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Thomas May.

The pottery found at Silchester : a descriptive account of the pottery recovered during the excavations on the site of the Romano-British city of Calleva Atrebatum at Silchester, Hants., and deposited in the Reading Museum online

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THE POTTERY FOUND
AT SILCHESTER



COUNTY BOROUGH OF READING.
MUSEUM AND ART GALLERY.
(SILCHESTER DEPARTMENT).



THE POTTERY FOUND
AT SILCHESTER

A DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF THE POTTERY
RECOVERED DURING THE EXCAVATIONS
ON THE SITE OF THE ROMANO-BRITISH
CITY OF CALLEVA ATREBATUM AT
SILCHESTER, HANTS., AND DEPOSITED
I \ I' II E R E A DIN G MIS I. I M.

BY

THOMAS .MAY, F.S.A. (Scot.)




Kl IDING

i POYNDER \\l> SON, HOLYBROOK PRESS, GUN STREET.

I916.



I\*T

5"






PREFACE.

The principal aim of the excavations carried out by the Society
of Antiquaries on the site of the Romano-British city at Silchester
during the years i<Suo 1909 was the recovery oi the ground-plan
of the city, and proof of the successful completion of this purpose

is afforded by tin reports, plans, and illustrations which have
appeared in hc/ueologia. 'These reports do not include any
special account of the pottery, coins, metal, hone, glass, stone and
other portable objects, which have been deposited by their noble
owner, His Grace the Duke of Wellington, K..G., in the Municipal
.Museum at Reading, and form a well known and important collec-
tion for students of Roman antiquities. Such accounts were held
over to be dealt with section by section, and when invited some
time ago to prepare a descriptive account of the pottery 1 at once
took the work in hand. On the completion of the work the
manuscript and drawings were submitted to the Museum and Art
Gallery Committee, who recommended them to the Council for
publication, and to the Corporation of Reading we are indebted
for their issue' in present form.

Special thanks are due to Mr. T. W. Colyer, the Superintendent

of the Museum, for constant co-operation, and to Mr. Mill

Stephenson, F.S.A., one of the I Ionorarv Curators ot the Silchester

Department, for much valuable aid in the revision ot proofs, and

verification ol references.

T. M.



January, 1916.



6 63696



TABLE OK CONTENTS.



Preface

Tabli "i Contents

List of Plates . .

Types of Vessels

LlSI "I \i i horities . .

Glossary

Introduction . .

Terra Sigillata, Arreting and Imitations

Terra Sum. lata, Provincial, Embossed :

bowls 29
bowls 30
bowls 37
,, ,, ,, roulette-notched

,, ,, ,, beakers, forms 64, 67, 68, 78

,, ,, Provincial, Smooth

,, ,, otherwise Ornamented :

,, ,, with moulded and applied reliefs

,, ,, decorated en barbotine

,, „ with incised decoration

„ ,, Maine ware

,, ,, marbled ware

Enamelled or Lead-Glazed Ware . .

Varnished Ware

White Figurines

Black Slip-Gi \zi d Beakers en barbotine

Black Slip-Glazed Ware, Painted :

,, ,, ,, ,, motto beakers

,, ,, ,, ,, painted beakers

,, ,, „ ,, fluted or indented

beakers
Coloured Slip-Coated, Graphite-Coated, Bronzi



laked, Painted vnd Stamped Wares

black slip-coated beakers, indented
black slip-coated Castor ware-
hand lamps and holders . .
candlesticks
rough cast, etc.
bronze-flaked and micaceous
graphite-coated, etc.
strainers, unguent pots, etc.
smooth colour-coated jugs, etc



in
v

vii

x

xi

xiv

1

6
•4
'5
42

5 1

84

86
88

95
95
96

97

99

100

100
101
102
103
104

io 5
106

106

106
106
107

1 10

1 1 1
1 1 1
114
116
118
120



VI.



SlLCHESTER POTTERY.



