Thomas Pennant.

A tour in Scotland, and voyage to the Hebrides, 1772 (Volume 1) online

. (page 3 of 31)
Online LibraryThomas PennantA tour in Scotland, and voyage to the Hebrides, 1772 (Volume 1) → online text (page 3 of 31)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

The fhambles of this town mull not be omitted : they are built Shambles.
in form of a ftreet, at the public expence ; every butcher has his
fhop ; and his name painted over the door.

Crofs the Lune, on a handfome bridge of four arches. Turn to
the left, and after four miles riding, reach Hefs bank, and at low
water crofs the arm of the fea, the Moricambe of Ptolemy, that divides
this part of the county from the hundred of Furnefs, a detached trad Cartmel Sands,
peninfulated by the fea, lake, or river, a melancholy ride of eleven
miles •, the profpect on all fides quite favage, high barren hills in-
dented by the fea, or dreary wet fands, rendered more horrible by
the approach of night, and a tempefluous evening, obfcured by the
driving of black clouds. Beneath the fhade difcerned Arnfide tower,

E the



the property of the Stanlies for fome centuries. Before us was an
extenfive, but fhallow ford, formed by the Kent and other rivers,,
now parted with trouble by the beating of the waves.

At the entrance into this water am met by a guide, called here
the Carter, who is maintained by the public, and obliged in all
weathers to attend here from fun rife to fun fet, to conduct pafTen-
gers over.
Cartmel. Three miles from the more is Cartmel, a fmall town with moft

irregular ftreets, lying in a vale furrounded by high hills. The
gateway of the monaftery of regular canons of St. Aujlin, founded in
1 1 88, by William Marefchal, Earl of Pembroke, is ftill Handing.
But this had long been holy ground, having about the year 67 7,
been given to St. Cuthbert, by Eg/rid, King of Northumberland, with
all its inhabitants, at that time, entirely Britijh,

The church is large, and in form of a crofs ; the length is 157
feet : the tranfept 1 10 : the height 5J. The fteeple is molt Angu-
lar, the tower being a fquare within a fquare ; the upper part being
fet diagonally within the lower. The infideof the church is hand-
fome and fpacious : the centre fupported by four large and fine
cluttered pillars : the Weft part more modern than the reft, and the
pillars octagonal. The choir beautiful, furrounded with flails j
whofe tops and pillars are finely carved with foliage ; and with the
inftruments of the pafTion above.

On one fide is the tomb ftone of William de Walton, with a crofs
on it. He was either firft or fecond prior of this place. The
infcription is only Hie Jacet Frater Wilelmus de Walton Prior de

On the other is a magnificent tomb of a Harrington and his lady,



both He recumbent beneath a fine carved and open work arch,
decorated with variety of fuperftitious figures ; and on the furbafe
are grotefque forms of chaunting monks. He lies with his leo-s
acrofs, a fign that he had obtained that privilege by the merits of a
pilgrimage to the Holylatid, or a Crufade. He is faid to have been one
of the Harringtons of Wrafholm tower, his lady a Huddlejion of
Milium Caftle. It is probably the effigies of Sir John de Harrington,
who in 1305, was fummoned by Edw. I. with numbers of other
gallant gentlemen, to meet him at Carlijle, and attend him on his
expedition into Scotland; and was then knighted along with Prince
Edward, with bathing, and other facred ceremonies *.

The monument erected by Cbrijlopher Rawlinfon, of Carkhall, in
Cartmel, deferves mention, being in memory of his grandfather,
father, and mother. The laft a Monk, defcended from a Tho. Monk
of Devon/hire, by Frances Plantagenet, daughter and coheir of Ar-
thur Vifcount Lijle, fon of Edw. IV. and this Chrijlopher dying
without iffue was the laft male by the mother's fide of that great

In a fide chapel is the burial place of the Lowthers -, among other
monuments is a neat but fmall one of the late Sir William.

