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father's sufferings in the cause of the see of Rome,
received the honor of Knight of the Bath at the
coronation of queen Mary. He died in 1571.

His son Sir George lies in alabaster, recumbent
and armed, with peaked beard and small whiskers.
His wife, Mary daughter of Thomas Curzon, of
Addington, Bucks, lies by him, dressed in a gown
tied neatly with ribands from top to bottom, a
quilled ruff, and great tete a caleche. Beneath
are represented, kneeling, their seven sons and
eight daughters. Above all, is a vast quantity of
ornaments, arms, fyc. $c. This gentleman might,
like Sir Fulk Grevil, have boasted of being the
friend of Sir Philip Sydney, having contracted an
intimacy with him in the wars in the Netherlands,
where he served all his . youth, under William

a Collins's Peerage, v. 50.



27S TOMBS IN EASTON-NESTON CHURCH.

prince of Orange, and walked at the funeral of the
celebrated English hero. He also improved him-
self by foreign travel; lived at home with vast
splendor and hospitality ; and, on June 11,1 603,
his house had the honor of being the place of
meeting between James I. and his queen, on her
journey from Scotland, to receive her new crown.
Here they dined, and were entertained, with all
their trains, in a princely manner b . He quitted
this life in 1612.

Sir Nation Termor, who with nine other gen-
tlemen were knighted at the above interview, is
also buried here. He died of the consequences
of a broken leg, in 1620. He and his lady are
very elegant figures, placed standing ; he armed ;
in great boots, flapping down ; vast whiskers ;
peaked beard ; and, what was not in use at the
time of his death, a cravat. It seems the monu-
ment was not erected till 1662, when his widow
Anna, daughter of Sir William Cochain, lord
mayor of London, gave this proof of her affection.
She is dressed in a loose gown, and with long
flowing tresses : her hand is on an hour-glass ; his
on a scroll : between, is a bust of a man in long
hair : above, are three most aukward figures of
kneeling women. I must not quit the lady, with-

* Collins, 52.



Whittle-
bury



WHITTLEBURY FOREST. 279

out saying she suffered, with exemplary patience,
a long imprisonment and great confiscations, on
account of the loyalty of her family ; which were
rewarded with a peerage in the person of her son
Sir William Fermor.

From hence I continued my journey southward,
and much of the way near the borders of Whit tie-
wood, or Whittlebury Forest, which still continues
wooded for several miles in length, and of different Forest.
extents in breadth, in a most deep and clayey
country. Much of the timber is cut in rotation,
but in parts towards the edge of Buckinghamshire,
are considerable quantities of good oak. This
forest remained in the crown till the year 1685,
when Henry Fitz-roy, first duke of Grafton, was
appointed hereditary ranger. The present duke
hath an elegant house, called Wakefield Lodge",
originally built by Mr. Claypole, son-in-law to
Oliver Cromwell, and ranger of the forest. This
was one of the five tracts, called walks ; viz.
Wakefield, Shelbrook, Hazelbury, Shrob, and
Hanger. Fourteen townships are allowed the
right of common in the open coppices and ridings,
from the principle of justice, that some reparation
might be made to them for the damages sustained
by the deer. In this great tract are two lawns,

c Designed by W. Kent.



280 WHITTLEBURY FOREST.

i . e. spots inclosed with pales, for pasture for the
deer : one is Wakefield Lawn, the other Sholbrook
Lawn, which are secluded from the forest cattle.

That fierce animal the wild cat, is still met
with in this forest. In the reign of Richard I. the
abbot and convent of Peterborough had a charter
for hunting in this place the hare, the fox, and the
wild cat; which was confirmed to them, in 1253,
by Henry III d . By these charters, it appears
the wild cat should be added to the beasts of
forest, or of venerie ; which the book of St. Albans,
and old Sir Tristram, in his xvorthie Treatise of
Hunting, confined to the hart, the hynde, the hare,
the boare, and the wolfe : the hart and hind being
separated, because the season of hunting them was
different ; yet they remain in species still the same.
Beasts of the chace (which was an inferior sort of
forest) were the buck, the doe, the fox, the martin,
and the roe c .