Coloured Slip-coated, Graphite-Coated, Bronze

Flaked, Painted and Stamped Wares (continued):
,, ,, stamped, roulette-notched and indented

bulbous beakers
money-pot found at Reading
painted (colour-coated and white clay)

beakers, cups, etc.
white clay vessels painted with brown-red

ochre
red-coated, painted and roulette-notched

bowls, etc.
rosette-stamped ware
New Forest ware
Plain Clay Vessels :

,, ,, ,, white clay vessels of fine texture

lagenae

flagons, etc

,, ,, ,, one-handled flagons

honey-pots, etc.
,, ,, ,, mortaria, and basins painted with red

brown stripes
,, ,, ,, fumed grey to black, red and other

coarse wares
,, ,, ,, amphorae fragments

Belgic Terra Nigra
British Gritted Ware
Local Groups :

,, ,, vessels found in pit IX. Insula XXXV

in pit A, Insula XII. . .
,, ,, ,, ,, in pit X. Insula XXXVI

,, ,, wasters from the potters' kilns, etc.

Potters' Stamps :

on Arretine terra sigillata
on Gaulish and German terra sigillata
on Belgic ware
on fifth century ware
on mortaria
on amphorae
Graffiti :

,, on sigillata ware

,, on coarse ware

,, on bricks and tiles

,, various

Potters' Kilns, View and Plan
Tables of Standard Proportions
Index



122
124

124

127

128
129
132
136
136
I 4 I

144
147

150

i54
161

162

177
184
184
186
189
192

i95

i95
199

272

275

275
278

282
282
284
285
286
286
287
305



LIST OF PLATES.



Arretine Terra Sigillai \

,, ,, ,, and Imitations

„ „ Smooth

Types i 7
Types 8-14

Sol I'll ( Iaui.ISH Terra SlGILLATA, BOWLS 29



,, ,, Fragments Form 29

) M i> !> '1 , , .\OS. I

- Nos. 32-
,. Nos. 54
Bowls 30



31

53
68



Central Gaulish Terra Sigillata, Howl 30
South Gaulish Terra Sigillata, etc., Fragments,

Form ;,c
South Gaulish Terra Sigillata, Bowls 37

M »* H * t )> >>

Central Gaulish Terra Sigillata, Howi.s 37



>>


>>


"


!!


))


)!



South and Central Gaulish Terra Sigillata,

Fragments Form 37

Centra] Gaulish Terra Sigillata, ,, Form 37

Central and East Gaulish and Upper German
Terra Sigillata, Fragments Form 37

East Gaulish and Upper (ii rmanTerra Sigillata,

Fragments Form 37



Roulette-Notched Terra Sigillata
Central and South Gaulish Terra Sigillata,

Forms 64, 67, 68, 78

Terra Sigillata, Smooth Types 15 27

,, ,, Types 28 35

Tpyes 36 41

Types 42 45

Terra Sigillata, with Applied Reliefs

,, ,, Decorated en barbotine



I.

IF

III.

IV.
V.

VI.

VII.

VIII.

IX.

X.

XL

XII.

XIII.

XIV.

XV.

XVI.

XVII.

XVIII.

XIX.

XX.

XXI.

XXII.

XXIII.

XXIV.

XXV.
XXVI.



XXVII.

XX VII I.
XXIX.
XXIX.

XXX.

XXXI.

XXXII.

XXXIII.

XXXIV.

XXXV.

XXXVI.



viii. Sii.i in -n r Poi ii hv.

Terra Sigillata, with [ncised Decoration .. XXXVI]

Mahm Wari . . . . . . XXXVIIL

Marbled, vnd Enamelled Ware XXXIX

Varnished Wari vndWhit] Figurines .. XXXIX
Enamelled Wari- Bowl, Graphite-Coated Cups,

vnd Motto Beaker . . . . . .' \|

Ki v< k Si [p-Gi vzed Warj , Ornami nted en

Barbotine . . . . . . Vjj

Bi \( k Slip-Glazed Ware, Painted XI. II

Black Slip-Glazed and Slip-Coated Ware XI, III

Black Slip-Coated \\i> Barbotined Castor Wari XLIV

u" . " n " - " XLV -

HAND-JLAMPS AND ( VNDLESTICKS .. .. .. XLV]

Rough-Cast, Variously Ornamented vnd Winn

Wares . . . . . . ... . . XL VI]

Bronze-Flaked and Micaceous Ware .. .. XI. YIN

Graphite-Coated and Variously Ornamented

Wares, Types 63 <«) . . .. .. XI IX

Colour Coated Ware, Types 70-75 .. .. 1.