Pafs through fome fields, a ftrange mixture of pafture, rock and May 21.

fmall groves. Defcend a hill to Holker, once the feat of the family Holker.

of the Pre/Ions, fince the property of the Lowthers, and lately that of
Lord George Cavendijh : a large irregular houfe, feated in a pretty
park, well wooded; and on the fide of the houfe is a range of
low rocky hills, directing the eye to an immenfe chain of lofty

• DugdaUs Baronage, II. 99,

E 2 At




At Hotter are feveral good pictures : among the portraits, the
beautiful, abandoned, vindictive, violent Dutchefs of Cleveland,
miitrefs to Ch. II. by Lely.

A Mrs. Low t her, by the fame.

Admiral Penn, dreffcd in black, with a cravat and fafh, long
and of a good honeit countenance. He rofe very early in life
to the higheft naval commands -, was a captain at twenty one, rear
admiral of Ireland at twenty-three, general in the firft Dutch war
at thirty-two-, difgraced and imprifoned by Cromwel, for his unfuc-
cefsful attempt on St. Domingo, though he added, in that very expe-
dition, Jamaica to the kingdom of Great Britain : on the reftoration,
commanded under the Duke of York in the fame fhip, at the great
fea ficrht of 1665, when the laurels of the firft day were blafted
by the myftic inactivity of the fecond •, for where princes are
concerned, the truth of mifcarriages feldom appears. He foon
after retired from the fervice, and died at the early age of forty-

The late Sir James Lowther ; a character too well known to be
dwelt on.

The head of Thomas Wriothejly, Earl of Southampton, the friend of
Clarendon, and virtuous treafurer of the firft years after the reftoration.

His lady, leaning on a globe.

A very fine head of a Prefion ? in black, a ruff, fhort grey hair,-,
round beard.

A head called that of an Earl Douglas, with this infcription :
Novit paucos fecura qities, at.fuce. xxii. A. M. D. xi. On the head a
black bonnet, countenance good, beard brown, drefs black.

A fine head of Vandyck, when young, leaning : by himfelf.


I N S C O T L A N D. 29

An old man reading, and a boy, on wood, marked j. w. Stap.

Two boys at dice, and a woman looking on : a fine piece by
Mori I !i 0.

St. Francis d'Ajfize^ kneeling, very fine. And variety of other
good paintings.

Crofs another tracl: of fands, three miles in breadth, and am con-
ducted thro' the ford by another Carter. This officer was originally
maintained by the priory of Com/bed; but at the ctiffolution'the
King charged himfelf and his fuccefibrs with the payment : fince
that time it is held by patent of the dutchy of Lancafter^ and the
faiary is paid by the receiver-general. Reach

Uherfton, a town of about three thoufand fouls, feated near the Ulverstok,
■water fide, and is approachable at high water by veffels of a hundred
and fifty tuns \ has a good trade in iron ore, pig and bar iron, bark,,
lime-llone, oats and barley, and much beans, which laft are fent
to Leverpool, for the food of the poor enflaved negroes in the Guinea
trade. Numbers of cattle are alfo fold out of the neighborhood, but
the commerce in general declines •, at prefent there are not above
fixty veffels belonging to the place ; formerly about a hundred and
fifty moftly let out to freight j but both mafter and failors go now-
to Leverpool for employ.

Quantities of potatoes are raifed here ; and fuch is the increafe
that 450 bufhels have been got from a fingle acre of ground. Some
wheat is raifed in low Fumefs, near the fea, and in the ifle of Walney :
but the inhabitants of thefe parts have but recently applied them-
felves to hufbandry. Among the manures fea-fand and live muf-
cles are frequently ufed ; but till within thefe twenty years even the
ufe of dung was fcarcely known to them>



Iron mines. Make an excurfion of four miles to the Weft, to vifit the great

iron mines at Whhrigs : the ore is found in immenfe beds beneath
two ftrata, one oipinnel or coarfe gravel, about fifteen yards thick ;
the next is lime-ftone of twenty yards : the ftratum of ore is rather
uncertain in extent, but is from ten to fifteen yards thick, and forty
in extent ; and fometimes two hundred tuns have been taken up in
a week. A cubic yard of ore weighs three tuns and a half : the
common produce of metal is one tun from thirty-five to forty hun-
dred of ore i but fome has been fo rich as to yield a tun of iron from
twenty feven hundred of the mineral.

