portraits, probably entirely to the hero William
Craven, a most distinguished personage of this
Portraits. In the north parlour is a fine full-length of his
Adolphus. great master in the art of war, Gustavus Aaolpnas ;
under whose banners he defended the Protestant
cause in Germany, and, when very young, gained
immortal honor at the desperate storming of the
fortress of Creutzenach, in the palatinate.
James A full-length of James Stewart Duke of
T~)titc f of
Richmond. Richmond, in black, with long flowing flaxen hair,
and a dog by him. This illustrious nobleman
forms one of the most amiable characters in the
reign of Charles I. His attachment and affection
to his royal relation was unequalled : he is even
said to have offered his own life, to save that of
his devoted master 1 . He was permitted to attend
the funeral of the beloved remains ; then lingered
away a few years, and died a victim to grief on
March 30, 1655.
Frederick V. elector palatine, a full-length, in
1 Pcrichef, as quoted by Mr. Hume.
PORTRAITS THERE. 241
robes, and with the unfortunate crown which he KlNG 0F
wore, as short-lived king of Bohemia, elected by
the revolted state in 16 19, when it attempted to
shake off the yoke of the emperor Ferdinand II.
The battle of Prague, in the following year, de-
prived Frederick of his new kingdom and his he-
reditary dominions, and, from a potent prince,
reduced him to a fugitive beggar in Holland. He
survived his own misfortunes twelve years, but
died with grief, on the death of his great friend
Gustavus Adolphus, in 1632.
Near him is his queen, dressed in black, and Elizabeth
1 Queen of
with a melancholy look. She was the daughter Bohemia.
of our peaceful monarch James I. ; who, either
through hatred of war, or disapprobation of his
son-in-law's ambition, reluctantly undertook his
defence, and made, under Mansfield, an unfortu-
nate essay. His daughter Elizabeth supported
her unhappy situation with uncommon dignity,
and shewed, amidst the most distressful poverty,
an illustrious example of magnanimity. She vi-
sited the army of Gustavus, which had in view
her husband's restoration, as well as the giving
liberty to the German Protestants. The English
volunteers seem to have fought her battles, inspired
by love. She was the admiration of the camp,
and had votaries among every nation. The young
242 COMBE ABBEY:
Craven was among her warmest devotees, and
continued his attachment to the last moment of
her life ; possessed her deserved confidence, di-
rected all her affairs, and gave a most distinguish-
ing proof of his esteem, by building for her use,
at his estate in Berkshire, a magnificent palace.
The difference of rank alone prevented the publi-
cation of their union, which is generally supposed
to have taken place. Her spotless fame was
never aspersed with improper connection.
William I must step to another room, the picture-gal-
Crave. lery, for the portrait of her admirer ; a fine head,
with the body armed, and crossed with a sash.
Let me finish his history with saying, that after
the death of Gust amis, he retired from the Swedish
army into the service of the Dutch, and, notwith-
standing he never interfered in the civil wars of
his own country, yet, in 1650, his estates were
confiscated by the parlement (as is said) through
false accusations of favors done to the exiled king.
On the restoration he came over, and in 1670, on
the death of the Duke of Albemarle, he was ap-
pointed colonel of the Coldstream regiment of
guards. His gallant spirit never forsook him : he
braved the pestilence in its greatest fury, and, with
a few other worthies, undertook the care of Lon-
don in 1665, during the desolation of the plague;
PORTRAITS THERE. 243
and in every fire, was so active in preventing the
devastation of that other scourge, that it was said,
" his very horse smelt it out."
1 must return to the parlour, to mention a fine Conversa-
T -n TION-
conversation-piece, consisting of Prince Rupert, Piece.
Prince Maurice, and the Duke of Richmond at
table, in the manner of Dobson, by Hont hurst.
Those of the king of Bohe?nia and his queen are
by the same hand; Honthurst having had the
honor of instructing that unfortunate princess and
A head of Raphael.
The brazen serpent, surrounded by the terrified
multitude : a fine performance.
Judith and Holqfernes. Her maid, a swarthy
old woman, is performing the operation of cutting
off the head.
On the stair-case is a large picture of Lord T.ord
Craven on horseback, with a truncheon in his
In the breakfast-room is a fine scene among
the Alps, by John Loten, a Dutchman, who, re-
siding much in Switzerland, became celebrated for
his wild romantic views.
In the picture-gallery is a fine half-length of
David, with the head of Goliah, by Guercino.
Frederick Tromellus, count Lavella, a head. John
Ernest duke of Savoy.