.. .» ,, Types 76 82 . . . . u

.. •• •- Types 83 i>o . . . . in

» >, Money-pot found at

Reading . . . . I. III.

.. » Types (m 98 . . . . |.|\

White Clay Vessels Painted with Brown-Red

Ochre . . . . . . I \

Colour Coated Ware, etc., Types 99 104 .. i.yl

Rosette Stamped . . I. VII.

New Forest War] . Types i f> . . I.YIII

lix!

White Clay Ware, Lagenae, I'iiv 10^ n .. i.\.

., .. .. Fragmen is . . . . 1. \|.

One-Handled Flagons .. LXII.

White Clai vnd Buff Flagons .. .. I.XIII.

WhiteClay Ware, Types 119 i^> .. .. I. XIV.

VIortaria, etc., Types 127 140 I.X\'.

Plain Clay Fumed Ware, Types 193 202.. .. LXVI.

Fragments of Amphorae .. .. LXVI]

Belgic Terr v X [gr \ vnd Allied Wares,

Types 141 [49 I XVIII.

I. XIX.

Types 150 i(>^ I. XX.

Ti pes [63 [68 I.X\I

Types 169 173 I. XXII.

Types 174-184 I WIN

Ts pes [85 [92 I XXIV.



List of Plates.



IX.



British Gritted Ware, Types 1-12
Local Groups. Vessels from Pit IX., Insula
XXXV., Types i-io . .
,, ,, Vessels from Pit A, Insula XII.,

Types 1-8
,, ,, Vessels from Pit X., Insula

XXXVI. .Types 1-8 . .
Wasters from the Potters'
Kilns and Types Illustrating
Them
,, Wasters from the Potters' Kilns
Belgic Terra Nigra, Lagena of Atinionus
Black Slip-Glazed Beaker Ornamented en

Barbotine
Potter's Stamps, on Arretine Terra Sigillata . .
,, on Terra Sigillata Bowls,
Form 20
,, ,, on Smooth Terra Sigillata ..

Rosettes
,, ,, on Belgic Ware

Stamped Ornament on Fifth Century Ware
Fragments of Bowl made by the Potter Vitvlvs
Potters' Stamps on Mortaria
., on Amphorae
Graffiti, on Sigillata Ware
,, on Coarse Ware
,, on Brick and Tiles
Fragments of Pottery Scored with Pigmy,

Crane, etc.
Representation of an Ox on a Tile
Stamp of the Emperor Nero on a Tile
View of the Potters' Kilns
Plan of the Potters' Kilns



LXXV.

LXXVI.

LXXVII.

LXXVI II.



LXXIX.
LXXX.



LXXXI.



LXXXII.



LXXXI II.

LXXXIV.

LXXXV.

LXXXVI.

LXXXVII.



LXXXVIII.



For the loan of blocks, plates LXXXI I. c, LXXXVI I. a, and
LXXXVIII., the Committee is indebted to the Society of
Antiquaries of London. Blocks A and B, plate LXXX., are from
photographs by Mr. J. Challenor Smith, F.S.A.



TYPES OF VESSELS.

SE< TION I. ROMAN WAR]

(i) A (;. Types with Coloured coating.

\ I). TERRA SIGILLATA (Red Slip-Gi vzed).

A (a). Arretine, embossed, smooth

and imitations . . . . . . I . V.

I! ill t). Provincial, embossed .. VI. XXX.

C. Provincial, smooth .. .. XXXI. XXXIV.

D (g 1). Variously ornamented .. XXXV. XXXIX. \

I. I . OTHER GLAZED and CLAY-SLIP COATED.

E (a h). Enamelled or lead-glazed and

varnished and white figurines .. XXXIX. i;. XI. .\.
F(a-d). Black slip-glazed .. .. XLI.-XLIII.A.

G (a-j). Clay-slip coated, graphite

coated, bronzed, painted and New

Forest wares .. .. .. XLIII.B. I. IX.