The fondness that seized the regular clergy for
the pleasures of the chace, did not appear till after
the Conquest. The Saxon clergy were expressly
forbidden the amusement. King Edgar directs
the priest " to be neither a hunter nor hawker,
nor yet a tippler ; but to keep close to his books,
as becomes a man of his order'. "

A Morton, 443. e Manwood's Forest Laws, 39.

f Leges Saxon. 86.



POTTERS PERY. 281

The canon law still preserved its severity, and
forbad to spiritual persons the amusement of the
chace. This probably was rather designed to
check what might, by the excess, estrange them
from their sacred function. The common law,
from a principle of good sense and humanity, per-
mitted the recreation, because nothing could con-
tribute more effectually to the performance of their
duty than good health, resulting from fit exercise ;
as nothing could disqualify them so greatly as the
disorders arising from a sedentary life. This in-
dulgence probably soon ended in abuse. In the
twelfth century, we find Abelard unhappy in pre-
siding over a monastery of huntsmen. Chaucer,
as I have before quoted, flings a fine ridicule on
the sporting monk. Finally, the chace became so
necessary an appendage to the ecclesiastical state,
that every see had a number of parks : that of
Norivich, thirteen ; and the sixth mortuary which
the king clamed on the death of a prelate, was his
kennel of hounds.

Pass by Potters Pery, a village which takes Potters
its name from the manufacture of coarse ware,
such as flower-pots, 8$c. which has been long car-
ried on here. The clay is yellowish, pure, and
firm; yet the pots made with it are very brittle,
unless glazed ; when they endure the weather as
well as any.



282 PASSENHAM. OLD STRATFORD.

The post-road is still continued the whole way
on or near the Wat ling-street. Near Potters
Pery I quitted it, through the curiosity of visiting

Passenham. Passenham, about a mile or two distant, on the
banks of the Ouze, near this village. Edzvard the
Elder encamped here to cover his workmen, who
were employed in building the walls of Toucester 1 ,
from being interrupted by the Danes. A square
entrenchment is supposed to have been cast up by
him, and garrisoned for that purpose.
Church. The church is small, and without ailes ; dedi-
cated to Guthlaius, the saint of the fens. It was
rebuilt in 1626, at the sole expence of Sir Robert
Banastre. This gentleman was lord of the ma-
nor; he died in 1649, aged about eighty. His
figure is a half-length, with a book in his hand,
placed against the wall. His epitaph informs us,
that he was born at Wem, in Shropshire ; that he
was bred at court, and served three princes ; that
he had three wives, and by the last an only daugh-
ter, who conveyed the estate, by marriage with
William lord Maynard, into that family ; a younger
branch of which possesses it, as I apprehend, at
present.

I regained the great road, and passed through

Stratford, the hamlet of Old Stratford, seated on rich mea-

8 Saxon Chron. 103.



OLD STRATFORD. 283

dows, watered by the Ouzc, which rises in this
county, not remote from Brackly. This place is
reasonably supposed to have been the Lactodorum,
or Lactorodum, of the Itinerary, as the distance
suits extremely well, and Roman coins have been
found in the neighboring fields. Antiquaries de-
rive it from Llech dwr, and Llech ryd : one signi-
fying the stone on the water ; the other, the stone
on the ford h : a name bestowed on it by the Bri-
tons, probably because the bank of the river was
marked by a miliary stone on this great military
way. I here cross the river into

BUCKINGHAMSHIRE ;

which, with Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire, form-
ed the country of the Catticuchlani. The present
name is, according to Mr. Camden, taken from
the quantity of beeches found in parts of it; a
word derived from the Saxon bucken. Two argu-
ments serve to confirm the assertion of Caisar,
that this tree was not found in Britain at the time
of his invasion : one is, that the woods of it are
merely local, and confined to a very few of our
southern counties : the other is, that the Britons
had no name for it, but what they derived from

h See Gale, 60, and Burton, 144.



