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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA



PRESENTED BY

PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND

MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID



THE BALTIC:

ITS GATES, SHORES, AND CITIES.



LoNDOV;
A. and G. A. Spottisvvoode,
New-street • Square.



THE BALTIC, / ^



ITS



GATES, SHORES, AND CITIES;



WITH A NOTICE



OF



THE WHITE SEA.



BY



THE EET. THOS. MILNER, M.A., F.E.G.S.



LONDON;

LOXGMAN, BROWX, GREEN, AXD L0:N'GMANS.

1854.



•^



■^



^



.^^



vat



THE BALTIC, <.




/^<^a^



ITS



GATES, SHORES, AND CITIES;



WITH A NOTICE



OF



THE WHITE SEA.



BY



THE EET. THOS. MILNER, M.A., E.R.G.S.



LONDON:

LONGMAISr, BROWX, GREEN, AXD LONGMANS.

1854.



Ht



NOTE.



While the public mind has been strongly directed
to the Baltic by warlike operations during the
present year, and will be so probably during the
succeeding one, the region is eminently deserving of
attention on account of its remarkable physical geo-
graphy, active and important commerce, historical
and scientific associations. Few parts of the globe
have a more unique natural character, or can boast
of such a catalogue of illustrious names connected
with their shores. These are topics of abiding in-
terest, to the illustration of which the followinsT
pages are principally devoted. If details introduced
into this volume are trite to many readers, such are
respectfully reminded, that the common-place to
them may have a fresher aspect to no inconsiderable
class. It is only necessary to remark further, that
some passages have been contributed by the writer to
one of the public journals.

Loughborough Hoad, Brixton,
September 21. 1854.

A 3



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.

GREAT BRITAIN AND THE BAL,TIC COUNTRIES.

Early Connection. — Jutes, Angles, and Saxons, — Danes and
Northmen. — Alfred and the Danes. — Wulfsten's Voyage
in the Baltic. — Danish Conquest of England. — Canute the
Great. — Descendants of the Northmen. — Rise of the
Hanseatic League. — Hanse Factory at London. — English
Establishments in the Baltic. — First Intercourse with
Russia. — Negotiations with Ivan IV. — Poetical Letters
from Moscow. — Formal Cession of the Orkneys and Shet-
lands. — James I. in Denmark. — Fate of Colonel Sinclair.

— British Auxiliaries under Gustavus Adolphus. — The
Gordons in Russia. — Peter the Great in England. — His
London Life. — Charles XII. of Sweden, and Marlborough.

— Russian Ambassador arrested for Debt. — Peter com-
mands a British Fleet. — Northern Confederacy against
Great Britain. — Battle of Copenhagen. — Nelson at Reval.

— Bombardment of Copenhagen. — Subsequent Affairs

Page 1

CHAP. II.

GENERAL PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE BALTIC.

Extent of the Sea and its Basin. — Comparative Shallowness.

— Numerous Rivers. — Character of the Shores. — Absence
of Highlands. — Rise of Land in Scandinavia. — Celsius. —
Playfair. — Von Buch, Lyell, Chambers. — Subsidence of



Vlll CONTENTS.

Land. — Water of the Baltic. — Tidelessness. — Local Alter-
ations of Level, — Characteristics of the Waves. — Lightness
of Summer Nights. — Ice. — Records of severe Winters. —
Freezing and Opening of the Neva. — Drift Ice. — Trans-
port of rocky Masses. — Erratic Blocks. — Time of the Un-
roading. — Accompaniments of intense Cold. — Spring. —
Rapid Progress of Vegetation. — Excessive Heat in Summer.

— Change of Vegetation in Sweden. — Fish of the Baltic. —
Amber. — Name of the Sea - - - Page 42

CHAP. III.

GATES OF THE BALTIC AND THE DANISH SHORES.

Danish Archipelago. — The Sound. — Swedish Shore. — Hel-
singborg, Landscrona, IVIalmo. — Danish Shore. — Elsinore.

