colored beads pendent from it. On a table, be-
hind, is a chalice of gold, set with pearls.
The other is a head of an old man, in a black
gown ; his beard grey and square, finely finished.
The town of St. Albans is large, and, in gene- Toww.
ral, filled with antient buildings. It originally
sprung from a few houses built by. king Offa, for
the conveniency of the officers and servants of the
monastery. About the year 950, it was so in-
creased, that king Ethelred, at the intercession of
abbot Ulfin, gave it a grant of a market, and the
rank of a borough. In the Doomsday Book, it
appears at the Conquest to have been rated for
ten hides. The " arable was sixteen ploughlands.
' In demesne, three hides, two ploughlands, and
' another may be made. There were four aliens,
' sixteen villeyns, and thirteen boors, having thir-
' teen ploughlands : forty-six burgesses : the toll,
' and other rents of the town, eleven pounds four-
' teen shillings a year : three mills, forty shillings
' a year : meadow, two ploughlands in quantity :
' wood to feed a thousand hogs in pannage-time :
' and seven shillings rent. The total twenty
' pounds at that time ; in that of Edward the
' Confessor, twenty-four. There are now twelve
cottagers, a park of deer, and a fish-pond."
374 TOWN OF ST. ALBANS.
The town was always considered as a part of the
demesne of the abbey ; and at the Conquest it was
part of its possessions. Richard I. by charter,
confirmed it to the abbey, with a market, and all
the privileges attending a borough : the abbot hold-
ing, as he alleged, of the king in capite, and hold-
ing the burgesses as demesned men of the abbey.
This tenure the burgesses wished to force from
him ; which they attempted by the following stra-
tagem In the thirty-fifth of Edzvard I. they had
sent representatives to parlement, and also in the
first and second of Edward II ; but in the fifth of
the same reign, the sheriff of Hertfordshire, by the
contrivance of the abbot, to save the expence, had
omitted the usual summons. This the burgesses
complained of, asserting that they held of the king ;
hoping thereby to get released of the services they
owed their lord abbot : or, if they succeeded in
sending members, to be freed of those which they
owed the king. Both of which expectations, in
the opinion of Mr. Mado.v, were ill-founded".
Burgesses were returned to parlement the fifth of
Edzvard II. and in the second, fourth, and fifth of
Edzvard III ; after which the load, or the privilege,
as it was respectively thought by the disputants,
ceased. At the time of the dissolution, the town,
Antiquities of the Exchequer, i. 760.
TROUBLES AT ST. ALBAN'S. 375
with the other possessions of the abbey, fell to the
king (Henry VIII.) and from him to his heir,
Edward VI ; who, by letters patent, dated May
12th, 1553, made the town of St. Albans a body
corporate,by the name of the mayor and burgesses, Incorpo-
and granted to the said mayor and burgesses, and
their successors, the said profits, and other fran-
chises ; they to hold the premises in free burgage,
and to render yearly to the crown X/. as a fee-
farm, at the feast of St. Michael .
These were changed, by Charles II. into a
mayor, recorder, twelve aldermen, and twenty-
four assistants. The members are returned by
the inhabitants and freemen (about a thousand in
number) and the returning-officer is the mayor p .
The remarkable events, which befel this town
in earlier times, were, as usual, of the sanguinary
kind. During the rage of the barons wars, in the
reign of Henry III. the burgesses fortified the
place, and defended it with strong gates, well se-
cured. They were particularly jealous of horse-
men ; therefore refused passage to all cavaliers.
The constable of Hertford, displeased at this pro-
hibition, in a bravado, boasted that he would enter
the town with three youths (knights) and four of
his best villeins. He did so, and, walking up
Q Madox, i. 762. p Willis Notit. Pari. iii. 26.
376 TROUBLES AT ST. ALBAN'S.
and down with great insolence, asked his com-
panions which way the wind was. The towns-
men, alarmed at the question, thought he designed
to fire their houses. In a summary way they ex-
ecuted justice, by knocking down and beheading
him, his youths, and villeins ; placing their heads
on poles, at the corners of their streets. The king
resented this invasion of his prerogative, and fined
the town in a hundred marks ; which was imme-
diately paid 9 .
In the reign of Richard!!, it underwent a mor-
tification of a far heavier nature. In 1381, after
the bloody insurrection of Wat Tyler, a court of
justice was held here, by the famous Sir Robert
Tresilian. John Ball, a priest of Coventry, was
tried and executed. Several of the inhabitants had
* favored the rebels, or, taking advantage of the
turbulence of the times, had demanded from the
abbot a release from all their services. Several
of them were condemned and put to death, and
orders given, that their bodies should remain on
the gallows in terror em. The burgesses, in con-
tempt of the king, took them down ; but when a
discovery was made, Richard, in a rage, com-
manded the townsmen to make chains, and hang
the putrid carcases on the same places they took
9 Chauncy, 442.
FIRST BATTLE AT ST. ALBAN'S. 377
them from ; which, disgusting and horrible as the
task was, they were obliged to perform 1 .