The ore lies in vaft heaps about the mines, fo as to form perfect
mountains •, is of that fpecies called by mineralogifls hematites and
kidney-ore j is red, very greafy, and defiling. The iron race that
inhabit the mining villages exhibit a ftrange appearance : men,
women and children are perfectly dyed with it, and even innocent
babes do quickly affume the bloody complexion of the foil.

The ore is carried on board the mips for 12 s. per tun, each tun
21 hundred; and the adventurers pay is. 6d. per tun farm for li-
berty of raifing it. It is entirely fmelted with wood charcoal, but is
got in fuch quantities that wood in thefe parts is fometimes want-
ing i fo that charcoal is fometimes procured from the poor woods of
Mull, and other of the Hebrides.

Thefe mines have been worked above four hundred years ago, as
appears by the grant of William of Lancafter, Lord of Kendal, to the
priory of Conijbed, in this neighborhood, of the mine of Plumpton t
probably part of the prefent vein ; which he conveys libera introitu et
cxitu ad duos eouos cum hominibus minam cariandam, &c. *

* Dugdak, II, 425.




The veftiges of the antient workings are very frequent, and ap-
parent enough, from the vaft hollows in the earth wherever they have
funk in.

From one of the banks have a great view of the lower Furnefs, as
far as appears, a woodlefs tract, and of the ifle of Walney, ftretching
along the coaft, and forming to it a fecure counterfcarp from the
rage of the fea. At the South end is Peel caftle, originally built, and Peel castle.
fupported by the abby of Furnefs, and garrifoned with fixty men, as
a protection againft the Scots.

The abby lies oppofite, and the very ruins evince its former mag- Furness abby.
nifkence*. It was founded in 1127, by Stephen, Earl of Moriton
and Bologne, afterwards King of England, or rather removed by him
from Tulket in Aundirnefs. The monks were originally of the order
of Tironenftans, of the rule of St. Benedicl, but afterwards became
Cifter cians -f-.

The little Tarn, or water called Standing Tarn, is within fight ; it
is of considerable depth, and abounds with pike, roch and eels ; alfo
with large trout ; and is remarkable for having no vifible outlet, but
difcharges its waters by fome fubterraneous pafTage.

See, towards the North, at a fmall diftance, the hill of Black- Black-Coomb.
Coomb, in Cumberland, often vifible from Flint/hire, and an infallible
prefage to us of bad weather. I found from the report of the inha-
bitants of thefe parts, that the appearance of our country is equally
ominous to them, and equally unacceptable.

See Swartz-moor hall, near which Martin Swartz and his Germans Swartz-moori

* Finely engraven among the views publifhed by the fociety of Antiquaries.
f Dugdale, I. 704- An excellent and full account of this abby has been lately
publifhed, by Mr. Thomas Weft*


2 A T O U R

encamped in 1487, with Lambert Simnel, in order to collect forces
in thefe parts, before his attempt to wreft the crown from Henry
VII. He was fupported by Sir Thomas Broughton, a gentleman of
this neighborhood, who, efcaping afterwards from the battle of
Stoke, like our Owen Glendwr lived many years (when he was fup-
pof j d to have been (lain) in great obfeurity, fupported by his faith-
ful tenants in Weftmor eland.
George Fox. And in after-times the melancholy {pint of George Fox, the

founder of quakerifm, took pofTeffion of Swartz-moor hall, firft cap-
tivating the heart of a widow, the relict, of judge Fell, the then inha-
bitant, moving her congenial foul to refign herfelf to him in the
bonds of matrimony. From thence he fallied forth, and I trufl
unintentionally, gave rife to a crowd of fpiritual Quixotes (difowned
^ indeed by his admirers, as his genuine followers) who for a period
difturbed mankind with all the extravagancies that enthufiafm could