'244 COMBE ABBEY:
Gustavus Gustavus Adolphus, a half-length ; and the heads
Adolphus. _ ...
of sixteen of his illustrious generals, by Mirevelt.
These, and most of the other portraits of men of
eminence in Germany \ were brought over by the
queen of Bohemia, and by her bequeathed by will
to Lord Craven.
Mirevelt A head of Mirevelt, and another of Honthurst,
AND . >
Honthurst. painted by themselves. The former resided chiefly
at Delft, and was prevented visiting England
by reason of the plague. The latter was here
some time, by the encouragement of Charles I.
Christian Christian Duke of Brunswick, a fierce hero in
Brunswick, the army of Gustavus, subdued by the charms of
our royal countrywoman. It is said, that he
snatched a glove from her, put it in his cap, and
swore he would never part with it, till he saw her
husband in possession of the capital of Bohemia.
Lord Sir Edward Cecil, third son of the Earl of
Wimbledon. . .
Lxeter, a celebrated commander during thirty-five
years in the Netherlands. He died in 1638, after
being honored with the title of Lord Wimbledon".
"' Harte's Gustavus Adolphus, i. 177.
n He is buried in a chapel erected for the purpose, opening
to the chancel of Wimbledon church, under a very handsome
tomb, with the following inscription: " Sir Edtvard Cecil, Knt.
" Lord Cecil, Baron of Putney, and Viscount Wimbledon, 3
" son of Thomas earl of Exeter, and Dorothea Nevil, one of the
" coheirs of Lord Nevil, and grandchild of Lord Treasurer
" Burlewh. 1638."
PORTRAITS THERE. 245
His picture is a head, with short grey hair; his
body in rich armour, with a sash. From this the
print by Simon Pass was taken.
A REMARKABLE legend of OttO, Or Otho I. Legend of
& . Otho I.
earl of Oldenberg, represented as wearied with the
chace, and separated from his companions, on a
wild mountain. When he was almost fainting
with thirst, a beautiful virgin, in white, with long
flowing hair, and a garland on her head, burst out
of the side of the hill, and offered him drink out
of a rich horn, which she put into his hand, assur-
ing him, that if he drank, prosperity would attend
him and his house. He disliked the proposal,
suspecting deceit. Accordingly, pouring some of
the liquor on the hind part of his horse, he found it
so noxious as to take off the hair. He instantly
rode off with the horn full speed, terrified at the
adventure, and the spectre retired into the bowels
of the mountain. The horn, which gave rise to
this fable, is of silver, gilt, and of most exquisite
workmanship, and is still preserved in the mu-
seum at Copenhagen . Instead of being of the
age of Otho I. or about the year 918, it is proved
to have been made by Christian I. in honor of
the three kings of Cologne, whose names are in-
scribed on it; for it seems it was customary,
Museum Regium Havnia, &c. pars II. sect. iii. par. 60.
a*6 COMBE ABBEY :
among the northern nations, to dedicate their cups
or horns to saints, and make large libations out of
them, invoking the saint to assist the mighty
draught: Help Got unde Maria dat Iw Got p .
What gave rise to the particular legend relative to
the horn, is the figure of a woman on the recur-
vated tip, with a label, with this jovial exhortation,
Drinc all wt ; and round the lip, O mater Dei
In several apartments, whose names I have for-
gotten,are a variety of other paintings and portraits.
Among them is one of the founder of the fa-
SiRWiLLiAM m jiy 5 j r lVim am Craven, lord mayor of London,
by Jansen ; two full-lengths of Earl Craven, in
armour, one very spirited ; and a portrait of Sir
William Craven of this place, by Sir Peter Lely ;
Countess of Lucy countess of Bedford, by Jansen, in the same
attitude and dress in which she is painted at JVo-
burn and at Alloa q .
Henry An elegant figure of Henry prince of JVales, in
Prince of . & . J * '
Wales, a gay silk jacket, crimson hose, roses to his shoes,
a white silk hat and feather before him, and a
glove in one hand. He stands in a room with a
pretty view through the window. Drawn while
that amiable prince was in his boyhood.
P Museum llcgium Havnia, &c. pars II. sect. iii. par. 62.
Tour Scotl. 1772, part ii. p. 222.
PORTRAITS THERE. 47
Charles II. when young; his body armed with Charles II.
steel, the rest with buff.
General Monk, cloathed entirely in buff. General
This species of defence was usually made of the
skin of the elk, and oftentimes of the stag, and
was proof against a ball.
Duke of Ormond, by Sir Pete?" Lely. *? UKE 0F
J J Ormond.
