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Duke of

breast-plate, long black hair, the Garter, and a Gloucester.

truncheon. A prince whose eminent virtues made

his early end universally deplored. He died in

1660, in his twenty-first year, feelingly lamented

by his brother Charles, who was never observed

to shew a sensibility equal to what he did on this

occasion.

A head of Mr. Chiffinch. finch!***

Sir Capel Lucky n, who, by his marriage with S ' R Capbi.
Mary the eldest daughter of Sir Harbottle Grim-
ston, brought the Gorhambury estate into the fa-
mily, which exchanged its name for that of his
lady.

CHARLES I. r Charles I.

Mary Viscountess Barrington, daughter of v g^ l"*
Henry Lovell, Esq. She first married Samuel T0N -



316 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY.

the eldest son of IVilliam Viscount Grimston,
and secondly, William Viscount Harrington.
SirWilliam ir iyun am father to Sir Capel Luckyn.

LUCKYN. . .

The first The first Lord Cornwallis, with long hair, in
Cornwallis l ac k 5 and a turn-over : an active and valiant ad-
herent to Charles I. ; brought up from his youth
in his service, and that of his brother Henri/. So
resolute, that he knew not fear ; so chearful, that
sorrow never came next his heart. Death would
not try him by illness, but took him off suddenly,
on January 31, 1611-2, after he had been raised
to the peerage the preceding year.
. William William Earl of Pembroke, in black, with
Pembroke, the white rod and key, as lord chamberlain;
George pendent, flat ruff, short hair, peaked beard :
a great and amiable character, and the most uni-
versally esteemed and beloved of any man of that
age; and, having a great office in the court, he
made the court itself better esteemed, and more
reverenced in the country \ He was beloved in
court, because he was disinterested ; in the coun-
try, because he was independent. In 1630, he
died universally lamented : his many fine qualities
causing his abandoned sensualities to be forgotten.
Viscount William first Viscount Grimston.
R . I " S Mary Queen of Scots, richly dressed in black.

Mary j

Qdeen of with a large ruff.

'Scots.

k Clarendon, i. 56.



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 317

Viscountess Grimston. gISE

Sir Harbottle Grimston, father of Sir Harbottle Sir Har-
Grimston, Master of the Rolls. Grimston-.

Anne Crofts Countess of Cleveland, wife of Countess of
Thomas Earl of Cleveland.

In the library ;

Heneage Finch Earl of Nottingham, in his Chancellor

NOTTING-

robes, with the seals in his hands, and long deep ham.
brown hair, by Sir Peter Lely. This nobleman
was lord chancellor in the reign of Charles II. and
in those dangerous times distinguished himself for
his integrity and prudence, in steering clear from
a criminal compliance with the views of the court,
or humoring the unbounded faction of the popu-
lar side* He brought the peerage into the family,
which (rare to say) has never been sullied by those
who have derived the honor from him. He re
ceived the seals in ]673 ; died in 1682.

Ludovic Duke of Richmond and Lenox, and Ludovic

Duke of

Earl of Newcastle, by Geldrop. He is dressed in Richmond.
his robes, a bonnet with a white feather ; the
George and a white rod are other appendages :
the last as lord high steward of the household. He
was also high chamberlain and admiral of Scot-
land, and was sent ambassador to France 1 before
the accession of his royal master to the English

1 Crawford's Peerage. Scot. 262.



318 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY.

throne. He was a most deserved favourite, and
supported himself with such true dignity, that, as
Wilson expresses it, " the king, as it were, want-
" ing one of his limbs to support the grandeur of
" majesty at the first meeting of parliament, in
" 1623, sent for him with great earnestness;" and
received by the return of the messenger, the me-
lancholy news of his being found dead in his bed,
after going to rest in the fullest health m . His ma-
jesty shewed the sincerest respect to his deceased
servant by proroguing the parlement for several
days, unable sooner to digest his loss.
General George Monk Duke of Albemarle, the well-
known instrument of the Restoration ; by Kneller.
He is drest in a buff coat, with an anchor by him.
He entered at a very early age into the military life,
and first made trial of his sword in the ill-conducted
expedition to Cadiz, in 1625 : but his military ex-
perience was attained by a ten years' service in the
Lozv Countries. On the breaking out of the civil
wars, his principles led him to embrace the royal
party, after serving for some time against the rebels
in Ireland. In his first campaign he was taken
prisoner at Namptwich, and imprisoned for some
years, with such severity, that he was afc last in-
duced, for the sake of obtaining liberty, to engage

m Wilson 257, 258.