Return to Uherjlon, and dine with Mr. Kendal of that place, who
mewed me every civility. In his pofieffion faw a fingular tripodal
jug, found in the neighborhood : it was wide at the bottom, and
narrow a.-: the top, with a fpout and handle made of a mixed metal;
the height of the vefTel was eight inches three quarters, of the feet
two three quarters. One of the fame kind was found in the county
of Down*, in Ireland-, yet probably both might be Roman, the laft
brought by accident into that Kingdom ; for Mr. Gordon, tab. 42.
has given the figure of one carved on the fide of an altar.

Proceed by Newland iron furnace ; afcend a high hill whofe

* Antient and prefent State of the county of Down, p. 55.



very top, as well as others adjacent, appears well peopled. Defcend
to Penny-bridge, or Crakeford, where a fhip of 150 tons was then
building. Furnaces abound in thefe parts, and various forts of im-
plements of hufbandry are made here.

Keep along a narrow glen on excellent roads, amidft thick cop-
pices, or brum woods of various forts of trees, many of them Wood*.
planted exprefsly for the ufe of the furnaces or bloomeries. They
confifl chiefly of birch and hazel : not many years ago fhip loads
of nuts have been exported from hence. The woods are great
ornaments to the country, for they creep high up the hills : The
owners cut them down in equal portions, in the rotation of fixteen
years, and raife regular revenues out of them ; and often fuperior
to the rent of their land, for freeholders of fifteen or twenty-five
pounds per annum, are known to make conftandy fixty pounds a •
year from their woods. The furnaces for thefe laft fixty years have
brought a great deal of wealth into this country.

Obferve that the tops of all the a(h trees were lopped ; and was
informed that it was done to feed the cattle in Autumn, when the
grafs was on the decline -, the cattle peeling off the bark as a food.
In Queen Elizabeth's time the inhabitants of Colton and Hawkfoead
fells remonftrated againft the number of bloomeries then in the coun-
try, becaufe they confumed all the loppings and croppings, the fole
winter food for their cattle. The people agreed to pay to the Queen
the rent fhe received from thefe works, on condition they were fup-
preifed. Thefe rents now called Bloom Smithy, are paid to the crown
to this day, notwithstanding the improved ftate of the country has
rendered the ufe of the former indulgence needlefs.

Keep by the fide of the river Crake : near its difcharge from Conin-

F fton


34 A T O U R

Jlcn mere, at a place called Waterfoot, lay abundance of flate brought:
down by water from the quarries in the fells : obferved alfo great
heaps of birch befoms, which are alio articles for exportation.
CoNutsToN mere. Reach Coninfton or Thurjlain water, a beautiful lake, about (even
meafured miles long-, and the greateft breadth three quarters : the
greatelt depth from thirty to forty fathoms. At the S. end it is.
narrowed by the projection of feveral little headlands running far
into the water, and forming between them feveral pretty bays. A
little higher up the wideft part commences: from thence it runs
quite ftralt to the end, not incurvated as the maps make it. The
filli of this water are char and pike : a few years ago the firft were
fold for qs. 6d. per dozen, but, thanks to the luxury of the times^
are now railed to eight or nine (hillings. The fcenery about this
lake, which is fcarcely mentioned, is extremely noble. The E.
and W. fides are bounded by high hills often wooded ; but in gene-
ral compofed of grey rock, and coarfe vegetation •, much juniper
creeps along the furface, and fome beautiful hollies are finely inter-
mixed. At the north weftern extremity the vaft mountains called
Coninjion fells, form a magnificent mafs. In the midft is a great bo-
fom, retiring inward, which affords great quantities of fine flate.
The trade in this article has of late been greatly improved, and the
value of the quarries highly encreafed : a work that twenty years
ago did not produce to the landlord forty fhillings, at prefent brings
in annually as many pounds : and the whole quantity at this time
exported yearly from thefe mountains, is about two thoufand tuns.
At their feet is a fmall cultivated tract, filled with good farm
houfes, and near the water edge is the village and church of
Coninjion, Formerly thefe mountains yielded copper ; but of late




the works have been neglected on account of the poverty of the

Leave the fides of the lake, and afcend a fteep hill, furrounded
with woods. From the fummit have a fine view of the lake, the
ftupendous fells, and a winding chafm beneath fome black and
ferrated mountains.