— The Sound Dues. — Traffic. — Shakspeare and Hamlet. —
Kronborg Castle. — Caroline Matilda. — Island of Hveen. —
Commemoration of Tycho Brahe. — Copenhagen. — General
Description. — Museums and Libraries. — Amak Islanders. —
Memorials of Copenhagen. — Battle. — Kioge Bay. — Ar-
rival of Sir C. Napier. — The Great Belt. — Sprogo Island.

— Funen. — The Little Belt. — Shores of Sleswick and
Holstein. — Kiel. — Island of Bornholm. — A Visit. — The
Ertholms. — Christian IV. - - - - 81

CHAP. IV.

THE GERMANIC SHORES.

Haffs and Nehrungs. — Stettin er, Frische, and Curlsche Haffs.

— Organic Character of Deposits. — City and Territory of
Liibeck. — Memorials of Liibeck. — Duchy of Mecklenburg.

— Wismar. — Dobberan. — The Helige-Dam. — Rostock. —
Grotius, Bllicher, Nelson. — Prussia. — Island of Rligen. —
Stralsund. — Stettin. — Dantzic. — Its History. — Corn
Trade. — Magazine Island. — Fahrenheit. — Hevelius. —
Copernicus. — Konigsberg. — Memel. — Russian Frontier

116



CONTENTS. IX



CHAP. V.



THE SWEDISH SHORES.

Character of the Coast. — The Skiirgard. — Carlscrona. —
Isolated Churches. — Kahuar. — Christian IV. — Oland. —
Gottland. — Its Importance. — Wisby, the Capital. — Its
ancient Consequence. — Present Remains. — Churches. —
Tombstones. — Faro Sound. — Arrival of British Fleet. —
Skargard near Stockholm. — The City. — Palace. — Ridder-
holm Church. — Opera House. — Assassination of Gustavus
III. — Swedish Royal Family. — Upsal. — Cathedral and
University. — Linnaeus. — A travelled Book. — Old Upsal.

— Adventure of Bernadotte. — Sigtuna. — Gulf of Bothnia.

— Gefle. — Norala. — Hernosand. — Pitea and Lulea. —
Rise of the Coast. — Haparanda. — Policy of Sweden, —
King Oscar in Gottland. — Swedish Navy and Army

Page 141

CHAP. VI.

THE RUSSIAN SHORES.
COURLAIO). LIVONIA. ESTHONIA.

The Russo-Baltic Coast. — The Baltic Provinces. — Aboriginal
Population. — Danes, Germans, and Lithuanians. — The
Teutonic Knights. — Lutheranism. — Superstitions. — Poli-
tical Changes. — Courland. — Mittau. — Libau. — Russian
Prizes. — Distribution of the People. — Post - Stations. —
Courlanders. — The Letts. — Lettish Poetry. — St. John's
Day. — Livonia. — Riga. — Its Commerce. — Wandering
Labourers. — Memorials of the City. — The Livonians. —
Dorpat. — Esthonia. — The Island - Country, — Habsal. —
Peter and Menzikoff. — Port Baltic. — Reval. — Its History.

— Upper and Lower Town. — Due de Croi. — The Estho-
nians. — ISTarva " - - - 178



X COXTEXTS.

CHAP. vii.

THE RUSSIAN SHORES.
ST. TETERSBCRG.

Design of the Founder. — His arbitrary Proceedings. — Pro-
gress of the City. — First foreign Ships. — Relics of Peter.
— Unfavourable Features of the Site. — The Neva. — Its
Delta. — Qu:ility of the AVater. — Scenery. — Blessing of
the Waters. — Inundations of the River. — Climate of the
Capital. — Opening of the Xavigation. — "Wild Animals. —
Streets and Houses. — The Admiralty. — The Quays. —
Statue of Peter. — The AVinter Palace. — The Hermitage. —
The Alexander Column. — Marble and Taurida Palaces. —
Summer Garden. — Imperial Library. — Academy of Sci-
ences. — Hotel des Mines. — Churches. — Markets. — Popu-
lation. - The Province - - - Page 212

CHAP. YIII.

THE RUSSIAN SHORES.
CRONSTADT.

