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las Bacon.
furred robe. He was a person of a very corpu-
lent habit ; for which reason Queen Elizabeth used
to say, " that her lord keeper's soul lodged well."
To what I have given of him before, I shall only
add, that he caught his death by sleeping in his
chair with his window open. He awoke dis-
ordered, and, reproving his servant for his negli-

by Henry VIII. who conferred on him the honor of knighthood.
Sir Thomas Meautys married Anne eldest daughter of Sir
Nathaniel Bacon, of Culford. Ed.
f Wilson, 159.



334 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY.

gence, was told, that he feared to awake him.
" Then," replies the Keeper, " your complaisance
" will cost me my life." He died in 1579-
His second A head of his second wife in a close cap and

Wife*

white gown, worked with oak-leaves and acorns.
This distinguished lady was Anne daughter of Sir
Anthony Cook, of Giddy hall, in Essex. She had
great abilities, natural and acquired, was emi-
nently skilled in Greek, Latin, and Italian, and
had the honor of being appointed governess to
Edward VI. To her instructions was probably
owing the surprising knowledge of that excellent
young prince. She shared his education with
her father, Doctor Cox, and Sir John Cheek 1 .
Her sons Anthony and Francis were not a little
indebted, for the reputation they acquired, to the
pains taken with them by this excellent woman in
their tender years' 1 . When they grew up, they
found in her a severe but admirable monitor. She
translated from the Italian the sermons of Bar'
nardine Ochine ; and from the Latin JexveVs Apo-
logy for the church of England : both which met
with the highest applause. She died in the be-
ginning of the reign of James I. and was buried in
the neighbouring church of St. Michael 1 .

Chauncy's Hertfordshire, 464.
h Complete Hist. England, ii. 274.
1 Ballard's Br. Ladies, 136.



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 335

Mere is also preserved a very singular k portrait ? h1 b IP
in wood, called Sylvester de Grimston, a no- Duke of
ble Norman, standard-bearer to the Conqueror at
the battle of Hastings, and afterwards his cham-
berlain. He held lands in Yorkshire of the Lord
Roos : among others that of Grimston in Holder-
ness ; from whence he took the name. The pic-
ture is antient and curious, but wants four centu-
ries of the great period in which Sylvester lived ;
neither did that age afford any artists that could
give even a tolerable representation of the human
figure, much less convey down a likeness of the
fierce heroes of their times. I premise this, to
show the impossibility of this portrait having been
a copy of some original of this great ancestor.
The dress is singular : a large bonnet, with a very
long silken appendage; a green jacket, hanging
sleeves : a collar of SS held in one hand : his face

k This portrait is now supposed by the noble owner to
represent Edward Grimston, who was* ambassador to the
court of Burgundy in the reign of Henry VI. ; and as the
family arms are painted on the back and front of the pic-
ture, the conjecture does not appear improbable. It must
however be remarked, that the resemblance to the Duke of
Burgundy may be traced in other prints, exclusive of that
referred to in the Monarchic Francoise. Ed.

* Rymer's Fatdcra, xi. 230.



336 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY.

beardless. On the back of the picture is the fol-
lowing inscription :






The artist is unknown to me ; but the habit of
the person is that of the date : for I find in Mont-
Jaucons Monarchie Francoise several persons of
rank in the dress, particularly Philip Le Bon
Duke of Burgundy : between whom and this por-
trait there is so strong a resemblance of feature,
that I do not hesitate to imagine that the Gorham-
bury portrait is no other than one of this illus-
trious prince. He was born in 1396; died in
1467: so that he was a youth when the picture
was taken.

Catherine. The beautiful picture of Catherine Queen to
Charles II. in the character of St. Catherine, in
one of the bed-chambers.
Thomas In a dressing-room is a head of Thomas

Arundel. Howard, the virtuoso Earl of Arundel; who, by
much residence in foreign parts, acquired a tho-
rough contempt for his own country. Filled



PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY. 337

with family-pride, he was sent to the Tower for
a contempt shewn in the House to a nobleman
less highly born than himself; yet on the break-
ing out of the troubles of his royal master Charles
I. he. shewed a great want of true spirit, con-
sulting his own safety and ease rather than risque
them by siding with either party. He quitted
England, for which, as Lord Clarendon says,
he had little other affection than as he -had a
great share in it, in which, like a great leviathan,
he might sport himself. He was a man of a no-
ble presence, and affected a plain garb. He ac-
cordingly is here dressed in a dark habit robed
with fur. His countenance corresponds to the
description : his hair short, and his beard bushy :
his turn-over plain ; and the only ornament is the
pendent order of the Garter.