284 STONEY STRATFORD.

the Latin fagus ; for they stiled it, as we do still,

Ffawydden, and Prenffawydd.

On crossing the Ouze I entered Stoney Strat-
Stoney < *

Stratford, jm/, a town built on each side of the 1 Vat ling-
street. It suffered greatly by fire on May the
19th, 1742, which almost destroyed the whole
place ; but it was soon restored by the vigour of
English charity. One church (that of St. Giles)
has never been rebuilt ; the body of the other (St.
Magdalene s) is restored in a very handsome man-
ner, by Mr. Irons, architect in Warwick, and, I
suppose, enlarged sufficiently to supply the want
of the other. St. Giles's had been a chantry, va-
lued at 9,0. 2s. 6d. a year ; and was at the time
of its ruin a curacy : St. Magdalene's was a cha-
pel belonging to Wolverton, but is now in the pre-
sentation of the parishioners.

My journey was continued along the Street
road to the 47th stone, where, tempted by the
fame of certain monuments in Blecheley church, I

T5t FCHFLFY

Church, digressed about a mile and a quarter to the right.
I found there a very fine alabaster tomb of Richard

Tomb op k r d Grey of Wilton, restored by the celebrated
Lord Grey, antiquarian Brozvn Willis, Esquire, who added an
inscription, and in the front the arms. From the
former we find, that besides Richard, his son Re-
ginald, who died February 22, 1493; and his



BLEdHELEY CHURCH. TOMBS. 285

great grandson Edmund, who died in Water-hall
on May 6th, 161 1 ; were interred here.

This Richard Lord Grey, by will, dated at
Blecheley, August 12, 1442, bequeaths his body
to be buried in the church of the B. V. Mary of
Blecheley ; and directs his executors to find a
priest, for four years, to perform divine service in
the said church for his soul ; and that they make
a tomb of alabaster or marble, according to his
state and degree. He bequeaths to the lady Mar-
garet his wife, his manor of Burry-hall, in Essex,
for life. The residue of his lands and goods he
gives to his executors, to dispose of for the health
of his soul ; viz. the lady Margaret Grey, Robert
Darcy, Esquire, John Habethal, Esquire, Roger
Eton Clerc, rector of Blecheley, and William
Barker \

The tomb is of alabaster: his figure is armed,
his hair cropt, his face without a beard ; round his
neck is a collar of SS, and round the lower part
of his armour is another collar of jewels, in the
midst of which is a small shield with the cross of
St. George; for he was made Knight of the Gar-
ter by Richard II. On the fingers of his left
hand are not fewer than six rings.

Notwithstanding it may be thought tedious

1 His will, dated Aug. 12, 1442. Mr. Cole's MSS.



286 TOMBS IN BLECHELEY CHURCH.

to many, yet I cannot forbear describing two mo-
numents, full of the fashionable emblem, pun, and
quibble of the times. The first is in memory of
Dr.Sparke. Thomas Sparke, S. S ce . Theol. Dr. celeber. hu-
jus eccle. rector vigilant issimus, as inscribed round
the oval that contains his figure. A little altar
with sparkling flames is placed near his name.
The monument is a small but extremely neat one
of brass, set in a white marble frame : on the top
is the crest, a demi talbot rampant, studded with
torteauxes, and sparks of fire issuing from his
mouth : on the brass is finely engraven an altar-
tomb, on the table of which is an urn, with sparks
issuing from the mouth; and on the belly is
written

Non extincta, sepulta licet ; Scintilla favilla est.

On the left side of the urn stands Death, in form
of a skeleton, holding a spade, on the flat part of
which, going to cover the mouth of the urn, is
wrote Mors tegit ; and an angel in the heavens
sounding a trumpet, from the end of which issues
these words, Reteget nuntius iste tuba ; and on a
scroll, in the same hand, is written, Ista caduca
rosaest: just above which, in the other hand of
the angel, is a fresh-blown rose, inscribed Sed re-
novata tamen ; about the angel's head, and in the
clouds, are several stars : and quite at top is writ-



TOMBS IN BLECHELEY CHURCH. 287

ten, Qui multos ad justitiam adducunt, ut stellce
semper splendebunt.