Bay of Cronstadt. — The Island. — Its Capture from the
Swedes. — The Town. — Its Harbours. — Official Fraud. —
The Fortifications. — Rise of the Russian Xavy. — Peter at
Archangel. — His Shipbuilding. — Maritime Adventure. —
Great Victory over the Swedes. — Consecration of the Little
Grandsire. — Peter's Fleet. — Navy after his Decease. —
Ensairements with the British. — The Russian Baltic Fleet

275

CHAP. IX.

THE RUSSIAN SHORES.
FINLAXD.

Position and Area. — Lakes and Rivers. — Granite Blocks. —
Forests. — Climate. — Produce. — Conquest by the Swedes.



CONTEXTS. XI

— Conquest by the Russians. — Constitution. — Territorial
Divisions. — Population. — The Fins. — Finnish Poetry. —
Introduction of Christianity. — Province of Yiborg. — St.
Michael and Kuopio. — Province of Xyland. — Lovisa,
Borga, Helsingfors, and Sveaborg. — Baro Sound. — Ekness.
Abo. — ALind Islands. — Christmas at Kumlinge. — Bomar-
sund. — Wasa. — Gamla Carleby. — Uleaborg. — Brahestadt.

— Tornea - - - Page 299

CHAP. X.

THE WUITE SEA.

Position and Area. — The Svatoi Xoss. — The Climate. — The
Tundras. — Vegetation. — Rose Island. — Zoology. — The
Dwina. — Voyage of Other. — Voyage of Sir Hugh Wil-
louffhbv. — The Harbour of Death. — First En»:lishmen in
Russia. — Letter of Edward VI. — Disastrous homeward
Voyage. — The Russia Company. — Fiose Island. — Factory
at Cholmogory. — First Shipments. — Moscow burnt. —
Vessels entered inwards. — Government of Archangel. — Its
Population. — The Samoiedes. — Russian Dissenters. — Arch-
angel. — Cholmogory. — Kola. — Monastery of Solovetz 375



THE BALTIC:

ITS GATES, SHORES, AND CITIES,



CHAPTER I.

GREAT BRITAIN AND THE BALTIC COUNTRIES.

EARLY CONNECTION. JUTES, ANGLES, AND SAXONS.

DANES AND NORTHMEN. ALFRED AND THE DANES.

WULFSTEN's VOYAGE IN THE BALTIC. DANISH CON-
QUEST OF ENGLAND. CANUTE THE GREAT. DE-
SCENDANTS OF THE NORTHMEN. RISE OF THE HAN-

SEATIC LEAGUE. HANSE FACTORY AT LONDON.

ENGLISH ESTABLISHMENTS IN THE BALTIC. FIRST IN-
TERCOURSE WITH RUSSIA. NEGOTIATIONS WITH IVAN IV.

POETICAL LETTERS FROM MOSCOW. — FORMAL CESSION

OF THE ORKNEYS AND SHETLANDS. JAMES I. IN DEN-
MARK. FATE OF COLONEL SINCLAIR. BRITISH AUXI-
LIARIES UNDER GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS. THE GORDONS

IN RUSSIA PETER THE GREAT IN ENGLAND. HIS

LONDON LIFE. CHARLES XII, OF SWEDEN, AND MARL-
BOROUGH. RUSSIAN AMBASSADOR ARRESTED FOB DEBT.

— PETER C0M3IANDS A BRITISH FLEET. NORTHERN

CONFEDERACY AGAINST GREAT BRITAIN. BATTLE OF

COPENHAGEN. NELSON AT REVAL. BOMBARDMENT OF

COPENHAGEN. — SUBSEQUENT AFFAIRS.

Denmakk and Sweden, two of the ancient Scandi-
navian kingdoms, Mecklenburg, Prussia, and Russia,

