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priory by Henry III. and his family; when the
monks presented the king with a gilt cup, and the
queen with another, and gave his son Edward and
daughter Margaret a gold clasp apiece. In re-
turn, the royal visitants bestowed on the church
eight pieces of silk ; and the king gave C shillings
for making of a thuribule and a piv u .
Tombs. I MET w ith some antient tombs, dated between
the years 1400 and 1500 ; but none of dignity suf-
ficient to be particularised. Sir Ke?ielm Digbys
famous pedigree-book has preserved one, in me-
mory of William Mulso and his wife x . Both are

B Ckron. de Dunstaple, i. 277. x The same, 598,



TOMBS IN DUNSTABLE CHURCH. 297

dressed in their gowns, with their hands in the at-
titude of prayer. At his feet is a group of eleven
sons ; at her's, another of seven daughters. The
attributes of the four evangelists are placed at the
corners. Between their feet were these lines :



Hie William Mulso sibi quam sociavit et Alice
Marmore sub duro conclusit sors generalis :
Ter tres, bis quinos hie natos fertur habere
Per sponsos binos, Deus hiis clemens miserere.



This gentleman was oiThingdon, in the county of
Northampton. The name of the lady, Alice Mar-
more, the same that Fuller, by a singular mis-
conception of the epitaph, reports to have had
" nineteen children at five births, viz, three sever-
" al times three children at a birth, and five at a
" birth, two other times 7 ."

Besides the religious house, was one of friars
preachers, who settled here about 125$. It was
valued at only 4/. 1 8*. 4d ; and at the dissolution
its site was granted to Sir William Herbert. These
brethren, as the Chronicle says, came sorely
against the will of the monks, per summam indu-
striam et seductionem; but by their interest with the
king, queen, and courtiers, got leave to stay here z .

y British Worthies, p; 1 19. * Chr. Dunst. i. 341.



DUNSTABLE: MANUFACTURE.

It seems the inhabitants of the priory did not like
such insinuating interlopers as Chaucer describes
this order to have been, who were sure to win all
the penitent males and females.

Full swetely herde he confession,
And pleasant was his absolution.



Here was a house or hospital for lepers.
Whether it was the same with that marked at the
post-house, a mile west of the town in the new map,
I cannot determine.

The schools here were probably considerable;
for I find the quarrels between the scholars and
the townsmen important enough to be mentioned
in the Chronicle.

This town is now supported chiefly by the
ture. great passage of travellers. A small neat manufac-
ture of straw-hats, and baskets, and toys, main-
tains many of the poor. In old time the breweries
raised many of the inhabitants to great wealth.
We are told by Holinshed of one William Murlie,
an eminent brewer in this town, who sallied out
in the time of Henry V. to join the foolish insur-
rection of the Lollards, near London, followed
by two led horses with gilt trappings. He also
took with him a pair of gilt spurs, ready to wear
on his receiving from Lord Cobham the honour of



Manufac-



MARKET CELL. 299

knighthood a , but had the hard luck to be taken,
and hung, with them about his neck.

About four miles from Dunstable I passed by
Market Cell, at present a gentleman's seat ; for- ^*" T
merly a nunnery of Benedictines, dedicated to the
Holy Trinity of the Wood. Legend ascribes its
origin to Roger, a monk of Saint Alban, who, on
his return from Jerusalem, led here an eremetical
life ; and, taking under his care Christiana, a rich
virgin of Huntingdon, inspired her with the same
contempt of the world. She succeeded to his cell,
resisted many temptations, was visited by many di-
vine visions, and many miracles were wrought in
her favour \ She was patronized by Geoffry, elect-
ed abbot of St. Albans in 1 1 19, who built and en-
dowed a house and constituted Christiana first ab-
bess. The site of some adjoining lands were the
gift of the dean and chapter of St. Paul c , the
rest of the pious work resulted solely from the ab-
bot, who twice rebuilt the same, after it had suf-
fered by fire d : but Matthew Paris complains, that
all this was done at the expence of the convent of
St. Albans, and even without its consent, to the
great injury of the church. In the time of
Henry VIII. Humphry Boucher % " base sunne

* Hollinshed p. 544. fi Dugdalc Monast. i. 350 &c. &c.

c Ibid. ii. 872. d Matthew Paris, 1013.

e Leland Itin. i. 116.