James I 1 , in inconsistent armour, black and James I.
gold, with each foot on a rock. Above him,

Jam turn tenditque fovetque,

1 These royal portraits, and a few others, were too much
injured to bear removal from the old house, or were thought
unworthy to occupy a place in the collection of the modern
Gorhambury. Ed.

In the house are several valuable paintings by foreign
masters, a list of which will be given in the Appendix. Ed.

Z



338 PORTRAITS AT GORHAMBURY.

beneath,

Jacobus unitor Britannia plantator Hibernice conditor im-
perii Atlantici.

The last, I fear, a piece of the characteristic adu-
lation of the chancellor.

Near him are two monarchs, not in fact coeval
with Bacon, but placed here from the admiration
he had of their abilities, in extending their domi-
KhnTof mons to tne Indies. By Emanuel king of Portu-
Portugal. g a ^ ne pointed out the advantage of commerce, re-
ceived by the discovery of the new passage to
India under his auspices, by Vasco di Gama :

Ferdinand .

of Spain, by Ferdinand V. he points out the discovery of
America by Columbus. The first monarch he
calls Conditor imperii Europce super Indias ori-
entales ; the other Super Indias Occident ales. Both
of the princes are represented knee-deep in water :
but I suppose, by the situation of their cautious
master, he would shew he had too much prudence
to wet his feet.

I now resume my journey, and, in my way to
St. Albans, about a mile and half distant, pass by
the site of St. Mary de la Pre, de Pratis, or the
Meadows ; an hospital for leprous women, found-
ed about 11 90, by Warine, abbot of St. Albans.



Verula-

MIUM.



VERULAMIUM. 339

It afterwards rose to a priory of Benedictine nuns,
but fell in 1528, when JVolsey, commendatory ab-
bot, obtained from Clement VIII. a bull for its
suppression, and for annexing it to the abbey ;
after which he got a grant of it for himself from the
king, who, on the ruin of the cardinal, gave it to
Sir Ralph Rowlet m .

Immediately after quitting this place, I en-
tered the celebrated Verulamium, at a spot distin-
guished by a great fragment of the antient wall,
known by the name of Gorhambury-block, which
probably bounded one side of one of the porter, or
entrances, being exactly opposite to that on the
eastern part. The precinct departs from the rec-
tangular form of the Romans, this being among
those which were laid out, Prout loci qualitas aut
necessitas postulaverit n . It inclines to an oval
shape ; is placed on a slope, and the lower side
bounded by the river Ver, which in former times
might have spread into a lake, and given greater
security to the town. According to Humphry
Lloyd , it gave also the name to the place, Gwer-
llan, or the temple on the Ver ; rightly bestowing
on the Britons a pre-occupancy of it to the Ro-
mans. I shall not dispute the notions of the parti-

m Tanner, 185. n Vegetius, lib. i. c. 23.

9 Commentariol, 31.

z 2



340 VERULAMIUM.

cular ford over which Ccesar crossed the Thames,
when he penetrated into our island. It probably
was at or near Coway Stakes. Ccesar leaves us no
room to depart from that opinion, as he expressly
tells us that he led his army to the river Thames,
towards the borders of the territories of Cassive-
launus 9 , the golden-locked leader of the country
of the Cassi : and these Cassi are reasonably sup-
posed to have been a clan of the Cattieuchlani,
and to have inhabited the hundred of this county
now called Cashio, in which Verulamium stood.
But I must contend, that the distance of that city
is far too remote from the fordable parts of the
Thames, to admit it to have been the town of the
British leader destroyed by the invader. It lies,
in the nearest line, thirty-seven miles from those
parts of the river : a distance too great for the
time given to Ccesar for his second campaign in
Britain. The town, or rather post, which was
forced by him, was not remote from the camp oc-
cupied by him on the side of the river ; and most
likely was that which is still very entire, in the
park of her Grace the Dutchess dowager of Port-



p Caesar cognito consilio eorum ad {lumen Tamasin in fines
Cassivelauni exercitumduxit. Bel. Gal. lib. v.

Preceding this, he speaks of the fines Cassivelauni, as being
a mari cireiter millia passuum lxxx.



VERULAMIUM. 341

land, at Bulstrode, about fifteen miles distant from
the Roman camp : whose vestiges are still to be
seen, not far from the famous ford q . Partly by
length of time, partly by constant cultivation, this
post has lost some of the characters ascribed by
Ccesar to the town of Cassivelaunus ; for it wants
at present the marshy defence it had in his days.

