

Up to the end of the year 1672, this long and
wearying campaign consisted, like several of Turenne's
other campaigns, in a series of marches and counter-
marches with very litde fighting. It may indeed be
said to have been a campaign in two parts : the first
in Holland, and the second in Germany; the one
against the Dutch, the other against the allied armies
of the Emperor and the Duke of Brandenburg.
Ramsay says that great astonishment was expressed at
so great a general as Montecuculi never hazarding a
battle during the whole of this campaign. " Some pre-



314 MARSHAL TURENNE [1672

tended [again] that Prince Lobcourtz, the Emperor's
Minister, had counterfeited the Imperial Seal, in order
to forbid Montecuculi to fight. The Minister was
afraid of encracrinor his master in a war, at a distance,
while the Ottoman Porte on the other hand, threatened
to invade the Hereditary dominions." And well he
might ! For grave indeed would have been the posi-
tion of a monarch who had "the most Christian King"
pommelling him in the face and "the Unspeakable
Turk" kickino- him in the back.



CHAPTER XXIII.

Possibly the frequent restraint alleged to have been
put on the pugnacious instincts of Montecuculi by
Prince Lobcourtz may have got upon his nerves ; for
he became ill in January, 1673, and had to relinquish
his command. In his absence, the Elector of Bran-
denburg and the Dukes of Lorraine and Bournonville
were in command. These generals had a suspicion
that Turenne would join his troops to those of the
Bishop of Mtinster, and they consulted together as to
the best method of preventing such a juncture. Their
army had been reduced from 40,000 to 20,000 by
garrisons left in fortresses, losses in minor attacks, and
sickness ; but they advanced towards Soest, a curious
old walled town, on the road between Hamm and
Paderborn, hoping thereby to intervene between the
army of Miinster and that of Turenne, which they
imagined to be upon the banks of the Rhine. Great
was their surprise when they heard, on the 3rd of
February, that Turenne had already effected his
juncture with the army of the Bishop of Miinster,
and that he was besieging Unna, a town about twenty
miles to the west of Soest.

Some of Turenne's battalions volunteered to take
315



3i6 MARSHAL TURENNE [1673

Unna by storm, sword in hand, but he was anxious to
save his men, so, refusing this gallant offer, he ordered
the town to be bombarded by five mortars, while eight
siege guns fired on the walls until a breach was made.
When this had been done Unna surrendered. Turenne
occupied Hamm and several other places, including
Soest, the Imperial troops retreating before him, and
then he resolved to pursue the enemy and to take pos-
session of all the towns in Westphalia belonging to the
elector.

That winter was very severe in the Westphalian
Highlands. The country was mountainous with
narrow valleys, and in most cases there were fortified
passes in these valleys which had to be forced, an
operation which Turenne always effected with success.
When his army was passing slowly through one un-
defended pass, Turenne, exhausted by fatigue and
anxiety, lay down to take a short sleep behind a bush,
although snow was falling heavily. Some soldiers,
seeing him lying exposed to the weather, cut down
branches of trees, stuck the ends into the ground, and,
laying their cloaks upon them, made a sort of hut to
shelter him. Their well-meant exertions woke him
up, and he asked them what they were doing. "W^e
want to take care of our father, " they replied, "for if we
should lose him, who would lead us back again to our
own country?"

Throughout this long march — for a very long march
it proved to be, in a difficult country and in terrible
weather — Turenne, as his historian tells us, ''was



i673 ^T. 62] NAPOLEON'S PRAISE 317

present everywhere, and supported his soldiers under
their fatigue by sharing it ". He chased the Imperial
armies from post to post, and drove them out of West-
phalia into the Bishopric of Hildesheim, which was a
little south of Hanover. The Imperialists then moved
still farther east ; but were there opposed somewhat un-
expectedly. The Dukes of Brunswick, Wolfenblittel,
and Lunenburg-Zell did not fancy being involved in a
war in which they took no interest, or having hungry
troops overrunning their territories ; so they blockaded
the valley which served as the main entrance to their
dukedoms with 12,000 men. This left the Imperialists
and their allies no alternative but to divide and retreat.
Towards the end of March the Grand Elector of
Brandenburg made off to Berlin, his capital, and the
Emperor's troops retired into Franconia, or what is
now the north-western part of Bavaria.

Napoleon gives unqualified praise to Turenne's
winter campaign in 1672-73. "The Marshal," he says,
"made longer marches in this campaign than in the
preceding one. During the winter of 1672-73, he
marched from the Lower Rhine to the Weser, braving
the frosts of the Northern regions. ist. He saved
the Elector of Cologne and the Archbishop of Miinster,
the King's allies, 2nd. He defeated the Prussian
army, and compelled the Grand Elector to detach
himself from the Emperor and to make his peace.
He therefore made good use of his time and turned
his forced marches and severe fatigues to good
account."