PORTRAITS. AT GORHAMBURY. 319

with the parlement. Perhaps by stipulation, he
never served the remainder of the war in England.
Ireland was the scene of his exploits, and after-
wards Scotland, which he entirely reduced. He
was justly loaded with honors by his restored
prince, under whom, by indulging his spirit of fru-
gality, he amassed a vast fortune. His great mi-
litary abilities fitted him equally for sea or land.
He commanded, jointly with prince Rupert, the
fleet against the Dutch, in the dreadful engage-
ment of 1560. His success was equal to his va-
lour. He became the darling of the sailors, who
called him by the familiar appellation of Honest
George ; for he was a plain man, of few words,
but inviolable in his promises. Worn out with
fatigue, he died in 1670, and received a funeral
pomp, which his eminent services so well me-
rited.

Sir George Calvert Lord Baltimore, is dressed Lord

ii, i',i i it Baltimore.

in black, a turn- over, and with short hair. He was

born at Kipplin in Yorkshire, was educated at
Oxford, and received his first preferment, which
was in the law line, in Ireland. His political abi-
lities occasioned his being taken notice of by Sir
Robert Cecil. Mr. Calvert was first his clerk,
and after knighthood promoted to be one of the
secretaries of state, and was in great confidence
with his master James I, He thought fit to change



320 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY,

his religion, which he ingenuously avowed. The
king, pleased with his sincerity, continued him of
his privy council, and even created him Lord Bal-
timore, of the kingdom of Ireland, and made him
large grants in that kingdom : a proof that the per-
version of his subjects was far from exciting his
displeasure. He also obtained a grant of a part
of Newfoundland, which he called Avalon, after
Old Avalon, the site of Glastonbury abbey, where
(as is said) Christianity was first planted in Bri-
tain. He was constituted absolute lord and pro-
prietor, with the royalties of a county palatine,
except the sovereign dominion and allegiance, with
a fifth part of the gold and silver reserved to the
crown. After the king's death, he twice visited
the place, built a fair house there ; and when his
settlement was molested by the French, he fitted
out two ships at his own expence, and drove them
away. At length, on a repetition of their insults,
he was obliged to abandon the island. Charles I.
to make him amends, gave him a new grant of the
country on the north side of Chesapeak Bay, to
hold in common socage as of the manor of Wind-
sor, delivering annually to the crown, in acknow-
ledgement, two Indian arrows on Easter Tuesday,
at Windsor castle, with a fifth of the gold and sil-
ver ore n . His lordship died on April 15th, 1632,'

n Fuller's Worthies of Yorkshire, 201.



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 321

before the patent was made out ; but his son Cecil
took it in his own name, in June following, and
laid the foundation of a flourishing colony, which
was named by the King himself Maryland, in ho-
nor of Henrietta Maria, his royal consort.

Thomas IVentworth Earl of Strafford, in ar- Thomas

t -i t j t * i i Earl of

mour. Like Buckingham, a victim also to the Strafford.
popular fury ; but brought to his end by all the
solemnity of trial and pomp of strained justice.
His great abilities and moving eloquence, his for-
titude and great deportment on the scaffold, make
us lose sight of his failings, and lament that so
much heroism should be devoted to plans, which
made his life incompatible with the public se-
curity.

Richard Weston Earl of Portland drest in Richard
black, with a ruff, blue riband, and white rod, his Portland.
hair and beard grey . This nobleman exhibited a
striking proof how honors change manners. He
set out with a great character for prudence, spirit,
and abilities, and discharged his duty as ambassa-
dor, and, on his return, as chancellor of the ex-
chequer, with much credit. Under the ministry

There is a print by Hollar after this portrait, inscribed
" Hieronymus Weston ius Comes Portlands, &c. ;" an evi-
dent misnomer. Jerome never attained the dignity of the or-
der of the Garter, which is worn by the person here repre-
sented. Ed.



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY.

of the Duke of Buckingham, he was appointed
lord treasurer : on which he suddenly became so
elated, that he lost all disposition to please ; and,
soon after the duke's death, became his successor
in the public hatred, without succeeding him in
his credit at court p . His lust after power, and
his rapacity to raise a great fortune, were un-
measurable ; yet the jealousy of his temper frus-
trated the one, and the greatness of his expences
the other. His imperious nature led him to give
frequent offence, yet his timidity obliged him to
make humiliating concessions to the very people
he had offended. He had a strange curiosity to
learn what the persons injured said of him ; the
knowledge of which always brought on fresh
troubles ; as he would expostulate with them for
their severe sayings, as if he had never given
cause for them ; by which he would often discover
the mean informant of his fruitless intelligence.
He died in March 1634, in universal disesteem ;
and the family and fortune, for which he la-
bored so greatly, were extinct early in the next
reign.
Thomas Thomas JVriothesley Earl of Southampton, by
Southamp- My tens ; a nobleman, firmly attached to his royal
TON * master, and who offered himself a victim for his

* Clarendon i. 49.