SOO FLAMSTED.

" to the late Berners, did much cost in translating
" of the priory into a maner place ;" i. e. convert-
ing it into a mansion for himself, but left it unfi-
nished. It probably was granted to him; but it
afterwards was bestowed by Edward VI. on
George Ferrers. At the dissolution it was valued
by Dugdale at of 1 14 \6s. Id. a year ; by Speed dX
ol43 8s. 3d { .

It appears that these religious were grievously
oppressed by a neighboring knight; of whom they
complained in certain lines too ludicrous to be
inserted 8 . Whether they got any redress does not
appear.

After passing through the village of Market-
Street, built on each side of the Wat ling-street
road, I entered the county of

HERTFORD,

and near the twenty eighth mile stone leave on the
right Flamsted where stood a small priory of Bene-
Flamsted. dictine nuns, founded in the time of King Stephen,
by Roger de Tonei. The manor had been granted
by the Conqueror to Ralph de Tonei. His predeces-
sor was a Saxon knight called Thurnoth, who in the
true spirit of the times, engaged with thirteen soldiers,
JValdef, and Thurman, to protect all passengers from

f Tanner, 4. 8 See Weever, 585.



REDBURN. 301

the thieves and wild beasts which then infested the
road, and in time of war, to protect the church of
St. Albans with all their might. Leqfftan, abbot
of that convent in the time of the Confessor, facili-
tated the undertaking, by cutting down the great
woods on the side of the IVat ling-street which
gave shelter to robbers. He bestowed on Thur-
noth this manor : who, in return, presentedXft^-
tan with five ounces of gold and a fair palfrey.
Thurnoth at the Conquest resisted the power of the
Norman invader ; who bestowed it on de Tonei and
directed that the same services should be strictly
performed to the abbey \

About three miles further, go through Redburn, Rboburk.
a small town, built like Market Street on each
side of the antient road. At this place were dis-
covered the bones of Saint Amphibalus, the noble
Briton, who lodging at the house of St. Alban at
Verulam, proved the means of his conversion. In
the Diocletian persecution he was diligently sought
after ; but St. Alban generously determined not to
give up his guest, promoted his escape by putting
on his preceptor's cloak, and suffering himself to be
seized by the soldiers in his stead 1 . Amphibalus

h Chauncy 432, who by mistake calls this de Tonei Roger;
but in page 565 gives him his right name.
1 Bede de Br. Eccl. 539.



302 REDBURN: CELL:

for a time evaded their fury, but was at length
seized, and underwent a most cruel death k , on the
spot on which his pious convert was martyred.
The Christians stole the body and gave it a private
interment at this place. In 1178, the reliques
were removed to St. Albans, enshrined near those
of his fellow-sufferer, and a prior and three
monks, with QOs. a year, were appointed guardians
of the sacred deposit. I am sorry to find, that, af-
ter all, the very existence of this saint is doubted ;
for there are some who believe that the saint was
no more than an amphibalus, a long cloak, which
St. Alban, before he went to execution, threw
about him; which being at length personified, was
canonized, and received into the Kalendar !.

A cell consisting of a prior and a few Bene-
dictines from St. Albans, was placed here. It
was dedicated to St. Amphibalus and his compa-
nions, and was inhabited before 1 195. After the
dissolution, it was, with the manor, granted to
John Cork" 1 .

The present great road, a little beyond this
place, quits the Wat ling-street , which runs direct
on the right to Verulam. The former can boast of
no great extent of view, but is bounded by beauti-

k Weever's Fun. Mm. 585.