(2) Plain <>r Uncoloured Types (a c).

(a) White clay I.X. I.M

(b) Fumed and other coarse wares .. LXVL

(c) Amphorae LXVII.

SECTION II.
Belgic terra nigra and allied wares .. LXVIII. LXXIV.

SECTION III.
British gritted LXXV.

I 0< \l GROl PS

rn IX.. LateCeltic • LXXVI.

I'n A I XXVII.

rn X I.XWIII

KILN WASTE and SIMILAR TYPES ... LXXIX LXXa



LIST OF AUTHORITIES REFERRED TO AND
ABBREVIATIONS USED :

Altertiimer unserer heidnischen Vorzeit. Articles by P. Reinecke,
K. Schumacher, L. Lindenschmit and F. Behn.

Archa;ologia. — Reports on the excavations on the site of the Roman
city at Sikhester, Hants, 1890-1909, in Archeeologia, vols. LII.
733-758, LIII. 263-288, 539-573, LIV. 199-238, 439-494, LV -
215-256, 409-430, LVI. 103-126, 229-250, LVII. 87-112, 229-
256, LVIII. 17-36, 413 428, LIX. 333 370, LX. 149 168, 431-
450, LXI. 1 19-218, 473-486, LXII. 317-332.

Behn. — Romische Keramik mil Einschluss der hellenistischen
Vorstnfen, by F. Behn. Kataloge des Rom. — germ. Zentral
Museums, no. 2. Mainz, 1910.

Bonn. Jahrb. — Bonner Jahrbiicher. Jahrbiicher des vereins
von altertliitmsfrettnden im Rheinlande.

Bulliot. — Fouilles du Mont Beuvray de 1867-95, by J- G. Bulliot.

C.I.L. — Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, VII. (1S73) anc ^
XIII. (1901).

Cirencester. — Guide to the museum of Roman remains at
Cirencester, by Sir A. H. Church, 10th ed. (1910).

Coll. Antiq. — Collectanea Anttqua, by C. Roach Smith, 1848-88.

Corbridge. — Reports on the excavations at Corstopittim, 1906-13,
in Archasologia Aeliana, 3 series, vols. III. 161-186, IV. 205-303,
V. 305-424, VI. 205-272, VII. 143-267, VIII. 137-263, IX.
230-280, XI. 279-310.

Curie, Newstead. — A Roman frontier post and its people. The
fort of Nezvstead in the parish of Melrose, by J. Curie (191 1).

Dech. — Les vases cer antiques or ties de la Gaule Romaine,
vols. I. and II., by J. Dechelette (1904).

Drag. — Terra Sigillata, by Hans Dragendorff, in Bonner
Jahrbiicher, vol. 96 (1895), pp. 18-155, an d vol. 97 (1896), pp
54" l6 3-

Folzer. — Romische Keramik in Trier. Die Bilderschiisseln der
ostgallischen Sigillata-Manufakturen, by E. Folzer (1913).



mi. Sn i hester Pottery.

Geissner. — Die im \4ainzer Museum befindlichen Sigillata
Gefassi der nachaugusteischen Zeit, bj Prof, '.(.issuer {1904).

Hengistbury Head. Excavations <it Hengistbury Hi ad.
Hampshire, in h;m 12. by J. P. Bushe-Fox. Reports <>f tin
Research Committee of tht Society oj Antiquaries oj London, no. III.

Hofheim (1904). Das fruhrdmisctu /'/;'<> bet Hofheim, h\ E.
Ritterling, in Nassauer Annalen, XXXIX". (n>o4). pp. 1 mo.

397 4-3-

Hofheim (1912). Ibid., XI.. ( n> 1 2).

Joslin Coll. Catalogue of tht Joslin Collection, Colchester, by
J. E. Price (1888). This collection is now in the Colchester
museum.

Knorr, Cannstatt. -Die verzierten Terra-Sigillata-Gefassi von
Cannstatt und Kongen-Grinario, by R. Knorr (1905).

Knorr, Rottweil (1907). Die verzierten Terra-Sigillata-
Gefdsse von Rottweil, by R. Knorr (1907).