A pretty half-length of Lord Herbert, young, Lord
in armour, laced cravat, and his helmet before
The punishment of sloth: a man whipping a
woman out of bed.
A fine decollation of St. John, by Albert
Durer. The executioner sheathing his sword;
Herodiass daughter receives the head with great
satisfaction of countenance; and her swelling waist
shews the price of the Baptist's destruction.
Four musicians : two, a Flemish gentleman
and a lady ; the other, peasants : a capital per-
formance, by Frank Hals.
The offering of the wise men in the east, by
Paul Veronese, equally fine.
An old woman and boy, heads, by candle-light,
Two fine paintings, by Rembrandt, of two phi-
losophers; each with a noble pupil: one in a
Turkish dress ; the other in an ermine robe. These
young figures are called Prince Rupert and Prince
248 COVENTRY: CHARTREUX.
Maurice. The time of the residence of their mo-
ther in Holland, agrees entirely with that of Rem-
brandt in Amsterdam, which makes the conjecture
probable r .
I returned through Coventry, and, passing
over the site of the New gate, soon entered on a
long common. At about a mile's distance from
the city, on the left side of the road, stood the
Chartreux, Chartreux, now inhabited by Inge, Esquire.
Little of the antient building remains. The wall
of the precinct is still standing, and in a wall in
the garden are the marks of many small doors, the
entrance into the cells of the austere inhabitants.
This religious house arose from the pious in-
tentions of William Lord Zouch, of Harringxcorth,
in Northamptonshire, who obtaining, in 1381, four-
teen acres of land in this place from Sir Baldzvyn
Frevile the elder, determined on that to erect a
monastery of Carthusians, and endow it with am-
ple revenues. Death prevented the execution;
r When the editor visited Combe Abbey in 1809, the house
and grounds were undergoing considerable alterations, and
most of the pictures were taken down. Among the few por-
traits unnoticed by Mr. Pennant, he remarked six heads of the
children of the Elector Palatine, all handsome, particularly
the princess Sophia, the future electress of Hanover. Here
are also shewn five portraits of Palatine princesses, said to
have been painted by the hand of Sophia. Ed.
but in his last illness he left sixty pounds towards
a future establishment.
The design was speedily completed by various
pious persons. Richard Luff, a mayor of Co-
ventry, and Richard Botoner, a fellow-citizen,
bestowed four hundred marks on the church-choir,
cloisters, and three cells : others followed their
example. Richard II. on his return from Scot-
land, in 1385, assumed the honor of being the
founder, and, at the instance of his queen Anne,
laid the first stone of the church with his own
hands, declaring, in the presence of his nobility,
and of the mayor and citizens of Coventry, that
he would bring it to perfection. After this, it
received considerable endowments, and at the dis-
solution was found, according to Dugdale, to be
possessed of <.131. 6s. Sd. above all reprizes.
The prior seemed to want the resolution of this
severe and conscientious order ; for more of this
than of any other resisted the will of their cruel
monarch, and underwent martyrdom in support of
the trusts committed to them. It is probable that
John Bochard, the last who presided over the
house, was prevaled on to surrender for the con-
sideration of the great pension of forty pounds a
year ; after which it was granted to Richard An-
drews and Leonard Chamberlain.
A little farther I crossed the Sher bourn,
<2jO WHITLEY. KNIGHTLOW.
Whitley, leaving on the right Whitley, a large old house, in
which Charles I. resided during the attempt upon
Coventry'. I was told, that the history of many
of his actions had been painted on the wainscot.
About a mile and a half from hence I passed the
Avon, at Ryton bridge. This is the river that
runs hy Warwick and Stratford, and discharges
itself into the Severn, near Tewkesbury ; still re-
taining the British name Afon, or river, as is the
case with several others watering English ground.
Ascend an extensive brow, commanding a rich
and vast view toward the north and west. On
the summit is a tumulus, from which the spot,
Kuightlow. which gives name to the hundred, is called Knight-
low, or mount. It seems to have been sepulchral,
and to have covered the ashes of some Roman
eques, or knight, from which it was denominated.
It lies very near a great Roman road, as is cus-
tomary with similar memorials. On it in after-
times stood a cross, on whose base the inhabitants
of several towns in this hundred still attend, and
pay the dues to the lord on Martinmass-d&y : the
sums are from ]d. to Qs. 3d. each. These rents
are called Wroth-money, and Worth or Swarff
Now belonging to, and the residence of, the right honor-
able Lord Hood, who married the only daughter and heiress
of its late owner, Francis Whder, Esq. Ed.
