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A cannon-ball put an end to so glorious a life : a death
to be desired (since death is unavoidable) by so great
a man. His loss was lamented by all Frenchmen, re-
gretted by all people unbiassed by interest : his person
was praised by his enemies, his virtue was admired
by all the world."

The President, at the opening of the French
Parliament in 1675, said of Turenne: "Insensible to
gain and recompense, he delighted in nothing but
making others happy. Far from heaping up treasures
in the command of armies, he often borrowed consider-
able sums to distribute among the soldiers : forgetting



392 MARSHAL TURENNE [1675

his own private interests : he never exercised those
rights of enriching himself, which the customs of war
have legalised for Generals."

The King made Conde leave his army in
Flanders to take the command vacated by the death
of Turenne. " How much I wish," said Conde to
one of his officers, "that I could have conversed only
two hours with the ghost of Monsieur de Turenne, so
as to be able to follow the scope of his ideas. "^

As all human lives end in death, the endings of all
stories of human lives are necessarily somewhat gloomy ;
and the gloom is intensified when the authors wind up
with funeral sermons. It is almost inevitable to do so
in the present instance; but although the sermons
themselves are long, the extracts to be given from
them shall be short.

In a funeral oration the Abbot Fl^chier, Bishop
of Nimes, said: "To begin battles by prayer, to re-
strain impiety and blasphemy, to protect holy persons
and holy things from the insolence and avarice of the
soldiers, to invoke the Lord of Hosts in all dangers, is
the duty and the ordinary care of all Generals. But
[Turenne] went further ; even when he commanded the
troops, he looked upon himself as a soldier of Jesus

1 Letter of Madame de Sdvigne, 26th August, 1675. In a
letter to Louvois, written from Alsace, Conde says : " My health is so
uncertain that I much dread its failing me, particularly if the cold
sets in before the end of the autumn ". He did little but act on
the defensive, though so successfully that the enemy, after two
months, retired to the east of the Rhine. This was Conde's
last campaign.



i675] BOSSUET 393

Christ : he sanctified the wars by the purity of his
intentions, the desire of a happy peace, and the laws of
a Christian discipline. He considered the soldiers as
his brethren and thought himself obliged to exercise
charity in a cruel profession, where even common
humanity is often forgotten. Being animated by such
great motives, he surpassed himself and made it appear
that courage becomes firmer when it is supported by
religious principles, and that a warrior is invincible
when he fights in Faith and offers pure hands to the
God of battles who guides them."

The next and last quotation, very freely rendered,
is from a funeral oration, not on Turenne, but on
Cond^ ; ^ but, as these two great generals have so often
figured together in the preceding pages, a contrast
drawn between them, by the celebrated historian and
orator, Bossuet, Bishop of Meaux, may possibly prove
of interest.

" It has been the wonder of our age to behold, at

1 When Conde had retired from the army soon after Turenne's
death and went to live at Chantilly, Voltaire says {Siecle de Louis
XIV., chapter ii.), " he very rarely came to Versailles. . . . He
passed the remainder of his days, tormented with the gout, reliev-
ing the severity of his pains, and employing the leisure of his re-
treat, in the conversation of men of genius of all kinds, with which
France then abounded. He was worthy of their conversation ;
as he was not unacquainted with any of those arts and sciences in
which they shone. . . . Having consumed the strength of his
body, which was naturally rather agile than robust, he declined
before his time ; and the strength of his mind decaying with that
of his body, there remained nothing of the great Conde during the
last two years of his life." He died at the age of sixty-six.



394 MARSHAL TURENNE [1675

the same time and in the same campaigns, two men
whom the common voice of all Europe considers equal
to the greatest Generals of antiquity, sometimes at the
head of separate bodies, sometimes united more by a
concurrence of sentiments than by the orders which
the inferior received from the superior : sometimes op-
posed front to front and mutually redoubling the
activity and vigilance of each other, as if it had been
the will of God to let us see them in all points of view
and to show us at the same time all that great warriors
can do. What fine encampments! What splendid
marches ! What bold attempts ! What wise pre-
cautions ! What terrible dangers ! What astute strata-
gems! Were there ever seen in two men the same
virtues with so different, not to say contrary characters ? "
And now let us take the liberty of substituting their
own names for "the one" and "the other" of pulpit
phraseology.