B



2 THE BALTIC.

are the countries of the Baltic with which Great
Britain has long maintained intimate communication.
The intercourse has generally been devoted to peace-
fid objects, as the exchange of commodities, the
pursuits of science, and the gratifications of travel.
But occasionally its character has varied from the
friendly to the warlike, and involved the arrest of
commerce instead of its advance. Three times in
the course of the present century a fleet has left our
ports to operate in a hostile manner on this inland
sea ; and expeditions of a similarly menacing kind,
but unprovoked, piratical, and proceeding in an in-
verse direction, marked the early period of our con-
nection with its waters. Upwards of fourteen
centuries ago — before Britain had been abandoned
by its Roman masters, though more conspicuously
immediately after the withdrawment of imperial pro-
tection — bands of obscure adventurers issued from
the lands of the Baltic, and passed over the inter-
vening ocean to our eastern shores. They were
content at first to plunder and retire ; then aspired
to subdue and settle ; and finally wrested the domi-
nion of the soil from the native race, exliausted and
deteriorated by the rule of the stern taskmasters to
which they had been subject. It is curious to reflect,
that invaders connected with two of the great in-



JUTES, ANGLES, AND SAXONS. 3

ternal seas of Europe have overrun our hills and
vales — the Komans from the northern shores of the
Mediterranean — the Jutes, Angles, and Saxons, with
other allied and confederated tribes, from the western
part of the Baltic basin — and the Danes or North-
men from insular dependencies of the same region,
and other maritime localities in its neighbourhood.
HoAV different now the political position of countries
conquering and conquered in ancient times — Italy,
Denmark, and Great Britain ; and the relative im-
portance of the Tiber, the Eyder, and the Thames
How striking the contrast between the rude barks of
Hengist and Horsa, chiules or "long ships," as they
were proudly denominated — or the galleys of the
legions under Aulus Plautius — and the magnificent
men-of-war which have recently borne the flag of the
United Kingdom through the Dardanelles, the Bos-
phorus, the Great Belt, and the Sound !

The conquering immigrants of the fifth and sixth
centuries exchanged a continental for an insular home,
being invited to the migration by the favourable con-
trast which the latter presented to the former in point
of natural capabilities, and partly compelled to it by
a mighty movement of popidation from the east —
" the wandering of the nations " — which pushed
already settled tribes further to the west, covered the

B 2



4 THE BALTIC.

sea with rovers, and gave new inhabitants to ahnost
every province of the Roman empire. The Jutes
came from the Cimbrica Chersonesus, the peninsula
of modern Jutland, a province of Denmark, and
founded the diminutive kingdom of Kent. The
Angles migrated from parts of the present duchies of
Sleswick and Holstein, appeared in greater numbers,
and spread over the island from the neighbourhood
of the Thames to the north of the Tyne, originating
the states of Northumbria, Mercia, and East Anglia.
The Saxons left a more inland territory, south of the
Elbe, and established themselves in the localities
which retain their names, Essex, Middlesex, Sussex,
and Wessex, respectively the kingdoms of the East,
Middle, South, and West Saxons. It is easy to re-
cognise in the orthography of England and English
slightly altered forms of Angle-land and Angles.
A district in the Sleswick duchy still bears the
name of Angeln, inhabited by a people distinct in
physiognomy and speech from their neighbours. Dr.
E. D. Clarke thus writes of it in his Travels : — " We
were surprised at the number of English faces we
met; and resemblance is not confined to features.
Many articles of dress, and many customs, are com-
mon to the two countries. The method of cultivating
and dividing the land is the same in both : the mea-



JUTES, ANGLES, ANT) SAXONS. 5

clows, bounded by quick-set hedges, or by fences made
of intertwisted boughs, reminded us of Kent, Surrey,
and Sussex. The natural appearance of the country
is also like the south of England ; being diversified
by numerous hills and valleys, adorned with flourishing
woods and fertile fields." Kohl, a more recent visitor,
makes a precisely similar remark. This interesting
locality — part of the true Old England — lies on the
Baltic coast, between the towns of Flensborg and
Apenrade. The latter name, signifying an " open
road," or station for shipping, is nearly English.
There is a closely adjoining tract, but on the shore of
the North Sea, occupied by a Frisian race, where the
people have traditionally preserved the memory of
the immigration, and claim to be peculiarly of the
same stock with the founders of England, appeal-
ing to the identity of their language in proof. Kolil
quotes a distich current among them, " Good bread
and good cheese, is good English and good Friese."
Walking in one of the villages, he abruptly asked a
child, "Where did Heno-ist and Horsa sail from?"
The answer was promptly returned, " From Tondern,
on the Eyder."