Knorr, Rottweil (1912). — Sudgal/isc/ic Ti rra-Sigillata-Gefdsst
von Rottweil, by R. Knorr (1912).

Knorr, Rottenburg. Die verzierten Terra- Sigillata-Gefdssi von
Rottenburg-Sumelocenna, by R. Knorr (1910).

Koenen. — Gefdsskunde der vorromischen, romischen und
frdnkischen Zeii in der Rheinlanden, by C. Koenen (1895).

Lehner. — Die Einzelfunde von Novaesium, by Hans Lehner,
in Bonner Jahrbiicher, vol. 111 112 (1904), pp. 243 4 1 S. Die
Keramik, pp. 334 366.

Loeschcke, Halter n, V. Mitteilungen der Altertums Kotn-
mission fur Westfalen, V. (1909), 12S 322. Die Keramishen Funde,

by S. Loeschcke.

Loeschcke, Sammlung Niessen. — Beschreibung romischer
Altertumer gessumnult von Curl Anton Niessen, 1 vols. (1911),
Keramik, Terrakotten, by S. Loeschcke.

Ludowici I. II. and III. [. Stempel-Namen romischer Topfer
von nteinen Ausgrabungen in Rheinzabern. II. Stempel-BUder.
111. I rnen-grdber, by W. Ludowici (1901 8)

May, York Pottery. Roman Pottery in York Musi um. by
Thos. .May.

Forrer. Die romischen Terra- Sigillata-Topfereien von Heitigen-
berg-Dinsheim und Ittenweiler im Elsass, by R. Forrer(i9i 1).

Franchet. — Ceramiqui Primitive, b) L. Franchel (19x1).



List of Authorities. xiii.

Miiteilungen iiber romisclie Funde in Heddernheim, IV. (1907).
1. Das romisclie Grdberfeld bei Praunheim, by A. Riese. 4. Die
Topfereien vor dem Nor dtore der romischen Stadt, by G. Wolff.
5. Die Fundstiicke aus der romischen Tdpferei vor dem Nordtore, by
R. Welcker.

Oelmann. — Die Keramik des K as tells Niederbieber, by F.
Oelmann (19 14). Materialien zur rdmisch-germanischen Keramik
herausgegeben von der Romisch-Germanischen Kommission des
Kaiserlichen Archaologischen Instituts Frankfurt a. M.

O. R. L. Faimingen. — Der Obergermanisch-Raetische Limes,
no. 35 (191 1), Kastell Faimingen, by F. Drexel.

O. R. L. Stockstadt. — Der Obergermanisch-Raetische Limes,
no. 33 (1910), Kastell Stockstadt, by F. Drexel.

O. R. L. Wiesbaden. — Der Obergermanisch-Raetische Limes,
no. 31 (1909), Kastell Wiesbaden, by E. Ritterling.

O. R. L. Zugmantel. — Der Obergermanisch-Raetische Limes,
no. 32 (1909), Kastell Zugmantel, by L. Jacobi.

Oxe. — Die Terra- Sigillata-Gefdsse des Cn. Ateius, by A. Oxe in
Bonner Jahrbiicher, vol. 101, pp. 22-37.

Poltross-burn. — The milecastle on the zvall of Hadrian at the
Poltr oss-burn, by J. P. Gibson and F. G. Simpson, in Trans. Cumb.
and Westmorland Arch. Soc, N.S. XI. (191 1), pp. 390-461.

Poppelreuter and Hagen. — Die romischen Grdber Ko'lns, by J.
Poppelreuter, and Ausgewdhlte romisclie Grdber aus Ko'ln, by J.
Hagen, in Bonner Jahrbiicher, vol. 1 14-15 (1906), pp. 344-434.

Pudding Pan rock. — On the wreck on Pudding Pan rock, Heme
Bay, Kent, and on the Gallo-Roman red zvare recently recovered
from the rock, by R. A. Smith, in Proc. Soc. Antiq. Lond., 2 series,
XXI. (1905-7), pp. 268-291, and XXII. (1907-9), pp. 395-414.

Reubel. — Romisclie Topfer in Rheinzabern. Fin Beitrag stir
Geschichte der verzierten Terra Sigillata, by G. Reubel (191 2).