"Turenne seemed to act from profound reflection
and Conde from sudden illuminations : the latter being
consequently the most active yet without being pre-
cipitate : the former being the most deliberate yet
without being dilatory. On first entering the army,
Turenne had certainly shown courage and promise,
but he had advanced gradually and by degrees to his
perfect mastership of the art of war : Conde, on the
contrary, had seemed, from his first battle, to be in-
spired with the perfection of military skill. By brisk
and unceasing efforts, Turenne compelled the admira-
tion of mankind and silenced envy : whereas envy,



i675] BOSSUET 395

dazzled by the brilliance of Cond^, had never dared
to attack him. Turenne by the profundity of his genius
and by the inexhaustibility of his courage, rose above
the greatest dangers, and could even make profit out
of the faithlessness of fortune : Conde, by the superi-
ority of his birth, the brilliance of his warlike inspira-
tions, and his wonderful military instinct, seemed
destined by nature to enslave fortune and to dictate
to fate."

"And, as if we were intended always to see differ-
ences in the circumstances as well as in the characters
of these two great men, Conde was raised like David,
to the highest pinnacle of glory and, like David, he
died in his bed, praising God, exhorting his family
and impressing all by the lustre of his life and by the
peacefulness of his death. Turenne, on the other
hand, died a violent death on the battlefield, shed his
blood for his fatherland, was mourned by his King
and by his country, and left a name for faith in God
and for courage in war, which will never fade from
the memory of mankind."



INDEX



Abre, Marquis d', 326-7, 334.
Achenheim, 348, 355.
Adolphus, Gustavus, 3, 42, 107.
Aix-la-Chapelle, Peace of, 281.
Albert, Marshal d', 300.
Alessandria, 34.
Altenheim, 379.
Amsterdam, 305, 308.
Anne of Austria, wife of Louis

XIII., 33>34» S^seq., i^g seq.,

158, 186, 20^ seq., 268; death,

279.
Antoine, battle of the Faubourg

St., 185 seq.
Ardres, 256.
Armentieres, 280.
Arras, 223 seq., 269.
Aschaffenberg, 322.
Asti, 34.

Aubigni, M. d', 285.
Augsburg, 106 seq.

Bacharach, 78, lOO-I.

Balzac, Honor6 de, 3.

— Louis Guez de, 3.

Bar-le-Duc, 206 seq.

Bastille, the, 185 seq.

Bavaria, Duke of, 59, 103, io5;

112, 121, 123.
Beaufort, Duke of, 55, 148, 151,

158 seq.; his duel, 193 seq..

294-
Beaulieu, M., 284.
Beauvau, Marquis of, 106 seq.
Belfortj 360-1.

Bellefonds, Marshal de, 299.
Bergamesco, F. Z., 30.
Berthet, 155.
Binche, 280,
Bleneau, 160.



Bois-le-Duc, g.

Bonn, 325-6.

Bossuet, 287.

Bouillon, Duchess of, 5-11.

— Frederick Maurice, Duke of,

9, 25, 58, 130 seq., 149 seq.,
153 seq., 187, 196-7.

— Henry de la Tour, Duke of, 4-

7-

— Duchess of (wife of Frederick),

138.
Bournonville, Duke of, 309 seq.,

331 seq., 342 seq., 348 seq.
Brandenburg, Grand Elector of,

301 seq., 345, 356, 359, 370.
Breisach, 23, 62 seq., 312, 375.
Brevin, M., 283-4.
Briare, 160.
Bristol, Lord, 276.
Brunswick, Duke of, 317, 378.
Brussels, 267.
Biihl, 385.

Cambrai, 243, 253, 257.

Cambresis, 238.

Caprara, Count, 331 seq., 353, 381

seq.
Caracena, Marshal, 245 seq.
Cardinal Infant of Spain, 23 seq.
Castelnau, M. de, 228, 241-2.
Caumont, Arrnandde N. de, Duke

de la Force, 13, 210.

— Charlotte de. See Turenne,

Mme. de.
Chapelle, La, 250.
Charenton, 182 seq.
Charles II. of England, 177 seq.,

273, 329-

— of Spain, 279.
Chevreuse, Duchess of, 138, 152.



397



398



INDEX



Chevreuse, Mile, de, 138, 152.

— Duke of, 150.

Churchill, John, afterwards Duke

of Marlborough, 318-9, 351.
Cinq-Mars, Duke of, 32.
Conde, Prince Henri de, 54.