Centuries passed away, and the Anglo-Saxon
kingdoms were beginning to merge in a single
monarchy, when a fresh race of disturbers issued

B 3



b THE BALTIC.

from the western region of the Baltic, chiefly from
the archipelagoes of Denmark and Norway. They
are variously styled Danes, Norsemen, or Northmen
by our own annalists, Normans by the French, and
Normanni by the Italians; for their ravages extended
from the stormy rocks of the Shetlands to the balmy
shores of the Mediterranean, and permanent settle-
ments were made in Great Britain, France, and
Italy. Their creed was a ferocious Paganism ; their
standard, the ominous raven ; their profession, piracy.
Originally, haunting inlets of the coast, bays, and
estuaries, they were called children of the creeks;
while the chieftains had the title of sea-kings, from
the ocean being their ordinary scene of adventure,
and the boldness with which its perils were encoun-
tered. " The strength of the tempest aids the arm
of the rower ; the storm is our servant ; it throws us
where we desired to go." Such were the maxims of
the Northmen. Wherever they landed, skies red-
dened with the flames of a conflagration, and fields
crimsoned with the blood of the slain marked their
path. So intense and general was the terror of
Christendom, that the special prayer was inserted in
the litany of the western church, — ''A furore Nor-
manorum, libera nos, O Domine ! "

A formidable host of these terrible marauders, with



DANES OR NORTHMEN. 7

their sea-horses, — their ocean skates — as they called
their craft, appeared off the coast of Norfolk soon
after the middle of the ninth century. They rapidly
overran nearly the whole country to the north of the
Thames, and threatened with their mastery the terri-
tory to the south. York, Chester, Lincoln, Derby,
Nottingham, Leicester, and Stamford became
" Danish burghs," so styled from an effective num-
ber of the foreigners occupying those sites. The
great Alfred, after severe reverses, succeeded by his
skill and valour in checking the invaders, and re-
stricting them to definite Imiits. By a celebrated
treaty, which is still extant, their land boundaries
were defined to be the lower course of the Thames ;
then its affluent, the Lea, up to its source in Hert-
fordshire ; next, the Ouse ; and the Roman road of
the Watling Street, which passed diagonally through
the heart of Enoland to the border of Wales. The
country to the north and east of this line received
the name of the Danelagh, from being ceded to the
Danes, a considerable number of whom, renouncing
their roving life and savage idolatry, settled in the
district, and peacefully intermingled with the old in-
habitants. Ethnologists trace their localities by the
names of places. With few exceptions, names ending?
in by, signifying originally a single farm, afterwards =

B 4



8 THE BALTIC.

a town in general, as Whitbi/, AppleZ»y, Derbi/, indi-
cate sites founded or occupied by the Danes. This
terminal occurs in 576 instances in the whole of
England and Wales, most frequently in the counties
of Lincoln, York, Leicester, Cumberland, Norfolk,
Westmoreland, and Northampton.

While geographical knowledge in general was
eagerly sought by the inquiring mind of Alfred, his
attention was directed with special interest to the
native seat of the Northmen ; and information was
obtained respecting the Baltic from two voyagers
who navigated its waters in his time, and possibly at
his command. Narratives of the expeditions from
their own lips, the king incorporated in his trans-
lation of the geography of Orosius, the work of a
S2:)anish monk who flourished in the beginning of the
fifth century. One of these w^as Other, a refugee
from Norway, who sailed round the north of Europe
into the White Sea, and was acquainted with Scania,
the south part of Sweden, and with the country of
the Angles and Saxons. Wulfsten, the other, ex-
plored the eastern regions of the inland sea, for he
mentions the islands of Grottland and Oland, with the
mouth of the river Wisla, or Vistula, all beyond
which was called bv the o-eneral name of Estland, or
Eastland. This district, according to the ancient