3i8 MARSHAL TURENNE [1673

Having no longer any enemy to fight, Turenne
returned to Soest, in the Duchy of Marck, and placed
the Westphalian territories that belonged to the elector
at the discretion of his troops, a discretion of which
they availed themselves very freely. "They found
there abundance of provisions, put all under contri-
bution, and enriched themselves. The Viscount was
the only man who did not make advantage of the spoils
of the enemy, and evidenced throughout the whole of
this famous expedition a disinterestedness as great as
his valour."^ A certain o-eneral suoraested to Turenne
a method by which he could obtain for himself 400,000
livres in fifteen days, without any possibility of dis-
covery by his Government. " I am very much obliged
to you," said Turenne, "but as I have often had
opportunities of the same nature without ever taking
advantage of them, I think I ought not to change my
line of conduct, at the age of sixty-two," Near the
place where this occurred the inhabitants of a large
city offered to give him 100,000 crowns if he would
not march through it. " You need offer me no money,"
said Turenne, "for I do not intend to lead my army
through your city."

In this campaign Turenne had a young English-
man of the age of twenty-three among his officers ;
namely that John Churchill who became one of the
most famous of Encrlish generals and was created
Duke of Marlborough. Turenne used to call him
"the handsome Englishman". In the course of the
^ Ramsay.



i673 ^T. 62] A TREATY 319

campaign a column of the enemy attacked and captured
an outpost from which a French colonel retired without
fighting. Turenne made a wager that " the handsome
Englishman" would retake it with half the number of
men that had been under the command of the French
colonel, and he won his bet. In his Life of Marl-
boi^ough Lord Wolseley calls Turenne Marlborough's
"tutor in war" (vol. i., p. 146).

The Grand Elector of Brandenburg, alarmed at
the successes of Turenne, and not considering himself
safe even in Berlin, offered to make terms with France.
After some negotiations a treaty was signed, on the
loth of April, by which the Grand Elector renounced
his alliance with Holland and all the enoraorements into

o o

which he had entered against the interests of France,
and promised to remain neutral for the future. The
King of France, by the same treaty, agreed to restore
to the elector Wesel and all the towns in Cleves, which
had been retained for many years by the States-
General, as well as all the fortresses belonging to the
elector which Turenne had taken in Westphalia.

Leaving Westphalia, Turenne went south through
the Duchy of Berg, and thence south-east through
Hesse-Darmstadt, encamping in the beginning of
June, 1673, at Wetzlar, near Frankfurt, so as to be
in readiness to prevent the Emperor's troops from
advancing to the Rhine, which he had reason to
believe was their intention.

Meanwhile Louis XIV. entered Brabant with an
army of 40,000 men, and, with 7,000 more, for which



320 MARSHAL TURENNE [1673

he sent to Turenne, he invested Maestricht and took
it, on the 23rd of June, thirteen days after opening the
trenches. It was in this siege, which was engineered
by Vauban, that parallels were used for the first time
in Europe, although they had already been employed
by Italian engineers, in the service of the Turks before
Candia. Conde advanced against Utrecht, but his
operations were frustrated by a further flooding of the
country. The King then left Conde with an army
of 20,000 men to keep watch on Flanders, and pro-
ceeded himself to the frontiers of the Empire.

The 7,000 men borrowed from Turenne returned
to him after the fall of Maestricht. He remained at
Wetzlar till the 14th of August, and the surrounding
country inevitably suffered during its long occupation
by idle troops. Cases of disorder committed by the
soldiers, in neutral territory, were complained of by
German princes in communications with the King of
France. Louvois wrote sternly to Turenne, requiring
him to keep his men under stricter discipline. Turenne
replied that the country was suffering as little as any
country could possibly suffer when occupied by a
strange army. As a matter of fact, the valley of the
Main got off lightly in comparison with the district of
Treves, which was occupied by the army of the King
himself, a district which suffered such ill-treatment that
its elector bitterly complained to the Diet of the miseries
endured by his country at the hands of the army of
Louis XIV.

On the 30th of August a fresh alliance was made,



i673 ^T. 62] NAARDEN RETAKEN 321

at the Hague, between the United Provinces, the
Emperor, Spain and the Duke of Lorraine against
France. Certain conditions were made by Spain, but
they scarcely concern the history of Turenne. The
Emperor collected an army of 30,000 men in Bohemia,
and placed them under the command of Montecuculi,
who had now completely recovered his health. A little
later the armies of the Elector of Saxony and the Duke
of Lorraine joined him with 10,000 men, bringing up
the force to 40,000. To oppose this army, Turenne
had a force, including the troops of Munster and
Cologne, amounting to only 20,000, but he had hopes
of being joined by the troops of the Elector of Bavaria ;
hopes, however, which were destined to be grievously
disappointed.

The prospects of Louis XIV. were much clouded
by his having followed the advice of Louvois to garrison
the fortresses he had taken, thus seriously reducing his
armies in the field, instead of following the advice of
both Turenne and Conde to demolish all, but some half-
dozen, of the fortresses, and to keep his soldiers for
active use in his campaigns.