Fame, with her usual attributes of ears, eyes,
and tongues, blowing a trumpet, stands on the
other side of the urn. On each side of her are
two scrolls : on one is,

Vindex fama libros fatali tollit ab urna;

on the other,

Sic Scintilla micat quern tegit atra cinis.

Fame holds in one hand a book, near the mouth
of the urn, on which is written Funeral Sermons.
On other books, scattered about, are inscribed, A
Persuasive to Conformity ; A confortable Treatise
for a troubled Conscience ; Motives to Qu. Eliza-
beth for her Successor ; A Treatise of Catechising ;
A Confutation of J. Albin ; and out of the mouth
of the trumpet, The high way to Heaven. These
were the works of the Doctor, who was a most
famous controversialist, in the reigns of Elizabeth
and James I. He is engraven in front of the
tomb, a half-length, in gown, cassock, scarf, scull-
cap, ruff, and square beard. On each side of him
is a shield : on one is Scutum Jidei : on the other,
Arma nostra sunt spiritualia. On one side of the
figure are three clergymen in their habits, kneel-
ing, with a church by each ; and beyond them two



288 TOMBS IN BLECHELEY CHURCH.

women in high-crowned hats. These five were
his children, whom he admonishes, Filioli cavete
vobis ab idolis ; and above their heads are these
lines :

Bis geniti, retinete, fidem zelumque paternum :
Hoeredes vestri sic decet esse patris ;

Sic decet, O mea tunc quam molliter ossa cubabunt
Si licet in natis sic superesse meis :

Scintillam Scintilla meam si vestra sequetur
Orba sua flamma mors erit ara Dei.

On the other side of his picture are represented
his parishioners, with these verses :

2 Cor. iii. 5. Ut sacra in populo signatur epistola Pauli
Sic mea in hoc sancto lucet imago grege.

Corporis in tabula datur imperfecta; sed ilia
Cordibus in vestris viva figura mei est.

Viva mei, dixi, Christi at sit vera figura ;
Sat mihi si populus vera figura Dei.

The Doctor died in 16 16; his wife the year
before. Luckily, her name was Rose; which
afforded fresh matter of allusions.

Sixty-eight yea s a fragrant Rose she lasted :
No vile reproach her virtues ever blasted.
Her autumn past, expects a glorious spring,
A second better life, more flourishing.

The other is in memory of Mrs. Faith Taylor,
wife of Mr. Edward Taylor, minister of the parish,



. FENNY STRATFORD: CHAPEL. 289

with many pretty sportings on the word Faith;

but the dulness of this species of epitaph has so

wearied me, as I fear it has the reader, that I dare

not venture on the transcript of what was probably

much admired at the period of its composition.

From hence I got into the great road at Fenmj _ Fenny

<=> o ^ Stratford.

Stratford, so called from its situation. The cha-
pel, which is in the parish of Blecheley, was re- Chapel.
built, and endowed at the expence of Mr. Brown
TVillis and his friends. His residence was near the
church of Blecheley ; but, having a great predilec-
tion for the works of his own hands, he intrusted
to the Reverend William Cole, then rector of the
parish, the following inscription ; which Mr. Cole
was requested to cause to be inscribed on a white
marble stone fineered with black, to be laid over
him in this chapel.

Hie situs est

Brown Willis, antiquarius

Cujus CI. Avi aeternee memoriae

TJio. Willis, archiatri totius Europe celeberrimi,

Defuncti die Sancti Martini, A. D. 1675

Haec capella exiguum monumentum est.

Obiit Feb. 5 die, Anno Domini 1760.

.SStatis suae 78.