The town alluded to was within the territories
of the British chieftain, and one of the strong-holds
into which the Britons were used to drive their
cattle in time of danger. This, by Casars ac-
count, was certainly not the most capital ; for his
first relation informs us, it only contained satis nume-
rus pecorum, a pretty considerable number of cat-
tle. Notwithstanding his vanity, a few lines lower,
swells his booty into magnus numerus, a vast num-
ber r . At Shepperton, also, near Cozvay-Stakes,
in a field called War Close, are found spurs,
swords, bones, and other marks of a battle. See
Camden, i. 366 : but in all likelihood, the first is
the nearest to the truth.

Verulamium was the capital of this country, and
the residence of its princes. I do not reckon
Cassivelaunus among them ; he was a chieftain of
the Cassi, and, for his great abilities, elected general
on the Roman invasion, if our British history is to

i Syhis paludibmque munitum. T Lexvis Hist. Br. 73.



342 VERULAMIUM.

be trusted. He was guardian to his nephews,
Anarzvy and Tenafan s (the last) father to Cunobo-
line, whose coins are so frequent. Here was one
of the British mints; for we find the word Veron
the coins, but no prince's name to distinguish the
reign.

After the Romans had effected their conquest,
they added walls to the ordinary British defence
of ramparts, and ditches. Many great fragments
of the former still remain, proofs of the strength
and manner of the Roman masonry. On one
Walls, side is a vast foss ; on another, two. The walls
are twelve feet thick, where entire, formed of flints
bedded in mortar, now grown into amazing hard-
ness. By intervals of about three feet distance,
are three, and in some places four rows of broad
and thin bricks, or tiles, which were continued the
whole length of the walls, which seem designed as
foundations to sustain the layers of flints and lime,
while the last was in a moist state. There were,
besides, round holes, which penetrated quite
through l ; but these are either filled up, or escap-
ed my notice. According to Doctor Stukelys
measurement, the area is five thousand two hun-
dred feet in length, and the greatest breadth



Stukely Itin. i. 1 17.

*. See Doctor Stukely's admirable plan of this place.



VERULAMIUM. 343

about three thousand. It is at present inclosed ;
but under the hedges, in many places, are ves-
tiges of buildings, and, as I am told, when it is
under tillage, the sites of the streets appear, by
the different color of the corn above them. The
Watling-street comes to the Porta Decumana, the
gate on the western side, and passes quite through
the city. There is another road goes on the outside
on the south side ; a small military way, like that
which passed from turret to turret on Sewruss
wall", for the conveniency of external passen-
gers.

This place, by its attachment to the conquerors,
acquired the privileges of a free borough, a muni- A m unici _
cipium, or municipal city, whose inhabitants en- PIUM *
joyed all the rights of the Roman citizens ; for
which reason such towns derive their name a mu-
neribus capiendis, their power to bear public offices.
They had their senators, knights, and commons ;
magistrates and priests ; censors, ediles, questors,
and flamens.

The attachment of this town to its new masters,
proved the cause of a heavy misfortune, which be-
fel it under the reign of Nero. Boadicea, widow Sacked bt
of Prasutagus, king of the Iceni, enraged at the Boadicea.
cruel indignity offered to her and her daughters,

Tour Scotl. 1772. partii.p. 288.



344 VERULAMIUM.

raised an insurrection against the Romans and their
friends, and repaid with the most dreadful cruelties
the injuries they had received. Camolodunum,
Londinium, and Verolamium, suffered from the
fury of the Britons, and seventy thousand citizens
and allies fell by the edge of the sword. This city
was remarkable for its wealth x , which was an-
other incentive for the Britons to attack it, add-
ed to a particular animosity against a people who
had forsaken the customs and religion of their an-
cestors.

The place in a short time emerged from its
Albanus. misfortune; and had the honor of producing Alba-
nus, the proto-martyr of Britain, a wealthy citizen
of Verulamium, and, by privilege, of Rome also.
He had been a Pagan, but was converted by
means of a guest, whom he had sheltered during
the great persecution of Diocksian as I have be-
fore related. St. Alban suffered in the year 302.
Let not legend destroy the credibility of the mar-
tyrdom, by assigning attendant miracles, long after
their cessation. We are told, that after he had re-
fused to sacrifice to the heathen gods, the usual test
of the alleged crime of Christianity, he was, as
customary, whipped with rods, and then led to ex-
ecution, and beheaded on Holmhurst, where the

x Taciii Annal. lib. xiv. c. 31. fyc.



VERULAMIUM. 345

town of St. Albaris at present stands. In his pas-
sage, the torrent, which then divided the place
from Verulamium, like the Red-sea, divided its
waters, and gave dry passage to the Saint and his
followers : a fountain sprung up where the martyr
kneeled: one of the executioners relenting, was
converted, and suffered with Albanus ; another,
who performed the deed, lost his eyes, as a penal-
ty for his cruelty ; for they dropped out of his head
at the moment in which he gave the blow y . St.
Alban was interred on the spot ; and his remains
were miraculously discovered several centuries
after their interment.