Walters. — Catalogue of Roman Pottery in the British Museum
(1908), by H. B. Walters.'

Ward, Rom. Era. — The Roman Era in Britain, by J. Ward
(1911).

Wroxeter, I. and II. — Excavations on the site of the Roman tozcn
at Wroxeter, Shropshire, no. I. in 1912, no. II. in 1913, by J. P.
Bushe-Fox. Reports of the Research Committee of the Society of
Antiquaries of London.



GLOSSARY

\ few of the terms in general use amongst archaeologists for
describing tit-tails of ornament and shape on terra sigillata and other
wares have been discarded in the following pages, not from arbitrary

choice, but because the greater diversity of qualities and distinctions
now recorded has necessitated the use of more precise terms.
For the same reason it is thought desirable to furnish a brief
glossary.

Arcading. A row of over-arched compartments or niches in
which figures are enclosed — used in the decoration of embossed
sigillata bowls of Lezoux.

Carinated or Keeled. Shaped with a projecting angle or ridge,
like the keel of a ship, rising from a flat or curved surface.

Chevrons. Rows of zig-zags or broad arrows in close order ;
also known as the herring-bone or fir-tree pattern.

Cornice. — -The projecting moulding above the frieze of relict
ornamentation, only used on the terra sigillata bowl, form 29
Drag.

Deltoid blossom. — Flower or leaf in the form of a delta or
equilateral triangle, and sometimes cordiform, or heart-shaped.

Demi-medallion. A suspended semi-circle for framing figures
and other ornaments, often used, two or more together, with two or
more concentric toothed, notched or cabled borders with a leaf or
corded tassel between, in imitation of the sculptured representation
of festoon and tassel on altars, etc., of classical design.

Festoons- Wreaths of (lowers or leaves looped or suspended at
intervals along the decorated zone on embossed terra sigillata.

Fillet. A narrow flat band or straight line in relief, used for
dividing or bordering zones and surfaces.

Frieze. — The zone of figured or pattern ornamentation m
relief on the upright part of the side of form 20 Drag., in
terra sigillata or red-glazed pottery. 'The term is somewhat
misapplied when used to describe the lower zone of decoration on

the same how 1.

Gadroon. A moulding also known as elongated tongue pattern,
fluting, or ribbing. It is used to co\ er or partly to co\ er the soffil or

under surface of the early howls form 29. The ribs are sometimes
Cabled or beaded.



Glossary. xv.

Giiilloche. — In architecture two or more intertwining bands.
It is here applied to strap work interlaced, or to large cable or
plaited patterns on embossed terra sigillata. The term is more
often used to describe the borders of tesselated pavements.

Looped-leaf. — A leaf on a long looped stalk, used for filling the
angles of metopes and panels, or spandrels of medallions, or as a
detached ornament, sometimes termed a corner tendril.

Medallion. — A circular enclosure with plain, beaded, cabled,
notched, toothed, chevroned, or zig-zag rims, used for framing or
enclosing other ornaments.

Metope. — An architectural term for the space between the
triglyphs in the frieze of the Doric order. It is here confined
to the similar spaces into which the frieze or decorated zone on the
upright portion of the bowl 29 is divided.

Ovolo Border. — The belt of ornaments, composed of ova and
corded tassels, used almost invariably to mask a seam where the
upper smooth zone is joined to the moulded ornamental body
of the terra sigillata bowl form 37. This name is employed by
Dechelette and is preferred to the commoner one of egg and
dart or egg and tongue, since the pattern is evidently derived
from the ovolo moulding on the cornice of the Corinthian order
of architecture.

Panels. — The rectangular or trapezoidal divisions into which
the decorated zone on bowl form 37 is divided by straight, beaded,
zig-zag, or cabled borders extending the full height of the field.
The term is here used to distinguish these uniform spaces from
the metope-like divisions of the frieze on the earlier form 29.

Pentice. — A raised band in the shape of a sloping or lean-to roof.

Quirk. — A small acute channel or groove used between
mouldings. It is employed to accentuate the flat cordons on Late
Celtic pottery and to divide the cornice on embossed sigillata
bowls form 29 into two tables.