O Christe. Soter et Judex,
Huic peccatorum primo
Miserecors et propitius esto.

V



290 LITTLE BRICKHILL. HOCKLEY.

On the cieling are the arms of all benefactors of
ten pounds and upwards. The chapel had been
originally a chantry k . The new building was de-
dicated to St. Martin, out of respect to his grand-
father, who happened to die on that day. The
same great physician first made a settlement in
this parish, by the purchase of the manor of
Blecheley, and that of Fenny Stratford, from the
last George Villiers Duke of Buckingham.
. From hence I kept a gentle ascent to Little

Little r &

Brickhill. Brichhill, seated on the steep of a long range of
sand-hills, divided by pleasant woody dingles,
which extend for a considerable way, and form a
lofty frontier at this end of the county. Very soon
after my passage over them, I entered the county
of

BEDFORD,

and proceeded as far as Dunstable on the Wat-
ling-street, which goes directly to this town. In
the beginning it crosses a most undulated descent.
On the left are the woods and park of Battlesdon,
a seat of Mrs. Page '. In the bottom go through
Hockley. Hockley in the Hole; a long range of houses,
mostly inns, built on each side of the road. The

k Ecton, 217.

1 Now of Sir Gregory Page, Bart. Eu.



HOCKCLIFF. CHALK-HILL. 291

English rage of novelty is strongly tempted by
one sagacious publican, who informs us on his
sign, of news-papers being to be seen at his house
every day in the week.

At this place, whose proper name is Occleie, Hockcliff,
or Hockcliff, was an hospital, with a master and
several brethren, dedicated to St. John the Bap-
tist m . In 1283 here was a feudal quarrel, be-
tween the people of the priory of Dunstaple and
those of William de Muntcheny, a potent baron,
in which one John the Smith was killed on the
side of the priory, and Thomas Mustard, a fierce
knave, on the other n . In old times, such contests
Were very frequent, and very fatal : men were al-
ways formed into parties, and ready to pursue the
most bloody measures on the most trivial occa-
sions.

Two miles farther, I reached the foot of Chalk- Chalk-
Hill.
hill, formerly of a tremendous steepness, and the

terror of country passengers ; at present formed
into an easy ascent. This is the first specimen
the traveller meets with of the great chalky stra-
tum which intersects the kingdom. A line drawn
from Dorchester, in the county of Dorset, to the
county of Norfolk, would include all the chalky
beds of the kingdom ; for none are found in any

m Tanner, 8. n Chron. Dunstaple, ii. 483.

U 2



292 IMAIDEN'S BOWER. DUNSTABLE.

quantity to the west of that line. This earth was
in great estimation, and an article of commerce in
the time of the Romans. The workers in it had
their goddess Nehelennia, who presided over it.
To her we find this votive altar :

DE^E NEHELENNIA

Ob merces rite conservatas

M. Secundus Silvanus

Negotor Cretarius

Britannicianus

V.S.L.M.

After ascending the hill, I turned about half
Bower, a mile out of the road, to visit Maiden's Bower, a
very large Danish camp, of a circular form, sur-
rounded with a great rampart and a ditch on its
side : it lies on a plain, with a portion verging to-
wards a brow, hanging over a valley. Its history
is unknown ; yet it merits a visit, as the camps of
the Danes are not very common in our kingdom.
Dunstable. After a mile's descent, enter Dunstable, a
long town, built on each side of the Watling-
street, and intersected in the middle by the Ick-
nield-street. This town was the Magiovinum, or
Magioventum, of the Itinerary ; and probably
had four portce, answerable to the great roads.
The Icknield-street issues out on the north side
of the church. Antiquarians derive the name,
very properly, from Maes Gwyn, or the white



DUNSTABLE. 293

field, from the color of the chalky soil. Roman
money has been found about the place, which the
country people call madning money ; this, as Dr.
Stukeley observes, can have no reference to Maid
en's Bower, which belonged to another people:
but on a hill, called Castle-hill, about half a mile
west of it, is a Roman camp ; within which, near
one end, is a large mount, very hollow in the top;
and near the outside of one of the ramparts is a
deep hole, probably the place of the draw-well.
The whole stands on a steep promontory, project-
ing westward.