ROMAN ROAD. WILLOUGHBY. 251
penny, and are supposed by Dugdale to be the
same as ward-penny : Vicecomiti aut aliis castel-
lanis persoluti ob castrorum presidium vel excubias
agendas. They must be paid at this cross before
sun-rise, and the party paying must go thrice
round the cross, say wroth-money, and put it into
the hole in the stone before good witness, or on
omission to forfeit thirty shillings and a white
bull 1 .
A small distance beyond, the Roman foss-way Roman
crosses the road : it enters this county at High
Cross, on the verge of Leicestershire, where it is
intersected by the great Wat ling-street, and tra-
verses direct to Stafford upon Foss, near the edge
Go over Dunsmore heath (now inclosed), and,
after riding in a tedious avenue of elms and firs
for five miles, reach Dunchurch, or the church on
the hill; a small village, whose church once be-
longed to the monks of Pipwell, in Northampton-
Descend the hill, and about three miles further
go near Willoughby, or the place of willozvs; a WlLL0UG "~
little village, with a church dedicated to St. Ni-
cholas, formerly appropriated to the hospital of
St. John without East-gate, Oxford; now in the
* Dugdale, i. 4.
252 BEIGHTON, THE SURVEYOR.
patronage of Magdalen College. This bottom, at
present enlivened with the windings of the canal,
assumes a commercial appearance, by the number
of new buildings rising on its banks, and the ma-
gazines of coal and limestone laid up for sale.
The former gives a most comfortable prospect to
the half-starved inhabitants of Northamptonshire,
by flattering them with the speedy approximation
of the means of warmth, and giving to their poor
good fuel, instead of the wretched substitute of
horse-dung, which they collect in scanty portions
for that purpose.
It would be ungrateful to leave Warwickshire,
without paying a tribute to the memory of Mr.
Henry Beighton, author of the map of this county".
As it was the earliest, so it was the best perform-
ance of the kind. He had an estate of about a
hundred a year, in the parish of Coton, in this
county. He assisted his income by surveying, in
which, for elegance, accuracy, and expedition, he
had few equals. He left behind him, in his neigh-
borhood, numbers of excellent surveyors, who own
him for their master. His account of London
bridge, in the Philosophical Transactions, shews
his skill in mechanics. He was interred at Chil-
lers Coton ; where a small monument barely tells
u He begun his survey in 1725, and finished it in 1729.
that he lived and died, without mentioning his
merit : neglected by his countrymen during life,
he never met with encouragement to publish his
admirable map, which was done about the year
1750, by subscription, for the support of his
From Willoughby I instantly entered
in the parish of Braunston. The village, church Braunstojt.
with spire steeple, and a number of narrow in-
closures, appear on the side of a slope, on the left
of the road. This is among the few places I ne-
glected to visit. I must therefore speak from Mr.
Bridges of its cross, twenty-four feet high; of the
effigy of the Knight Templar in the church ; and
of the instance of the longevity of William Bren,
of this village, who attained the age of an hundred
After the Conquest, the D 'Aienconrts and
the Peverels held land here. From the last it
fell, by marriage, to Albricius de Harcourt ; by
his daughter, to William de Trussebot, a man
raised from a low situation, by his desperate va-
lour, to great estates. In the reign of king Ste-
phen, being attacked in Bonville, of which he was
governor, he set fire to his own house in four
354 SINGULAR TENURE.
places; which so terrified the enemy, that they
instantly evacuated the town.
By his daughter Roese, it fell to Everard de
Roos; a family who flourished here for several
centuries, a distinguished race. One of them,
William, was clamant to the crown of Scotland,
under the arbitration of Edward I. x They be-
came extinct in the male line, in the reign of
Henry VII. when Elinor, eldest sister of the last
lord Roos, conveyed it by marriage to Sir Robert
Manners; and it was sold by his descendant,
Henry Earl of Rutland (who died in 1563) to
Gregory Isham of London, merchant, a younger
son of the respectable and antient family of that
The present lord of the manor is Web,
Esquire, who keeps in the small manor-house a
Singular court-leet and baron. The tenure of a consider-
able portion of land in the parish is very singular.
If a widow appears at the next court after her
husband's death, and presents a leathern purse
with a groat in it, she can keep her husband's
copyhold lands for life ; but she must attend every
court after she has done this service.
Erom Dunchurch the country grows hilly, and
till of late was uninclosed; pleasant during the
x Sir David Dulrymplc's Annals Scot!, i. 203.
verdure of the young, and the rich yellow of the
ripened corn. About three miles from Braunston
appears Daventry, on the side and top of a hill. Davektry.