The fields in thofe parts are often fenced with rows of great
Hates ; which no horfes will attempt leaping. See at a diftance a
piece of Winander mere, and that of Eafithwaite ; defcend the hill,
and foon reach the fmall town of Hawk/head, feated in a fertile
bottom. In the church is an altar tomb, with the effigies of
William Sandys, and Margaret his wife, moll rudely cut in Hone,
and done by order of his fon Edwin, Archbifhop of Tork, who
was born in a fmall houfe in this neighborhood. Round the tomb
is this infcription :

Conditur hoc tumulo, Guilielmus Sandes et uxor s

Cui Margareta nomen et omen erat.
Armiger ille fuit percharus regibus olim,

Ilia fed exemplar religionis erat.
Conjugii fuerant asquali forte beati,

Felices opibus, ftemmate, prole, fide.
Quos amor et pietas Iseto conjunxit eodem :

Hos fub fpe vitas continet ilte lapis.

Leave Hawkjhead, and ride by the fide of Urfwick mere, about May

two miles long, and three quarters broad ; on each fide orna- Urswick mere.
mented with a pretty elevated peninfula, jutting far into the water.
Its fifh are perch, called here bafs, pike, eels, but no trout. The Eels.

eels defcend in multitudes through the river that flows from this

F 2 mere

■ 3 6 A T O U R

mere into TVinander, beginning their migration with the firft floods
after midfummer ; and ceafe on the firft mows. The inhabitants
of the country take great numbers in wheels at that feafon •, when
it is their opinion that the eels are going into the fait water ; and
that they return in fpring.

The roads are excellent amidft fine woods, with grey rocks
patched with mofs rifing above. In one place obferved a Holly
park, a tract preferved entirely for fheep, who are fed in winter
with the croppings, Wild cats inhabit in too great plenty thefe
woods and rocks.

The Lichen Tartareus, or ftone rag, as it is called here, incrufts
moft of the ftones : is gathered for the ufe of dyers by the Pea-
Ian ts, who fell it at a penny per pound, and can collect two ftone
weight of it in a day.

Reach Graithwaite, the feat of Mr. Sandys; and from the cats
craig, an eminence near the houfe, have an extenfive view up and
down the water of Winander, for feveral miles. The variety of
beautiful bays that indent the fhore \ the fine wooded rifings that
bound each fide •, and the northern termination of lofty fells
patched with lhow, compote a fcene the moft picturefque that can
be imagined.

See on the plain part of thefe hills numbers of fpringes for
Woodcocks. woodcocks, laid between tufts of heath, with avenues of fmall
ftones on each fide, to direct thefe foolifh birds into the fnares,
for they will not hop over the pebbles. Multitudes are taken in
this manner in the open weather ; and fold on the fpot for fix-
teen pence or twenty pence a couple (about 20 years ago at fix-


pence or feven pence) and fent to the all-devouring capital, by
the Kendal ftage.

After breakfaft, take boat at a little neighboring creek, and
have a moil advantageous view of this beautiful lake, being fa-
vored with a calm day and fine Iky. The length of this water
is about twelve miles ; the breadth about a mile ; for the width is
unequal from the multitude of pretty bays, that give fuch an ele-
gant finuofity to its mores, efpecially thole on the eaft, or the
Wejlmoreland fide. The horns of thefe little ports project far,
and are finely wooded ; as are all the lelTer hills that fkirt the

At a diftance is another feries of hills, lofty, rude, grey and
mofTy ; and above them foar the immenfe heights of the fells of
Conenjion, the mountains oiWrynofe and Hard- knot, and the conic
points of Langden fells ; all except the firft in Cumberland.