In 429, this place was honored with a synod, Synod

J, HELD HERE.

in which St. Germanus and Lupus, two French
prelates, assisted. A chapel was erected, about
the year 945, by abbot Ulsin, in honor of the for-
mer, on the spot in which he preached; whose
ruins were to be seen the beginning of the last
century.

After the Savon invasion, the name of the
town was changed for that of Verlamcester and
JVatlincester. The British hero, Uther Pendra-
gon, after a long siege, wrested it out of the hands
of the Savons, and held it during his life ; after

y Bede Hist. Eccl. lib. i. c. 7. Father Cressy, in his Church
History, lib. vi. has given a much longer detail.



Vaults.



346 VERULAMIUM.

his death they soon recovered it ; but by reason of
the cruel wars that raged during the contest be-
tween them and the Britons, the place became to-
tally desolated.
Great Like the antient Deva z , Verulamium had its

great vaults, or subterraneous retreats, strongly
and artfully arched. These are supposed, by Sir
Henry Ckauncy, to have been designed as places
of retreat in time of war for the women and child-
ren, and for the concealment of the most valuable
effects. In 960, they were found to give shelter
to thieves and prostitutes, which caused Eldred,
the eighth abbot, to search after these souterreins;
he discovered several ways and passages, all which
he caused to be destroyed, but preserved the tiles
and stones for rebuilding the church, then in ruins*.
The present St. Albaris arose from the ruins of
Verulamium. Offa king of the Mercians, direct-
ed, says legend, by a vision from heaven, discover-
ed the reliques of St. Alban, by beams of glory
springing from the grave b . In 793, he erected on
the spot the magnificent monastery, for the main-
tenance of a hundred Benedictine or black monks,
and in a parlementary council, which he held in the
same year, bestowed on it most liberal endow-

2 Tour in Wales, p. 108. 8th ed. 1810. 1. p. 149.

* Chauncy, 43 1 . b Crcssy, lib. xxv. c. 6.



ST. MICHAEL'S CHURCH. 347

ments. Verulamium was now reduced to the state
elegantly described by Spenser, assuming the cha-
racter of the Genius of the place.

I was that city which the garland wore
Of Britain's pride, delivered unto me
By Roman victors, which it wore of yore,
Though nought at all but ruins now I be,
And lie in mine own ashes, as ye see.
Verlame I was : what boots it that I was,
Sith now I am but weeds and wasteful grass f

Ruines of Time.

Before I quit these antient precincts, I must
note the church of St. Michael, built within them
by the same pious abbot who founded the chapel f , CH " RCH 0F

J r r St.Michael.

of St. German. It became an impropriation of
the abbey, and, after the dissolution, a vicarage.
The church is small, supported within by round
arches. It is most distinguished by the monument
of the great Lord Verulam. His figure is of white
marble, sitting in a chair, and reclining, in the
easy attitude of meditation. He is dressed in
robes lined with fur, and a high-crowned hat.
Any emblems of greatness would have been unne-
cessary attendants on this illustrious character.
The spectator's ideas must render every com-
plimentai sculpture superfluous. The epitaph



348 SAINT ALBAN'S.

conveys high honor to the grateful servant: his
master could receive nothing additional.

H. P.

Francisc. Bacon, Baro de Verulam, Sanct. Albani viceco'

Seu notioribus titulis

Scientiarum lumen, facundiae lex,

Sic sedebat :

Qui postquam, omnia naturalis sapientiae

Et civilis arcana evolvisset,

Naturae decretum explevit.

Composita solvantur.

Anno Dom. MDCXXVL

JEt. LXVI.

Tanti viri

Mem.

Tliomas Meautys

Superstitis cultor,

Defuncti admirator.



On leaving St. Michael's, I passed through a
St ALBAN's.sort of suburbs to St. Albans, and crossed the
Ver, to the site of the palace of Kingsbury. It
had long been the residence of the Savon princes,
who, by their frequent visits to the abbey of St.
Albaris, became an insupportable burden to its
revenues. At length abbot Alfric, by his inter-
est with king Ethelred II. prevaled on him to
dispose of it, the king only reserving a small for-



SAINT ALBAN'S. 349

tress in the neighborhood of the monastery 5 .
This also continuing to give offence to its pious
neighbors, was destroyed by king Stephen, at the
intercession of Robert, the seventh abbot c .