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. S23

prince's life. The earls of Hertford and Lindsay
joined in the generous petition to the commons,
on the condemnation of the king; alleging, that
they having been counsellors to his majesty, and
concurring in the advice of the several measures
now imputed as crimes, they alone were guilty in
the eye of the law, and ought to expiate the sup-
posed offences of majesty. He survived to see
the restoration of the royal family ; was rewarded
with the treasurer's rod ; and died a friend to his
country, as well as prince, on May 16th, 1667.
His death, and the fall of Chancellor Hyde, re-
moved from the abandoned court every check
upon its profligate designs. It was so impatient
to remove him, as to wish to wrest the rod from
his dying hands, had not Hyde earnestly entreated
the king to wait four or five days, till his death
must happen. He died of the stone. So little
credit had our surgeons at that time, that he sent
to Paris for one ; but his end prevented the ope-
ration 9 .

The Chancellor himself, by Lely, in his robes. Chancellor
In him is the character of an honest great man ;
the glorious victim to a prince and party, that
neither could nor dared to attempt the slavery
of their country, while he remained in power in it.

* Continuation of Clarendon, 411.

Y 2



324 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY.

He was exiled in 1667, by the contrivances of an
ungrateful master, and lived abroad, venerated by
the good, till this ornament to human nature gave
way to death, on December 9th, 1 674.
Archbishop Archbishop Abbot, by Vandyck, in a cap and

-Abbot

episcopal habit, with a grey square beard. This
prelate owed his preferment under James I. to the
Scottish favorite, the able and worthy Earl of
Dunbar ; perhaps from the Calvinistical princi-
ples with which he was strongly imbued. Fuller
says, " he honored cloaks above cassocks ; lay,
" above clergymen'." He was upright and firm
in his principles, probably too favourable to the
tenets, which, under him, acquired strength, in the
following reign, to subvert both church and state,
with the assistance of the contrary conduct of the
indiscreet and furious Laud. How difficult is the
virtue of moderation ! Abbot gloriously resisted the
licensing of a slavish sermon, preached by Dr.
Sibthorp, and fell into disgrace; his office was
suspended : nor was the suspension taken off, till
the rising strength of the puritanical party made
compliance with the times prudent. His man-
ners had in them an uncourtly stiffness and mo-
roseness*. He found he was restored more
through policy than affection. As he attained to

r Fuller's Worthies of Surry, 83,
8 Clarendon, i. 88.



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 325

the age of seventy-one, I can scarcely think that
grief, either on account of his suspension, or un-
conquerable sorrow for the sad accident of killing
a gamekeeper with a cross-bow, in shooting at a
deer \ brought him to his end. Nature might ef-
fect his dissolution, without having recourse to
other causes.

Lord Keeper Coventry in his robes, and a ruff, Lord

, t JvEEPER

with his hands on the seals : his look remarkably Coventry.
pleasing ; a mark of the internal comfort he felt
from a life passed with integrity in the discharge
of his profession. He held the seals for fifteen
years, and died in universal esteem, January 14,
1639-40, at a period unhappy for his country;
when the respect borne to his counsels 11 might
have prevented the dreadful feuds that so imme-
diately followed his decease.

A half-length of Sir Edward Grimston, in s ^ Edward

. Grimston.

black, a bonnet, and lawn ruff, by Holbein. Its

date is 1548, aet. 20. On one side are these

verses :

The life that nature sends, death soon destroyeth,
And momentarie is that life's resemblance ;
The seeming life which peaceful art supplieth
Is but a shadow, though life's perfect semblans :

1 Illust. Heads, i. 60.
u Clarendon, i. 131.



326 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY.

But that threvve life which virtue doth restore,
Is life indeed, and lasteth evermore.

This gentleman was comptroller at Calais at
the time it was taken by the Duke de Guise in
1 558. He had frequently written to the ministry,
to inform them how ill provided it was against a
siege. His remonstrance was neglected ; and when
the place was lost, the English government per-
mitted him to remain prisoner, for fear of his
complaints. The French demanded, as the price
of his ransom, a large estate he had purchased
about Calais ; but he preferred captivity rather
than injure his family. He suffered a long and
rigorous imprisonment in the Bast He ; at length
escaped to England, and was honorably acquitted
of any thing that could be laid to his charge*.
He lived to the great age of ninety-eight.
His Father. A portrait of his father, by Holbein, at the
age of eighty-one, with a skull in his hand, and a
white bushy beard.