— Louis de Bourbon (The Great),

birth, 3 ; cruelty as a boy, 8 ;
early campaigns, 9-13 ; char-
acter, 14 seq.; appearance,
65 ; battle of Rocroi, 67 ; battle
of Freiburg, 69 seq. ; battle of
Nordlingen, 87 seq.; quarrel
with Mazarin, 133 ; arrest,
134; release 149; 152; heads
the Spanish Fronde, 153 seq.;
Bleneau, 160 seq. ; battle of St.
Antoine, -lSi seq. ; Villeneuve
St. Georges, 197 seq., 207
seq.; campaign of 1653, 211
seq. ; relief of Arras, 228 seq. ;
relief of Valenciennes, 24I
seq. ; quarrel with Turenne,
242 ; campaign of 1657, 253
seq. ; battle of the Dunes, 257
seq. ; reconciled to the Court,
293 ; 304 ; wounded, 305 ; in
Alsace, 309 ; 312; 327; 330;
battle of Seneff, 341 ; 392-5-

— Princess of, 57.

Conti, Prince of, 134, 220, 289.
Crequi, Marshal de, 299.
Cromwell, Oliver, 244, 252, 257,
268.

DiNKELSBULH, 86.

Donauworth, 87.
Douay, 224-5, 238, 280.
Dunes, battle of, 260 seq.
Dunkirk, 211 seq., 274.
Dupas, Governor, 321.
Duplessis, M. de, 286.
Dutlingen, 59.

Elbceuf, Duke of, 387, 389.
Emperor Ferdinand, 11, ig, 61.

— Leopold, 309, 328.
Empire, the, 60.

Enghien, Duke of. See Conde.

— Duke, son of the above, 304.
Ensheim, battle of, 348 seq.
;6tampes, 167 seq.



Fargeau, St., 165.
Fenwick, Colonel, 262.
Ferdinand. See Emperor.
Ferte, Marquis de la, 140, 175,

183, 190, 195, 202, 208, 217

seq., 227 seq.
Force, Marshal de la. See Cau-

mont.
Fort Kell, 376.

Foucault, General, 353-4, 363.
Francis de Sales, St., 3.
Frankfurt, loi.
Freiburg, 69 seq.
Freistett, 378-9.
Friedburg, loi seq.
Fronde, the, 127 seq.
Fuensaldagne, Count, 206, 208

seq.
Furnes, 267.

Galas, General, 20 seq.
Gamhurst, 384.
Glein, General, 91 seq., 95.
Gloucester, Duke of, 261.
Grammont, Count Philibert 35,

231-2.
— Duke of, 90, 300.
Grandpre, 250.

Gravelines, 211, 256, 267, 269.
Grignan, M. de, 2S9.
Guislain, St., 242.

Hagenau, 345, 357, 361.

Ham, 243.

Hamilton, Count, 381, 387.

Hamm, 315.

Harcourt, Count, 27 seq., 36.

Heidelberg, 77.

Henrietta, Queen of England, 179.

Hesse-Cassel, the Landgravine of,

80.
Hilaire, St., 388-9.
Hinton, Major, 262.
Hockenheim, 331.
Hocquincourt, Marquis of, 141,

144, 157 seq., 223 seq., 243 seq. ;

death, 259.
Hohenloe, Count, 344.
Holtzheim, 348, 349, 356.
Humieres, Marshal d', 299.

Ingolstadt, 124.



INDEX



399



Jargeau, 158 seq.
John of Austria, Don, 245 seq., 253
seq.

KiMBERLEY, 227-

Kinzig, 375 seq.
Konigsmark, 85 seq., 123.

Ladysmith, 227.

Landau, 76, 374.

Landsberg, 109 seq.

Landregies, 22, 269.

Lauingen, no seq.

Leganez, General, 29 seq.

Lens, 269.

Leopold, Archduke, 96 seq., 102

seq., 137, 213 seq., 226 seq.
Lignes, Prince of, 281.
Ligny, Prince, 255.
Lille, 280-1.
Lockhart, 258.
Longueville, Duchess of, 137 seq.,

150, 220, 289.

— Duke of, 134, 150.

— Duke of, son of the above,

304-5-
Lorges, Count, 362.
Louis XIII., I, II, 13-24, 25; death,

32.

— XIV., birth, 26; Conde's plot

to capture him, 158; battle
of St. Antoine, 186; enters
Paris, 205 seq. ; marriage,
271 ; takes the reins of
Government into his own
hands on the death of Maza-
rin, 274-6 ; claims the Low
Countries in right of his
Queen, 279. His great pre-
parations for war, 282 ; hatred
of the Dutch, 2945^(7. ; enters
Brabant, 319 ; follows bad ad-
vice of Louvois, 321 ; conver-
sations with Turenne, 326 ;
unpopularity with other na-
tions, 329 ; 342; death of Tu-
renne, 390-2.