Rosette-knots . — Ornaments at the angles where the borders of
panels, saltires, etc., meet like the knots of net-work.

Saltire. — Used in heraldry to describe the leaning or St.
Andrew's cross, which is X-shaped. The term saltire pattern
is used in preference to cruciform pattern or St. Andrew's
cross pattern in describing a floral ornament frequently used
on sigillata bowls forms 29 and 30, and later on transitional bowls
form 37, during the latter half of the first century, as it indicates
the form of cross in single word.



wi. Su.c iii-sti-r Pottery.

Scaled Leaflets. — Rows or pyramids of small [eaves arranged
like scales, or tiles on a root. They are usually spoken of as
arrow-heads or imbricated arrow-points, hut thev more often
resemble leaflets and are produced by the impression of the
triangular points of leayes in the mould.

Scroll Binding. Knorr, Rottweil, 191 2, p. ^, has devised

this term to describe the diminutive impressions of punches
used to cover the joints where stalks or branches strike off from
the main stem of a scroll, lie points out that such small motives
best indicate vessels made by potters working in the same
workshop, and having the same origin and belonging to the same
period.

Scroll Pallcrn. — On embossed terra sigillata usually in the
form of an undulating stem with stalks or branches striking off at

regular intervals to till the upper and under curvatures or lobes,
and thus occupying and encircling the entire zone of decoration.
The branches usually run from right to left showing they were
drawn in the mould by a right handed person freehand from left
to right and reversed on the bowl.

Large Scroll Pattern. A scroll with widely expanded undula-
tions tilled with large leaves or other ornaments and occupying
the whole field below the ovolo border on terra sigillata bowls form
3° or 37-

Soffit. — An architectural term for the under surface of an
arch, architrave, or corona of a cornice. It is here used for the
under surface of the side below the frieze of the decorated terra
sigillata bowl form 29 Drag. To apply the term frieze to this
portion of the bowl, or to its decoration, would be misleading.

Spandrel. The triangular space between an arch and the panel
in which it is enclosed, or the triangular spaces between a circle
and the square in which it is framed. In needlework the same
design is known as a gusset.

Tendril. A twining shoot without leaf.

Terra Sigillata. A name used for red glazed, stamped or
embossed ware in preference to Samian, which is neither
grammatical nor precise. The use of capital S shows that
Samian has not, like china, become a common noun, correctly
applicable to pottery not made in Samos, and such expressions
as Lezoux Samian, or South (Jaulish Samian, etc., would be
obviously absurd.

Torus. The half round moulding or cordon separating
the frieze and soffit of the terra sigillata bowl 2Q Drag. Its si/e



Glossary. xvii.

in proportion to the other ornamental details renders torus
not too bold a term, and it is also justified by the same analogy as
frieze, cornice, soffit, metope, etc., neck, shoulder, foot, etc.

Transitional. — A style of decoration in which not only single
ornaments and motives, but also the poly-zonal arrangement of
the decoration of the embossed sigillata bowl form 29 was used
during an indefinite period at the end of the first century upon
the later form 37, when both forms were in use simultaneously.

Circular Wreath. — A ring or circle composed of conventional
leaves and used singly or for framing or enclosing other ornaments.

Broad Wreath. — A band of conventional leaves, or flowers on
stalks, attached to a horizontal row of beads and wide enough to
occupy the entire frieze on the terra sigillata bowl form 29.

Narrozv Wreath. — A zone or belt of over-lapping or juxtaposed
leaves, often used as an upper or lower border or dividing motive
on embossed terra sigillata.



INTRODUCTION".

THE collection of pottery found on the site of the
Romano-British town at Silchester and now preserved
in the museum at Reading is of special interest as it
covers the whole period of the Roman influence from
the time of Caesar's invasion in B.C. 55-54, down to the
withdrawal of the legions about 409 a.d. It is also one of the
most complete and unmixed collections of whole vessels, derived
from a single site, to be found in this country.



Online LibraryThomas MayThe pottery found at Silchester : a descriptive account of the pottery recovered during the excavations on the site of the Romano-British city of Calleva Atrebatum at Silchester, Hants., and deposited in the Reading Museum → online text (page 1 of 30)