The waters are difcharged out of the South end, at Newby-
bridge, with a rapid precipitous current, then affume the name
of Leven, and after a courfe of two miles fall into the eftuary
called the Leven fands. The depth of this lake is various, from
four yards and a half to feventy-four, and, excepting near the
fides, the bottom is entirely rocky : in fome places are vaft iuba-
queous precipices, the rock falling at once perpendicular, for the
depth of twenty-yards, within forty of the more ; and the fame
depth is preferved acrofs the channel. The fall of the Leven,
from the lake to high water mark, is ninety feet; the deepen: part
of the lake a hundred and thirty- two beneath that point.

The boatmen directed their courfe Northward, and brought us
by the heathy ifle of Lingholm, and the far projecting cape of



■"- jT*-"



Rawlinfon's Nab. On the left hand obferve the termination of
Lancafhire, juft South of the Stor, a great promontory in Wefi-
moreland^ all the remaining Weftern fide is clamed by the firft ;
but Wejlmor eland bounds the reft, fo has the faireft clame to call
itielf owner of this fuperb water.

On doubling the Stor a new expanfe opened before us j left the
little ifle of Crowbolme on the right, traverfed the lake towards
the horfe ferry, and a little beyond, the great Holme of thirty
acres croffes the water, and conceals the reft. This delicious ifle
is bleft with a rich pafturage, is adorned with a pretty grove, and
has on it a good houfe.

It has been the fortune of this beautiful retreat often to change
matters : the flattering hopes of the charms of retirement have
mifled feveral to purchafe it from the laft cheated owner, who
after a little time dilcovered, that a conftant enjoyment of the
fame objects, delightful as they were, foon fatiated. There muft
be fomething more than external charms to make a retreat from
the world long endurable ; the qualifications requifite fall to the
fhare of a very fewj without them difguft and wearinefs will foon
invade their privacy, notwithstanding they courted it with all the
paflion and all the romance with which the poet did his mif-
trefs *.

Sic ego fecretis poflum bene vivere fylvis,

Qua nulla humano fit via trita pede.
Tu mihi curarum requies, tu node vel atra

Lumen, et in folis tu mihi turba locis,

/ • Tibullus iv. 13, 9.



From this ifland began a new and broader extent of water, bounded
on the Weft by the bold and lofty face of a fleep hill, patched
with the deep green of vaft yews and hollies, that embellifhed
its naked flope. This expanfe is varied with feveral very pretty
ifles, fome bare, others j uft appear above water, tufted with trees :
on the North-Eaft fide is the appearance of much cultivation -, a
trad near the village of Boulnefs falls gently to the water edge,
and rifes again far up a high and large mountain, beyond which
is a grand fkreen of others, the pointed heads of Troutbeck fells,
the vaft rounded mafs of Fairfield, and the ftill higher fummit of

Land, and dine in


at Boulnefs, antiently called Winander, giving name to the lake ; and
am here treated with moft delicate trout and perch, the fifh of this
water. The charr is found here in great plenty > and of a fize fu- Chariu

perior to thofe in Wales. They fpawn about Michaelmas, in the river
Brat bay, which, with the Rowthay are the great feeds of the lake,
preferring the rocky bottom of the former to the gravelly bottom
of the other. The fifherrnen diftinguifti two varieties, the cafe-
charr and the gelt-charr, i. e, a fifh which had not fpawned the
laft feafon, and efteemed by them the more delicate : this fpawns
from the beginning of January to the end of March, and never
afcends the river, but fele&s for that purpofe the moft gravelly
parts of the lake, and that which abounds moft with fprings.




It is taken in greateft plenty from the end of September to the

Online LibraryThomas PennantA tour in Scotland, and voyage to the Hebrides, 1772 (Volume 1) → online text (page 3 of 31)