Lourdes, 270.

Louvois, Marquis of, 280, 301, 313,
320 seq., 327, 333, 342, 358.

Maestricht, 301, 303, 320.
Maigrin, Marquis of St., 188.



Mannheim, 77-8.

Mardyck, 211, 256.

Maria Theresa, Queen of Louis

XIV., 269, 271, 279.
Marie de' Medici, Queen of France,

II seq.
Marienthal, battle of, 79 5^(7.,

322.
Marlborough, Duke of. See

Churchill.
Marsin, Count of, 281.
Martinet, General, 302.
Mayence, 76-8, 99, 312, 324.

— Elector of, 312.

Mazarin, Cardinal Giulio, 54 ;
character, 57 seq. ; his offers
to Turenne, 98; 105; 115;
anxious for peace, 126 ; block-
ades Paris, 129 ; letter to
Turenne, 131 ; 141-6 ; 157 ;
worries Turenne at battle of
St. Antoine, 187 ; retires to
Bouillon, 197 ; prolongs a
campaign cruelly to the army,
208-9 ; Peace of the Pyrenees
and marriage of Louis XIV.
with Infanta of Spain, 268
seq. ; death, 274-5.

— Cardinal Michel, 113 11.
Meiningen, 107 seq.
Melander, General, 122.
Mercy, Gaspard von, 62.

— General von, 62-92.
Mergentheim. See Marienthal.
Michel, St., 208.

Middleton, Lord, 267.
Monck, General, 285.
Montbazon, Duchess of, 138,

154-
Montecalvo, 31.
Montecuculi, General, 123 seq.,

314, 320-8, 370-89.
Montmedy, 254.
Montpensier Mile, de, 168 seq.,

176, 191-2, 195.
Motte, La, 12.
Motteville, Mme. de, 149.
Moussaye, Count, 140, 154.
Mouzon, 2ig, 221, 222.
Muiden, 307.

Munich, 105, in, 123, 124.
Miinster, Bishop of, 301, 313, 315,

329, 370-



400



INDEX



Naarden, 305-6, 321.
Nantouillet, Marquis of, 188.
Nassau, Henry, Prince of, 9.

— Maurice, Prince of, g, 372.
Nemours, Duke of, 135, 155, 158

seq.; duel and death, 193 seq.
Neustadt, 336, 374.
Nimes, Bishop of, 290.
Nimwegen, 305-6.
Nordlingen, battle of, 87 seq.
Nuremberg, 79, 322.

Oberhausbergen, 373.

Offenburg, 376 seq.

Orange, Henry, Prince of, 9, 35.

— William, Prince of, 299 seq.,

321, 324-5, 341, 370.
Oratory, the, 369-70.
Orleans, 168 seq.

— Gaston, Duke of, 26, 54, 157,

168, 180 seq. ; scene with De
Retz, 203-5 ; death, 273.

— Henrietta, Duchess of, 273,

295-8.

— Philip, Duke of, 273.
Ormonde, 267.
Oschenfurth, 323.
Ottenheim, 375 seq.
Oudenarde, 267, 280.

Palatine, Elector, 312, 339.

— Princess, 138, 143, 155.
Peronne, 217, 243.

Philip IV. of Spain, 19, 271 ; death

of, 277.
Philippsburg, 75-6, 118 seq., 331,

340> 374-
Plessis Praslin, General, 142 seq.,

205 n, 300.
Port Arthur, 227.
Portugal, King of, 276-7.
Prague, 124.

Quentin, St., 217.
Quesnoy, 238, 241, 249.

Rain, 106 seq.

Rakoczy, Prince, 328.

Ratisbon, 124.

Rethel, 142 seq., 211, 212.

Retz, Cardinal de, 37, 128 seq.,

152, 155, 203, 205 seq., 289,

37I-



Reynac, General, 24.

Richelieu, Cardinal, 2, 10-12, 19

seq., 24; death, 31-2, 55, 58,

61.
Rochefoucauld, Duke of, 135, 139,

140, 147.
Rocroi, 67, 211, 219, 221.
Rosen, General, 81 seq., 115 seq.
Rottenburg, 80.
Royer, General, 107.