1 Usher de Br. Eccl. 539. a Tanner, 185.



Chalk.



SOIL. 305

ful risings varied with woods, and inclosures dress-
ed with a garden-like elegance. The common
soil is almost covered with flints : the stratum be-
neath is chalk, which is used for a manure. Pliny
describes this British earth under the title Creta
argentaria, and addspe^Ywr ex alto, in centenos
pedes, actis plerunque puteis, ore angustatis intus,
ut in metallis spatiante vena. Hac maxime Bri-
tannia utitur B . This very method is used in the
county at present. The farmer sinks a pit, and
(in the terms of a miner) drives out on all sides,
leaving a sufficient roof, and draws up the chalk
in buckets, through a narrow mouth. Pliny in-
forms us, in his remarks on the British marls, that
they will last eighty years, and that there is not
an example of any person being obliged to marl
his land twice in his life . An experienced farmer,
whom I met with in Hertfordshire, assured me,
that he had about thirty years before made use of
this manure on a field of his, and that, should he
live to the period mentioned by the Roman natu-
ralist, he thought he should not have occasion for
a repetition.

This bottom is watered by the small stream of
the Verlume, Ver, or Mure ; which rises at Row-
beach, beyond Market-street # flows by Flamsted,

Lib. xr'ii. c. 8. * The same.



304 GORHAMBURY.

Redburn, and St. Albans ; and loses itself and
name in the Coin, a little N. E. of Colney -street.
About a mile and a half from St. Albans I
Gorham- turne d out of the road to the right, to visit Gor-
BURY - hambury, the venerable seat of that glory of our
country Sir Francis Bacon Viscount Verulam. His
matchless talents, his deplorable weaknesses, and
his merited fall, have been the subjects of so many
able pens, that it would be a presumption in me
to enter into a detail either of his life or works. I
shall prefer giving an account of the place, and
perhaps touch incidentally on what may relate
to one whom Mr. JValpole justly stiles " The
" Prophet of the Arts, which Newton was sent
afterwards to reveal."

This manor was, from very antient times, part
of the lands of the abbey of St. Albans : the ori-
ginal name is not delivered to us ; that which it
has at present was derived from Robert de Gor-
ham, erected abbot of the house in 1151. Mr.
Salmon conjectures, that he might have built here
a villa p : a luxury not unfrequent with the abbots
of the richer houses. In 1540, Henry VIII. made
a grant of it to Ralph, afterwards Sir Ralph Roxvlet,
who sold it to Sir Nicholas Bacon, the worthy
and able lord keeper, and father of the great Lord

* Salmon Hist, Hertf. 83. Chauncy, 464.



GORHAMBURY. 305

Verulam. The elegance of his taste was apparent
in his buildings, which confirm the observation of
Lloyd q , that " his use of learned artists was con-
" tinual." To him we are indebted for Redgrave',
in Suffolk, and the seat in question. In both he
adhered to his rational motto, Mediocria Fir ma.
He is said to have departed a little from it in the
instance of Redgrave, but not till after his royal
mistress, Avho honored him with a visit there, told
him, " You have made your house too little for
" your lordship." ' No, madam,' replied he ;
' but your highness has made me too big for the
' house.' But after this, he added the wings \

The building consists of two parts, discordant
in their manner, yet in various respects of a clas-
sical taste. On the outside of the portion which
forms the approach is the piazza, or porticus, with
a range of pillars of the Tuscan order in front,
where the philosophic inhabitants walked and held
their learned discourse ; and withinside is a court
with another piazza ; the one being intended for
enjoying the shade, the other to catch, during win-
ter, the comfortable warmth of the sun. The walls
of the piazzas are painted alfresco, with the ad-

i. 356.

r Redgrave has unfortunately shared the fate of Gorhambury;
a modern house has been erected on its ruins. Ed.