A portrait, unknown, by the same master.
Sir H. g IR Harbottle Grimston, by Lcly.

Grimston. ' J J

The following are in the dining-room :
Edward EpwARD Earl of Worcester, by Zucchero,

Earl of j

Worcester, master of the horse to Queen Elizabeth, and privy
seal to James I. What recommended him to the

x Lodge's Irish Peerage, iii. 267.



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 327

first, was his being of royal blood, and at the same
time the finest gentleman and the best horseman
and tilter of his time y . He is represented here at
the period at which he had outlived the athletic
exercises, with a bald head and white beard ; in a
white jacket and ruff, and George pendent.

A fine full-length portrait, by Vandyck, of Thomas
Thomas IVentworth, Earl of Cleveland, made Cleveland.
knight of the bath at the creation of Hemy Prince
of Wales. He is drest in black, with a red riband,
turn-over, and yellow hair. He was captain of
the guard to Charles I., and a distinguished loyal-
ist. Survived the Restoration, and enjoyed his
former post z .

William ViscountGrimston, withhis daughters Viscount
Jane and Mary, by Sir Joshua Reynolds.

A FULL-LENGTH of Thomas Duke of Norfolk, Thomas

by Holbein, in a bonnet, furred robe, the order of Norfolk.
the garter, and a white rod. This respectable
peer, who had distinguished himself on various oc-
casions during the reign of Henry VIII., nearly
fell a sacrifice to the jealousy of that tyrant ; his
execution was only prevented by the timely death
of his oppressor. He was kept in custody during
the next short reign, but was released on the
accession of Queen Mary. He mounted his horse

y Collins's Peerage, i. 204.
z Dugdale Baron, ii. 310.



528



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY.



James
Duke of
Richmond



Villiers
Duke or
Bucking-
ham.



in 1554, at the age of fourscore, to assist in quell-
ing the insurrection of Sir Thomas JVyat, and died
in the same year.

The illustrious and faithful servant to Charles I.
James Duke of Richmond, by Vandyck, in long,
flowing, flaxen hair ; his star on his cloak ; a dog
by him.

The beautiful George Villiers Duke of Bucking-
ham, by Mytens, in white, with a hat and feather
on a table. A minion of fortune, who owed his rise
to a handsome face and elegant person, merits irre-
sistible with James I. The King, by the insolence
and ingratitude of his favorite, received sufficient
punishment for his folly. Buckingham was pos-
sessed of abilities, clouded and almost rendered
useless by the violence of his passions. In his em-
bassy to France, in 1625, he had the presumption to
make his addresses to the Queen Anne of Austria \
On receiving the treatment which his vanity me-
rited, he not only, in revenge, involved his country
in war, but endeavoured to alienate the affection
of his master Charles from his spouse, her lovely
sister-in-law, Henrietta Maria. I ought to have
mentioned the common report, that his ill-success
with the wife of Olivarez, the Spanish minister,
and a cruel deception in consequence 1 , was the

a Clarendon, i. 38.

b Granger, i. 326, note.



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 329

primary cause of the breach of the Spanish match,
and the hazard his young prince ran in escaping
from an incensed court. He fell at length by the
hands of the melancholy Felton, who, taught by
the murmurs of the people, thought he did an ac-
ceptable service, by freeing his country from so
distasteful a minister.

A large picture, by Vandyck, containing the Algernon
portraits of Algernon Earl of Northumberland, in Northum-
black, standing: his lady in blue, sitting, and a
child by them. This generous peer stepped for-
ward in the cause of liberty, in the beginning of
the troubles of Charles I. while he held the post of
lord high admiral : a post he was displaced from
by the popular party, by reason of his moderation,
which they suspected would be a check to their
unreasonable views. He was constantly a me-
diating commissioner in all treaties on the side of
the parlement, in which he behaved to them with
dignity, spirit, and integrity. He was appointed
governor of the kings children while they were se-
parated from their parents, and behaved to them
with respect and affection. He joined in oppos-
ing the ordinance for the trial of his master ; after
whose death he retired to Tetworth, and took no
part with the usurping powers. He joined heartily
in the Restoration ; but, like a true friend to his
country, wished for it on terms of security to the



330 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY.

people, and advantage to the nation. He re-
ceived from the restored king honors suited to his
rank, and enjoyed them till his death in 1668.
Earl op The favourite Devereux, . Earl of Essex, by
Hilliar 'd, in black and gold, with a ruff : a chain
round his waist, and a sword by his side ; date
1594.
Elizabeth. ^ is rova l mistress in a dress of black and gold,
and of materials resembling the former; with a
great lawn ruff, and three long chains of pearls
round her neck. This was also painted by Hilliard,
and presented by her Majesty to the lord keeper
Bacon.