I see in Doctor Stukeleys plan, a bury, or
mount, called Osterhill, on which the palace might
have stood ; and a ditch called Tomnan Ditch,
which took its name from this Tommin, or Tu-
mulus.

On ascending into St. Albans, up Fishpool Fishpool.
street, the bottom on the right reminded me of the
great pool which once occupied that tract. This
had been the property of the Saxon monarchs, and
was alienated by Edgar to the all-grasping monks.
Those princes were supposed to have taken great
pleasure in navigating on this piece of water.
Anchors have been found on the spot ; which oc-
casioned poets to fable that the Thames once ran
this way. One of them, speaking to the Ver, says,

Thou saw'st great burden'd ships through these thy vallies

pass,
Where now the sharp-edg'd scythe shears up the spiring

grass;
And where the seal and porpoise us'd to play,
The grasshopper and ant now lord it all the day d .

Chauncy, 431, 463. c The same, 436.

d Drayton, song xvi. Spenser sings in the same strain, see
Ruins of Time.



350 ABBEY OF ST. ALBAN.

The town spreads along the slopes and top of
the hill. The magnificent mitred parlementary
Abbey, abbey graced the verge of the southern side. Of
this there does not remain the lest vestige, except
the gateway, a large square building, with a fine
Spacious pointed arch beneath : so that all the la-
bors of Offa, and the splendid piety of a long
train of abbots, and a numerous list of benefactors,
are now reduced to the conventual church; and
the once-thronged entrance of the devout pilgrims
to the shrine of our great proto-martyr, is now no
more than an empty gateway.

A Murder. A barbarous murder was the true spring of
Offds munificence. The Mercian monarch cast a
longing eye on the dominions of Ethelbert, prince
of the East Angles; treacherously invited him to
court, under pretence of marrying him to his
daughter Althrida; seized on the young prince
(who is represented to have been the most amiable
of his time), beheaded him, and seized on his do-
Cadse of the minions'. Offa had recourse to the usual expia-

ormiHt- ti n f ms cr i m e, that of founding a monastery ;
bey. when the grateful monks, to conceal the infamy of
their benefactor, call down a vision from heaven,
as a motive to his piety. But Offa did not trust
to this solely : he made a penitential pilgrimage to
Rome, and, by the merit of his monastic institution

e Carte, i. 272.



ABBEY OF ST. ALBAN. 351

at St. Albaris, readily obtained absolution, and not

only procured for the house exemption from the Its great
_ Privilege.

tax of Peter-pence, but power to collect the same
for its own use, through the whole province of
Hertford; a privilege which no person in the
realm, the king himself not excepted, ever enjoyed.
By the same bull, his holiness granted, that the
abbot, or monk, whom he appointed archdeacon,
should have pontifical jurisdiction over the priests
and laymen of the possessions of this church ; and
that no person whatsoever, save the pope himself,
should offer to interfere. It was, by the charter
of the king, to be free from all taxes, repair of
bridges and castles, and from making entrench-
ments against an enemy ; to be exempt from epis-
copal jurisdiction ; and, by the same charter, the
fines for crimes, which belonged to the king, were
given for ever to this monastery. Offa, not con-
tent with this, inclosed the body of the Saint in a
shrine of beaten gold and silver, set with precious
stones ; and, encircling the scull with a golden
diadem, caused to be inscribed on it, Hoc est
caput Sancti Albani, Anglorum protomar-
tytis*.

Wiligord was the first abbot. It flourished First and

last Abbot.

f Mat. Paris, 984>



352 ABBEY OF ST. ALBAN.

from his time to the dissolution, and received vast
endowments and rich gifts. At that fatal period
it was surrendered, on the 5th of December 1538,
by Richard Boreman 1 , alias Stevenache, the last
abbot ; who got, in reward for his ready com-
pliance, the annual pension of . 266 1 3*. 4d. ;
and the thirty-nine monks, then of the house,
lesser sums ; some even as small as five pounds a
year h . The house, and the greatest part of the
lands, were granted to Richard Lee, captain of the
band of pensioners, as scandal reports, in reward
for his prudence in winking at the king's affection
for his handsome wife \ The town, or, as Willis
says, the abbot, purchased the church from the
king for A00, and by that means preserved it
from destruction ; which gave him so much merit
with Queen Mary, that when she determined to
restore the abbey, she appointed him to preside
over it k . It is said that he died of a broken
heart, within a few days after he received the news
of her death.



5 The reverend Peter Newcome, in his elaborate History of
the Abbey, p. 439, says, That Boreman was put in the place
of abbot Catton, who died in 1538, with no other view than to
make a surrender in form; an artifice practised whenever



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