5 Collins' 's Baronets,u ' ..

X



306 GORHAMBURY.

ventures of Ulysses, by Van Koepen. In one is a
statue of Henry VIII ; in the other a bust of the
founder, Sir Nicholas Bacon, and another of his
lady. Over the entrance from the court into the
hall, are these plain verses ; which prove the date
of the building to have been 1571.

Haec cum perfecit Nicholaus tecta Baconua
Elizabeth regni lustra fuere duo.
Factus eques magni custos fuit ipse sigilli.
Gloria sit soli tota tributa Deo.

MEDIOCRIA. FlRMA.

Somes lines over the statue of Orpheus, that once
stood on the entrance into the orchard, shew what
a waste the place was before it was possessed by
this great man.

Horrida nuper eram aspectu latebra^que ferarum ;

Ruricolis tantum numinibusque locus.
Edoinitor fausto hie dum forte supervenit Orpheus,

Ulterius qui me non sinit esse rudem :
Gonvocat avulsis virgulta virentia truncis,

Et sedem quae vel diis placuisse potest.
Sicque mei cultor, sic est mihi cultus et Orpheus;

Floreat o noster cultus amorque diu.

In the orchard was built an elegant summer-
house (no longer existing) not dedicated to Baccha-



GORHAMBURY. 307

nalian festivities 1 , but to refined converse on the
liberal arts ; which were decyphered on the walls,
with the heads of Cicero, Aristotle, Donatus, Co-
pernicus, and other illustrious antients and mo-
derns, who had excelled in each". This room
seemed to have answered to the Dia;ta, or favorite
summer-room of the younger Pliny, at his beloved
Laurent inum, built for the enjoyment of an ele-
gant privacy, apart from the noise of his house x .
Methinks I discover many similitudes between the
villa of the Roman orator and that of our great
countryman. This building, the porticos suited
for both seasons * a crypto porticus, or noble gal-
lery, over z the other, and finally, towers placed at
different parts recall to mind the disposition of the
villa, so fully described by its philosophic owner*.
The hall is large and lofty, with a gallery

1 Welsh Tour. tt Weever's Fun. Mon. 584.

x Lib. ii. epist. 17. 7 Lib. v. epist. 6.

z Lib. ii. epist. 17.

a This venerable edifice, of which the greatest part was
slightly built with framed wood and plaister, having fallen to
decay, a new and handsome mansion was erected at a small
distance from the site of the former by the late Viscount Grim'
slon.

The editor has preserved the description of the old houe.
The valuable collection of portraits is described according to
the order in which they are now placed. Ed.

X2



509 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY.

above ; in the lower part are various full-length
portraits.

James I. Among them three of the Stuart line; James L
Charles II. and James II. The first is dressed
in black, barred with gold. Typical of the
Stuarts, the prerogative is before his eyes, in form
of the crown and sceptre.

William William III. who gave us the power of hap-
piness, makes a fifth portrait in this royal succes-
sion.

George I. An equestrian portrait of George I. by Sir
Godfrey Kneller.
Maurice of Maurice of Nassau, third son to Frederic,

.Nassau.

the unfortunate Elector Palatine.
Sir Samuel Sir Samuel Grimston, by Lely, in a Ions wig

Grimston. \ if i

and laced cravat. He had rendered himself so ob-
noxious to James II. as to be excepted out of an
act of grace, when that prince meditated a descent
in 1692.
His two His two wives, by Lely, lady Anne Tufton, and
lady Elizabeth Finch, the last, daughter of lord
chancellor the Earl of Nottingham.

Sir Harbot- Sir Har bottle Grimston, Baronet, in black, with
tle Grim-
ston. a turn-over and black coif, leaning on a slab. On

the picture is this motto,

Nee pudet vivere, nee piget me-ri.



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. S09

This gentleman was one of those worthy persons
who set out with a view of reforming the abuses of
the arbitrary court of Charles I. but whose mode-
ration and good sense made them oppose their own
party, when it attempted measures subversive of
the constitution : in consequence, he, with several
others, were excluded the House. In 1 656, he was
elected one of Cromwell's p&rlement; but not being
approved of by the slavish council of the usurper,
was laid aside. He was active in promoting the
Restoration; was chosen speaker of the parle-
ment, was rewarded with the mastership of the
Rolls, and died in great reputation, at the age of
ninety, in 1683.