Sasbach, battle of, 385 seq.
Saverne, 21, 331, 345, 357, 361.
Savoy, Christine, Duchess of, 27.
Saxe-Weimar, Bernard, Duke of,

19-23. 36, 59-
Saxony, Duke of, 321.
Schertzheim, 378.
Schomberg, Count, 175, 273, 330.
Sedan, 4, 5, 219, 284.
Sevigne, Mme., 289.
Sintzheim, battle of, 332 seq.
Sobre-sur-Sambres, 22.
Soest, 315.

Solis, Fernando de, 228 seq.
Spires, 76, 79.
Stenay, 137, 219, 223 seq.
Strasburg, 125, 312, 343 seq., 347,

348. 356, 372 seq.
Sweden, Queen of, 93, 125-6.

Tavannes, General, 164, 171 seq.,
202.

Tellier, 365.

Temple, Sir W., 281.

Thomas, Prince, zgseq., 33.

Tott, General du, 207.

Traci, De, 116.

Treves, 98, loi, 311.

Trino, 33 seq.

Turckheim, battle of, 362 seq.

Turenne, birth and boyhood, 3-9 ;
joins the army in Holland, 9 ;
goes to Paris, 11 ; campaigns
under La Valette, 20 seq. ;
campaigns in Italy, 28-35 ;
only known occasion of show-
ing fear, 37 ; battle of Frei-
burg, 63 seq. ; battle of Ma-
rienthal, 79 seq. ; battle of
Nordlingen, 87 seq.; cam-
paign against Bavaria and
the Empire, 1646, 103 seq. ;



INDEX



401



a mutiny, 115 sw/.; campaign
of 1648 in Bavaria, 122 seq. ;
Turenne and the Fronde, 131
seq. ; joins the Fronde, 136
seq.; his gallantries, 138-9;
Mme. de Longueville, 139 ;
battle of Rethel, 143 seq.;
return to loyalty and serving
under the King, 154 ; Jargeau,
159; Bleneau, ibo seq. ; his
tomb at St. Denis, 133 foot-
note ; operations before £t-
ampes, 167 seq.; Villeneuve
St. Georges, 177 ; battle of
St. Antoine, 181 seq.; opera-
tions at Villeneuve St.
Georges, second time, ig8
seq.; marriage, 210; cam-
paign of 1653, 211 seq. ; relief
of Arras, 223 seq. ; relief of
Valenciennes, 241 seq. ; quar-
rel with Conde, 242 ; cam-
paign of 1657, 253 ; battle of
the Dunes, 257 seq. ; offered
the Constableship, 271 ; Mile,
de Montpensier, 276-7 ; death
of his wife, 278 seq. ; cam-
paign of 1667, 280 seq. ; be-
comes a Catholic, 283 seq. ;
stories of his quiet life in
Paris, 291 ; in love without
knowing it, 296 ; campaign
against Holland, 1672, 301
seq.; campaign of 1673, 315
seq. ; campaign of 1674, 329
seq. ; blamed for allowing his
troopsto ravagethePalatinate,
337 ; battle of Ensheim, 349 ;
a masterly retreat, 356 ;
criticised in Paris, 358-g ;
brilliant manoeuvre to reach
Southern Alsace, 360 seq. ;
battle of Turckheim, 362 ;



return to Paris, 369 ; cam-
paign of 1675, 371 seq. ; battle
of Sasbach, 386 ; death, 388.

Turenne, Mme. de, 210, 278-9.

Turin, siege of, 29.

Ulm, 109.

Unna, siege of, 315.

Valenciennes, relief of, 241 seq.
Valette, Cardinal de la, 36 seq.
Vallon, General, 202.
Vauban, S. le Prestre de, 52, 282,

320.
Venant, St., 254-5.
Vendome, Duke of, 55.
Villeneuve St. Georges, 177 seq.,

197 seq.
Villeroy, Marshal de, 300.
Voltaire, 288.

Wanzenau, 347.

Wert, John de, 83, 92.

Wertheim, 324.

Wetzlar, 320-1.

Wiesloch, 331.

Willstadt, 375 seq.

Witt, Cornelius de, 298-9, 308.

— John de, 298-9, 308.
Wolfenbuttel, 317.
Worms, 76, 94-5.

Wrangel, General, io2 seq., 370,
Wiirzburg, 323 seq.

— Bishop of, 322 seq.



York, Duke of,

seq.
Ypres, 267, 283.
Yvr6e, 31.



[74 seq., 235, 260



Zabern. See Saverne.
Zell, Duke of Luneburg-, 317.
Zusmerhausen, 122.



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