C Wolk F A FINE full - len g th of the Countess of Suffolk,
daughter of Sir Henry Knevit, and wife to the
lord treasurer. A lady, who, like Lord Verulam,
fell under the charge of corruption, should have
been placed next to him. She is dressed in
white, and in a great ruff ; her breasts much ex-
posed ; her waist short and swelling ; for she was
extremely prolific. This lady had unhappily a
great ascendency over her husband, and was ex-
tremely rapacious. She made use of his exalted
situation to indulge her avarice, and took bribes
from all quarters. Sir Francis Bacon, in his
speech in the star-chamber against her husband,
wittily compares her to an exchange-woman, who
kept her shop, while Sir John Bingleg, a teller of



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 331

the exchequer, a tool of hers, cried, What d'ye
lack c ? Her beauty was remarkable, and I fear
she made a bad use of her charms. " Lady
"Suffolk" says the famous Ann Clifford, in her
diary under the year 1619, " had the small-pox
" at Northampton-house, which spoiled that good
" face of hers, which had brought to others much
" misery, and to herself greatness which ended in
" much unhappiness."

Charles I. by Mytens. Charles I.

Next appears a fine full-length portrait, by Sir Francis
Vansomer, of Sir Francis Bacon Lord Verulam,
who succeeded his brother Anthony in the posses-
sion of Gorhambury. Much is said of his depravity
during prosperity, and more of his abject fawning
after his fall. For my part, I look on the latter
part of his life as the period in which he shone
with greatest dignity. That soul, which sunk, dur-
ing good fortune, beneath the temptation of cor-
ruption, arose, unbroken by disgrace, and superior
to obloquy. He passed his latter days in labors
which have made him the admiration of succeed-
ing times. He was then disengaged from business,
which fettered his genius, and was supported (not-
withstanding assertions to the contrary) by a great
pension {. 1800 a year) which enabled him to

c Wilson, 97.



332 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY.

pursue his studies at ease, removed from every
fear of the embarrassments of poverty.

SirNatha- Near him is his accomplished kinsman, his
half-brother Sir Nathaniel Bacon, knight of the
bath, leaning back in his chair, in a green jacket
laced, yellow stockings, a dog by him, and sword
and pallet hung up. " In the art of painting,
" none," says Peackam, " deserveth more respect
" and admiration than master Nathaniel Bacon,
" of Brome, in Suffolk ; not inferior, inmyjudg-
" ment, to our skilfullest masters d ." He im-
proved his talent by travelling into Italy ; and
left in this house, as a proof of the excellency of
his performances, this portrait, and a most beau-
tiful one of a cook, a perfect Venus, with an old
game-keeper : behind is a variety of dead game,
in particular a swan, whose plumage is expressed
with inimitable softness and gloss.

Sir Thomas a REMARKABLE picture of Sir Thomas Meau-

Meautys. l

tys e , secretary to Lord Vcrulam, by Vansomer.

A Complete Gentleman, 127. Watpole's Anecdotes of Painters,
i. 163. where the portrait of Sir Nathaniel is engraven.

c Sir Tliomas Meautys was of Norman extraction*; his an-
cestor John Meautys came into England with Henry VII. and
was his secretary for the French tongue. His grandfather Sir
Peter was enriched by the spoils of the church in the possession
of Stratford abbey in Essex, and sent ambassador to France

* Morant's Essex, i. 19.



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 333

His dress confirms the account of the choice he
made of his servants, whom he selected from the
young, the prodigal, and expensive f . Sir Thomas
makes a most finical appearance : his habit ele-
gant : he has on a sash, a hat with a white feather,
laced turn-over, a long love-lock extended on his
left arm, an ear-ring in one ear, a spear in the
other, and brown boots. He was clerk of the
privy council to two kings ; and got possession of
Gorhambury from his master, who conveyed it to
him on foreseeing his fall. Like a grateful ser-
vant, Meautys erected a handsome monument to
him in a neighboring church, more to shew his
respect, than from any necessity of endeavouring
to preserve the memory of one self-immortalized.
In Lady Grimstorts dressing-room,

The head of Sir Nicholas Baco?i, his dress a Sir Nicho-



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