wulfsten's voyage. 9

voyager, had' a great number of towns, in each of
which there was a king. It abounded in honey, and
had a plentiful supply of fish. The chiefs and great
men drank mares' milk : the poor peojjle and slaves
used mead. No ale was brewed among them. It
was a custom with these old Esthonians, when any
one died, to award the property of the deceased to
the best horseman at his funeral. For this purpose,
it was divided into ^ve or six heaps, sometimes into
more, according to its amount. The heaps were
placed at intervals of about a mile from each other,
and regularly increased in size, so that the largest
heap was at the greatest distance from the town to
which the dead man belonged. All parties in the
neio'hbourhood were allowed to contend for the
prizes, the fleetest horse winning the most distant
and valuable portion. The name of Eastland survives
in that of Esthonia, one of the Baltic provinces of
Russia. Pilots still use the ancient form of the
name. The nobles style themselves Esthlanders,
and are thus distinguished from the peasants, who
are simply Esthes.

Piratical squadrons from the recesses of the Baltic,
the sinuosities of the Danish peninsula, and the
fiords of Norway, made hostile excursions across the
western ocean in the tenth century, and permanently



10 THE BALTIC.

occupied the Shetlands and Orkneys, as convenient
naval stations from which to harass the adjoining
mainland. Their power extended over the Hebrides ;
and to this insular dominion a considerable portion
of the north of Scotland was added, as Caithness
and Sutherland, their southern land. Towards the
close of the century, the storm of invasion from the
same quarter broke upon England with tremendous
effect. The Northmen poured upon its shores in
swarms, planted their lances in the soil, or threw
them into the streams, as symbolic of their purpose
to acquire the mastery. Being joined by their
brethren, the Anglo-Danes, while opposed by a
weak and perfidious Anglo-Saxon king, the second
Ethelred, the course of events soon pointed to a
change of dynasty. During the struggle between
the two parties, our system of direct annual taxation
arose, by the imposition of Dane-geld. This was a
tax levied upon all non-ecclesiastical estates, with
the proceeds of which the pusillanimous Ethelred
vainly endeavoured to purchase the retreat of the
enemy. A certain quantity of land was also charged
with the provision of a ship, to provide a fleet for
the national defence, a measure which was quoted
upwards of six centuries later, as a precedent for



CANUTE THE GKEAT. 11

the ship-money demanded by Charles I., and resisted
by Hampden.

At length, in 1017, a Dane formally ascended the
throne of England in the person of Canute the
Great, who united it to his continental dominions
under a common sceptre, becoming the most con-
spicuous potentate of his age. In governing the
insular territory, he divided it into four distinct
provinces, Northumbria, East Anglia, Mercia, and
Wessex, personally superintending the affairs of the
latter, and appointing earls over the other three.
England became henceforth his favourite scene of
residence. Wlien abroad on military expeditions,
English troops served in the army of their liege-
lord, and met his Sclavonic foes in battle and skir-
mish on the coasts of the Baltic. Laws of Canute
are still extant, ecclesiastical and secular, enacted in
mid-winter at Winchester, with the counsel of his
witan; and a remarkable letter remains, written
during a continental journey, addressed to " all the
nation of the English, both nobles and commoners."
It expresses highly honourable sentiments, and ex-
hibits the northern warrior, after a most successful
career, enlightened by experience, moderated by
triumph, and improved by years, both his character



12 THE BALTIC.

and rule having been largely reclaimed from the bar-
baric to the civilised, from the despotic to the equit-
able. He styles himself in the epistle " King of all
Denmark, England, and Norway, and of part of
Sweden."

The political incorporation of these countries was
dissolved soon after the death of Canute, and has
never been renewed. The Anglo-Danish dynasty
expired, and now fills up the scanty interval of a
quarter of a century in oiu' national history. But
the Orkney and Shetland Isles remained subject to
Denmark till the year 1469, when James III. of
Scotland marrying Margaret, daughter of Christian I.,
the islands were given in pledge for part of the
princess's dowry, which, ncA^er being paid, they lapsed
to the Scottish crown. Ujoon the Norman conquest
of England, a scion of the Scandinavian stock gained
the English throne, the Conqueror being fifth in de-
scent from Rollo, one of the old sea-kings, who had
ravaged the Baltic coasts, haimted the Orkneys, and
sailed in the Norwegian fiords, before he conquered
Normandy. Descendants also of the Scandinavian
race at present form an integral part of our po^^ula-



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