His first wife, daughter to Sir George Croke: His Wives*
the second, Anne the daughter of Sir Nathaniel
Bacon, and widow to Sir Thomas Meautys.

Doctor Burnet, chaplain to Sir Harbottle Doctor
Grimston, and afterwards the celebrated Bishop
of Salisbury, probably painted during his residence
in Sir Harbottle s family.

The gallant fickle Earl of Holland, in a striped earl of

and very rich dress : a hat with red feather in his HoLLAND -

hand, the blue riband across his breast.

Sir Edward Sackville, the accomplished, witty, Earl op

. Dorset.

and learned Earl of Dorset ; a nobleman of quick

passions and resentments, violent in his friendships

and enmities. In the great national quarrel be-



S10 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY.

tween the English and Scots at Croydon races,
he alone left his countrymen and sided with the
latter, out of friendship to Lord Bruce, for which,
had not the affray been prevented, the English
had fixed on Sir Edward as the first victim b : yet
a dispute with his beloved Scot produced the fa-
mous duel, which was pursued with unheard of
animosity, and terminated in the death of
Bruce c . He behaved in the public quarrel of his
royal master with equal spirit, and survived till

1652.

Sir John c t i rr

Howe. ^ir John Howe.

Lady Howe. Lady Howe, with white long hair, daughter to

Sir Harbottle Grimston. Both by Lely.

SirHarbot- Sir Harbottle Luckyn. Baronet, by Sir G.

TLE LUC- & ' 'J

kyn. Kneller, in a blue coat, long white wig, and

breast-plate ; a castle at a distance.
Lady Anna Sophia countess of Carnarvon, a copy

from Vandyck.
SirGeorge a half-length of Sir George Croke, one

Croke.

of the judges of the King's Bench in the time
of Charles I. in his robes; distinguished for his
knowledge of the laws. He was one of the
judges who had the honor of deciding against the
legality of ship-money ; yet still, on account of his

* Osborris reign of King James, paragraph 26.
e For an account of this dreadful affair read the Guardian >
N 129. 133.



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. SU

eminent qualities, preserved the favor of the court.
When sunk in years, and petitioning for a retreat,
the King granted his request, and rewarded his
services with the fees and honor of chief justice
during life. Mundum vicit et deseruit, says his
epitaph, at. 82. Anno R. C. I. 17. Anno Do-
mini 1641.

His lady in black, with a lawn ruff: her por- His Lady.
trait is dated 1626. Lady Croke should by no
means be passed unnoticed ; especially as IVhite-
lock* gives her the chief merit in her husband's de-
cision in the case of ship-money. He had it seems
resolved on the contrary side, but appearing wa-
vering, was told by his wife, " that she hoped he
" would do nothing against his conscience, for
" fear of any danger or prejudice to him or his
" family; and that she would be contented to suffer
" want or any misery with him, rather than be an
" occasion for him to do or say any thing against
" his judgment or conscience."

Half-length of a beautiful woman reading, Melancho-

ly Cook.
called the Melancholy Cook 6 .

Sir Francis Bacon, a three-quarter length. Bacon. "

Philip Earl of Pembroke an half length : a Philip

complete contrast to his brother William, was Pembroke.

d Lloyd ii. 267. Memorials 25.

c This is now called a Sibyll, and is said to have been
painted by John Vandcr Meer. Ed.