The place was certainly occupied by the Sax~
ons, after the departure of the Romans. We can
indeed only argue from the present name, Dun-
Staple, the mart near the hill. We cannot allow
the monkish legend, that it was called Dun's Sta-
ble, or the stable of a robber of that name. It
probably was a waste at the time of the Conquest,
as many places were, and might become a harbour
of thieves, by reason of the woods with which the
country was over-run. This determined Henry I.
to colonize the spot; for that purpose, he en-
couraged people by proclamation to settle there,
and, in order to destroy the shelter which the fo-
rest gave to robbers, directed the woods to be
grubbed up. He also built a royal palace, called



294 DUNSTABLE: PRIORY.

Kingsbury 1 which stood near the church, and
whose site is now occupied by a farm-house. Here
he kept his Christmas in 1123, with his whole
court, and received at the same time the embassy
from the Earl of Anjou p . He made the town a
borough, bestowed on it a fair and a market, and
various other privileges ; particularly, that the in-
habitants should not be liable to be called before
the itinerant justices, but that their causes should
be determined by the justices of the king, and a
jury of twelve of the burgesses 9 . He kept the
town seventeen years in his own hands, and then
bestowed it, with all its privileges (reserving only
Priory, his royal residence) on the priory, which he found-
ed here some time after the year 1131, for black
canons, in honor of St. Peter. At the time of
the dissolution, here were a prior and twelve ca-
nons, whose revenues, according to Dugdale, were
^.344. 13s. 3d. a year: to Speed, AOQ. Us. Id.
The last prior was Gervase Markham, whOj
with his canons, subscribed to the king's supre-
macy in 1534; and on the dissolution, had a pen-
sion of sixty pounds a year for life. His reward
was the greater, as his convent was the residence
of the commissioners for carrying on the divorce

Slow, 136. Dugdale Monast. ii. 132. Sax. Chr.22t.Ma-
dox Aruiq. Exch. i. 1 2. s Dugdale Mon. ii. 1 33.



DUNSTABLE CHURCH.



295



between Henry VIII. and Catharine of Arragon;
in which he took an active part r . The unfortu-
nate princess at that time resided at Ampthill, in
this neighborhood.

The church, and an arch in the wall adjoining, Church.
are the only remains of the priory. The front of
the church is singular, having a gallery divided by
carved gothic arches ; a great door with a round
arch richly carved with scrolls and ovals, including
human figures ; and the capitals of the pillars cut
into grotesque forms. The lesser door is gothic,
richly ornamented with nail heads. Between both
doors is a row of false arches interlaced ; the co-
lumns consist of very singular greater and lesser
joints, placed alternate, not unlike one species of
the fossils called entrochi.

The steeple is attached to one side of the front, Steeple.
and has two rows of niches, now deprived of their
statues. Formerly another tower corresponded
with this: both fell down in 1221, and destroyed
the prior's hall and part of the church 5 . The
body was rebuilt in 1273, by the parishioners;
but one Henry Chedde went to the greatest ex-
pence*. The inside of the church is supported
by six round arches, all plain except one: the



r Willis's Abbies, ii. 2.

8 Chron. de Dunstaple, i. 12(5.



* The same, 417.



296 TOMBS IN DUNSTABLE CHURCH.

windows above are also round at the top. Either
the supposed date of the rebuilding is wrong, or the
Saxon or round-arched mode must have continued
later than is generally allowed.

The church was originally in form of a cross,
with a tower in the center. Two of the vast pil-
lars which supported it are still to be seen at the
east end.

Above the altar is a large and handsome paint-
ing of the Last Supper by Sir James Thornhill ;
which, with the plate and rich pulpit-cloth, were
the gift of two widows, of the name of Cart and
Ashton.

I omitted in its place a visit made to the



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