The place is populous, and carries on a consider-
able manufacture of whips : it is an incorporated
town, governed by a bailiff, twelve burgesses, and
a recorder ; has two Serjeants at mace, and one
town-clerk. The bailiff for the time is justice of
the peace, and also the year following, and is like-
wise coroner of the inquest. The Serjeants may ar-
rest any one within their jurisdiction for a sum under
one hundred pounds, and the cause is to be de-
cided here. No county justice hath power in this
place; the justices of the borough having power
of commitment to the county-jail in criminal
cases. The inhabitants also enjoy the privilege
of exemption from serving on juries at the county
assizes. Its charter is said to have been first
granted by king John, and was renewed by queen
Daventry is of considerable antiquity ; espe-
cially if we give into the derivation of its name,
They Afon tre, the town of the two Avons, or ri-
vers, from its situation between them. Certainly
it was a place of note at the Conquest ; had in it
sixteen plough-lands; in the manor three, with
three slaves, twenty villeyns, a presbyter, and ten
boors, and twelve acres of meadow. It had been
256 DAVENTRY PRIORY.
worth three pounds; after that event improved to
This was a part of the great possessions of the
countess Judith, niece to the Conqueror, whom
he had married to the brave IValtheof Earl of
, Northumberland; and farther to engage his fide-
lity, he gave with her this county, and that of
Huntingdon. IValtheof unfortunately engaged in
a conspiracy, and, notwithstanding he repented,
and flung himself at the king's mercy, was be-
headed in 1074, at the instigation of his wife y .
It seems she had cast a favorable eye on another
person, but was disappointed ; for the king offered
to her Simon de Liz, a noble Norman, lame of one
leg : him she rejected ; which so enraged her un-
cle, that he deprived her of the two earldoms, and
gave them to De Liz, with her eldest daughter ;
which obliged Judith to a state of penitentiary
widowhood during life.
Priory. Here are some remains of the priory, inhabited
by poor families. The place is easily discovered,
by several gothic windows, and a door accessible
by a great flight of steps. Four Cluniac monks
were originally placed at Preston Capes, in this
county, by Hugh de Leicester, sheriff of the
county, and steward to Maud, sister to the first
r Order: Vital.
DAVENTRY PRIORY. 257
S. Liz Earl of Huntingdon; but finding the situa-
tion inconvenient, for want of water, he built a
priory, and removed them here, about the year
1090. It was dedicated to St. Augustine, and
was subordinate to St. Mary de Caritate 2 . Its
spiritualities were valued at ,.115 17*. 4f/. per
annum; its temporalities . 120 10.?. Qd. Car-
dinal Wolsey directed five of his emissaries to
pick a quarrel with the poor monks, about certain
lands of theirs ; and, causing the dispute to be
referred to himself, took occasion to dissolve the
house, and, as Stow says, to be given to his own
college. " But of this irreligious robbery, done
" of no conscience, but to patch up pride, which
" private wealth could not furnish, what punish-
" ment hath since ensued by God's hand (sayeth
" mine author) partly ourselves have seen ; for of
" those five persons, two fell at discord between
" themselves, and the one slew the other ; for
" which the survivor was hanged : the third
" drowned himself in a well : the fourth, being
" well known, and valued worth two hundred
" pounds, became in three years so poore, that
" he begged till his dying-day : and the fift, called
" Doctor Allane, being cheefe executor of these
" doings, was cruelly maimed in b eland, even at
z Tanner, 375.
DAVENTRY CHURCH. BOROUGH-HILL.
" such time as he was bishop \" The pious his-
torian then traces the judgment to the cardinal,
who died under the king's displeasure : to the col-
leges which occasioned the sacrilege ; that of Ips-
wich being pulled down ; that of Christ-church
never finished under Woheys patronage : and
lastly to the pope, who permitted these violences
on religious houses ; for he was besieged in his
holy see, and suffered a long imprisonment.
Church. The parish-church was formerly the conventual :
of late years it has been handsomely rebuilt ; but
is no more than a curacy in the gift of Christ-
church college. The arms of the college, and of
the Earl of Winchelsea, lord of the manor, grace
the east window.
From Daventry I visited the noted camps on
Borough-hill, or Danes-hill, about a mile south-
east of the town. It is lofty and insulated. The
area is of an oblong or oval form, about a mea-
sured mile in length, and near two in circum-
ference. The whole is surrounded by two, three,
or four deep trenches, and the same number of