The Prince of Orange gained a success in Hol-
land by retaking Naarden. Dupas, its governor, sur-
rendered it sooner than the French military regulations
permitted, and the King ordered him to be sentenced
to death. On hearing of this Turenne, who knew
Dupas to be a brave man, interceded for him, and
obtained remission of the death sentence as well as

the King's consent that he should serve as a volun-
21



322 MARSHAL TURENNE [1673

teer at Grave, where he died nobly, at the siege of
that town.

Being anxious to drive Montecuculi from the
country bordering on the Rhine, Turenne asked for re-
inforcements, but Louvois, in the name of the King,
refused them. The friction between the Marshal and
the Minister of War increased until it became a quarrel.
Turenne represented that many of his men had deserted,
that his English and Irish contingents were gradually
disappearing, and that his soldiers were ill and dying
from want of food. To these representations Louvois
paid no attention, and Turenne was suffering more now
from want of reinforcements than he had suffered from
the same cause even in the days of Mazarin.

Montecuculi, with his allied armies of 40,000 men,
advanced towards Nuremberg, from whence it was open
to him either to march south-west to the Upper
Rhine and invade Alsace, or to proceed north to the
Lower Rhine and effect a junction with the Prince of
Orange.

Although his enemy possessed double his own
numbers, Turenne, who was now at Aschaffenberg,
was in a good position to prevent Montecuculi from
marching to the north, as he had fortified all the passes
on the Main, and had obtained a promise of strict
neutrality from the Bishop of Wiirzburg. Monte-
cuculi remained inactive, and Turenne, after waiting
some time, advanced to meet him. He passed the
river Tauber, at Marienthal, a place with which we
are already well acquainted, and he found the Imperial



\67Z JET. 62] DECEPTION



323



army encamped near Rottenburg. With forces of
only half the strength of those of Montecuculi, Turenne
had no desire for a pitched battle, for its own sake ;
but he was anxious to block the way to the Rhine, and
to block it in the place where it might be easiest for an
inferior force to make a successful stand against a
superior.

Montecuculi wished to avoid an action, to o-ive
Turenne the slip, to hurry to the north-west and to
effect a junction with the Prince of Orange ; but, even
with his numerical superiority, he had no fancy for
fighting rearguard actions throughout a long march.
To conceal his intentions, he began to put his first line
in order of battle, as if preparing for a general action ;
and Turenne did the same. Meanwhile Montecuculi
made his second line file off, with all its transports, to
the rear, under the concealment of a neiofhbourino-
mountain. Turenne had not long drawn up his army
in battle formation when, to his surprise, he saw his
opponent's army filing off. He immediately pursued
it, attacked its rear, and captured some stores and
ammunition, yet without succeeding in bringing on a
general engagement. His enemy having escaped him,
he encamped upon high ground, beside a Carthusian
monastery, while Montecuculi took up a position be-
hind the morasses between Wurzburg and Oschen-
furth. The two armies remained near each other for
a fortnight, and then Montecuculi, who had privately
induced the Prince Bishop of Wurzburg to break his

promise of neutrality to Turenne, quiedy led his troops

31 *



324 MARSHAL TURENNE [1673

away to Wiirzburg and marched them by its bridge
over the river Main. The perfidy of the Prince Bishop
thus enabled Montecuculi to make himself master of
the right bank of the Main, from Wiirzburg to Wer-
theim, where he seized an immense quantity of provi-
sions which had been collected there for the use of
Turenne's army. This completely upset all Tur-
enne's designs, and there was nothing left for him
to do but to march down the left bank of the Main.
While he was doing this, in October, he was slightly
encouraged by receiving a reinforcement of 4,000
men.

The whole aspect of the war was now altered.
The Prince of Orange, hoping to meet Montecuculi,
marched with 25,000 men up the left bank of the
Rhine and invested Bonn, while Montecuculi marched
down the right bank of the Main as far as Mayence.
The Dutch and the Imperial armies were now within
eighty miles of each other. By crossing the bridge at
Wiirzburg so unexpectedly, and before Turenne had
been aware of it, Montecuculi had stolen such a march
upon him that he had reached Mayence by the north
bank of the Main when Turenne had only got as far
as Miltemburg, a place by the river's bank and on the
south of it, some sixty miles short of Mayence. By
forced marches Montecuculi could probably have joined
the Prince of Orange at Bonn before Turenne could have
caught him up ; but he was too wise a general to run
unnecessary risks, and he determined to practise a
further deception on Turenne before proceeding. He



i673 ^T. 62] OUTWITTED 325

therefore selected a place on the Rhine, where there
was an Island, made a bridge to the island, and then a
flying bridge from the island to the opposite side. As
soon as it would bear horses to pass in single file, he
began to send his cavalry across it to the west bank,
as if he intended to march into Alsace.

News of this was at once conveyed to Turenne, as
Montecuculi wished that it should be. Turenne had,
from the first, expected Montecuculi to attack Alsace
and Lorraine, which were almost undefended, unless
indeed Conde had already returned from Holland to
Alsace, which seemed doubtful. Accordingly, so soon
as he heard that Montecuculi was crossing the Rhine
and pointing for Lorraine, Turenne left the river Main


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