312 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY.

rude, reprobate, boisterous, and devoted to his
dogs and horses : so mean as to receive tamely a
horse- whipping from one Ramsay, a Scotchman, at
a public horse-race, and for his civility in not re-
senting the insult, was rewarded by the peaceful
James, by being made . a knight, baron, viscount,
and earl, on the same day. His mother,

Sydney's sister, Pembroke's mother,



tore her hair when she heard of her son's disgrace.
He was likewise lord chamberlain to Charles I.
and, as Osborn observes, in that office broke with
his white rod many wiser heads than his own ; but
his fear always secured him by a quick and ample
submission. Notwithstanding the profundity of
his ignorance he became, on the king's imprison-
ment, chancellor of the university of Oxford, a fit
instrument for the eradication of royalty. A noble
statue of him stands in the picture-gallery. On
the Usurpation, he had the meanness to sit in
Cromwell's mock parlement as knight of the shire
for Berkshire ; and concluded his despicable life
on January the 23d, 1649-50.
George George Carezv Earl of Totness in a white
Totness. flowered jacket ; hand on his sword ; white beard,
and short hair : a nobleman celebrated as a war-
rior, scholar, and author. He was son of a dean
of Exeter ; received his education at Oxford. His



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 313

active spirit led him from his studies into the
army; but in 1589, he was created master of
arts. The scene of his military exploits was
Ireland, where, in the year 1599, he was presi-
dent of Munster. With a small force he reduced
a great part of the province to her Majesty's go-
vernment, took the titular Earl of Desmond pri-
soner, and brought numbers of the rebellious Septs
to obedience 6 . The queen honored him with a
letter of thanks under her own hand f . He left his
province in general peace in 1603, and arrived in
England three days before the death of his royal
mistress. Her successor rewarded his service, by
making him governor of Guernsey, creating him
Lord Carezv, of Clopton, and appointing him ma-
ster of the ordnance for life. ' Charles I. on his ac-
cession, created him Earl of Totness*. He died in
March 1629, aged seventy-three, and was in-
terred beneath a magnificent monument at Strat-
ford upon Avon. He was not less distinguished
by his pen than his sword. In his book Pacata
Jiiberma, he wrote his own commentaries; of
which his modesty prevented the publication dur-
ing life. He collected four volumes of Antiquities
relating to Ireland, at this time preserved un-

e Prince's Worthies of Devonshire, 197.
f The same.
5 Prince, 198.



314 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY.

heeded in the Bodleian library : he collected ma-
terials for the life of Henry V. h digested by Speed,
into his Chronicle. To conclude, he merited en-
tirely the encomium given him by Wood, of being
" a faithful subject, valiant and prudent com-
" mander, an honest counsellor, a gentle scholar,
" a lover of antiquities, and great patron of learn-
" nig 1 ."
Margaret A beautiful picture of Lady Margaret Bus-

Countess of

Cumber- sel, daughter to Francis Earl of Bedford, and wife
to George Earl of Cumberland, and mother to the
celebrated Anne Clifford: a lady happier in the
filial affections of her daughter than the conjugal
tenderness of her husband ; who, taken up with
military glory, and the pomps of tilts and tourna-
ments, paid little attention to domestic duties. In
her diary, which is preserved in manuscript, I
find she suffered even to poverty, and complains
of her ill usage in a most suppliant and pathetic
manner. Her lord felt heavy compunction on his
death-bed. I cannot help relating two of the
minuticB of her journal. She relates that " Anne
" Clifford was begot on her the first of May
" 1589, in Channel-row house, hard by the river
u Thames ; and in Skipton Castle on Bardon-
" torver, she felt a child stir in her belly." She

h Athen. Ox on. i. 529.
1 Dugdale Baron, ii. 310.



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 313

survived her lord. The dress of the portrait is
very elegant. Her hair is turned up before, and
backed with chains of pearl. Over her head is a
black feather : a beautiful ruff and pearl necklace
surround her neck. Her gown is black, hung with
chains, and set with ornaments of pearl.

In the gallery over the hall are the portraits of
Charles Hoxvard Earl of Nottingham, lord eakl^f
high admiral, drest in robes, with a view of a Notting-

HAM.

fleet and storm; the conqueror of the Spanish
armada.

Henry Duke of Gloucester, in a buff coat, Henry



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