In the civil wars between the houses of York FlRS1 " B cJ"
TLB AT bT.
and Lancaster, this town was the scene of dread- Alban's.
ful carnage. Here was shed the first blood in
that fatal quarrel. As soon as ever the weak
Henry, or rather his queen and ministers, found
themselves free from the power of his rival the
Duke of York, they armed their forces, and marched
from London to St. Alban's to encounter their
enemy, who was advancing towards them with a
mighty host. They met on the 22d of May, 1455.
The peaceful prince sent out a herald to York,
strictly commanding him to keep the peace as be-
came a dutiful subject, and to avoid effusion of
blood. York's answer was humble, yet resolute ;
demanding the Duke of Somerset, and other de-
linquents, to be delivered into his hands, that jus-
tice might be executed on them, for the miseries
they had brought on the realm. Somerset, who
had been regent of France, was charged in parti-
cular with the loss of Normandy. The king de-
termined to stand the event of the day, rather than
give up his friends. His banner was placed in St.
Peters street. Orders were issued by Henry
(but most probably by the, bloody Margaret) that
no quarter should be given to his opponents. The
1 Hollinslted, 438.
37S FIRST BATTLE AT ST. ALBAN'S.
Yorkists began the attack in three places. The
famous John Lord Clifford defended the barriers
with his accustomed valour. The king-making
Warzvick, who at this time espoused the cause of
York, collected his force, and broke in through the
gardens into Holyxvell-streeV : his soldiers shouted
his tremendous name. The Duke of York entered
at the same time, and a dreadful fight ensued.
Victory declared in his favor. Numbers of the
nobility and gentry, with about eight hundred
common men, fell on the side of Henry : the va-
liant Clifford, usually called The Old, though only
forty years of age, the Earl of Northumberland,
son to the noted Hotspur, and the great Duke of
Somerset, were slain. The last lost his life be-
neath the sign of the Castle, to fulfil the prophecy
thus delivered by Shakespeare :
Let him shun castles.
Safer shall he be on the sandy plains.
Than where castles mounted stand l .
Numbers of the nobility were wounded, and num-
bers fled till the fury of the battle was over. None
were executed by the victor : the barbarity of civil
8 Stow, 399.
* Henry VI. part ii. act 1. Halk's Qtronicle, Ixxxvi.
SECOND BATTLE AT ST. ALBAN'S. 379
feuds had not yet taken place, provoked by the
reciprocal cruelties which speedily followed.
Henry, wounded in the neck by an arrow, which
hurtled in showers on him, retreated to a poor cot-
tage, where he was found by the conquerors.
They asked forgiveness on their knees, which the
humane prince readily gave, on condition they
would stop the carnage. He became their pri-
soner, and they of course became governors of the
kingdom. The abbey escaped plunder ; for for-
tunately the king did not make it his head-quarters.
The king, from this time to the year 1461, re-
mained a mere shadow of royalty, entirely under
the direction of the Yorkists. His queen was
driven from him, under the terror of proscription.
That spirited woman did not employ her time in
prayers, or counting her beads, like her weak hus-
band; but, by the assistance of her northern
friends, raised a potent army, fought and slew the
Duke of York at the battle of Wakefield, on Z)e-
cember 30th, 1460, and, marching towards Lon-
don, gave occasion to a second battle at St. Albans.
The Earl of fVarzvic k, now in possession of the
king, hastened from London with the captive mo- Second Bat-
TT P AT ^T
narch, and took post in St. Albans. Margaret, alban's.
attempting to pass through the town, was repulsed
by a storm of arrows, directed from the market-
380 SECOND BATTLE AT ST. ALBAN'S.
place ; but she quickly forced her way through a
lane into St. Peters-street. The conflict became
then very bloody ; and, after great slaughter, both
parties quitted the town, and continued the battle,
with the animosity usual in civil feuds, on Ber-
nard Heath, north of St. Albans, as far as the
village of Sauntbridge, and even beyond it, to a
place called No Mans Land u . There a corps dt
reserve of Warwick 's army, to the number of four
or five thousand, made so vigorous an onset on the
Lancastrians, as to render the victory for some
time doubtful. At length the treachery or cow-
ardice of a captain Lovelace, who commanded the
Kentishmen, determined the day : he quitted the
field, and left a complete victory to the queen.
The confederated lords fled, and left the king in
company of Lord Bonvil and Sir Thomas Kiriel,
a gallant knight of Kent, both Yorkists. These
gentlemen Henry had prevaled on to stay with
him, assuring them of pardon and security ; but
his barbarous queen, in contempt of the royal
word, and in defiance of all good faith, caused
them to be beheaded in the presence of her son
Edzvard*, as it were to familiarize the young prince
with blood, and train him to cruelty.
Three-and-twenty hundred men perished
Stow, 413. * Halle, p. c.
SOPEWELL NUNNERY. 581
in this battle. Only one man of rank was slain,
Sir John Grey of Groby, who had that morning,
with twelve others, been knighted by the king at
Colney. His widow became queen to Edward IV.
and occasioned fresh calamities to the kingdom,
and proved the innocent cause of the destruction
of her kindred.
On quitting St. Albaris, I passed by the long
wall which inclosed the nunnery of Sopewell, made Sopewell.
of stone mixed with great quantities of Roman
tiles. This religious house took its rise from two
pious women, who on the site built a hovel with
boughs of trees, and covered it with bark, in order
to indulge in privacy their fondness for prayer and
fasting. Abbot Jeffry, about the year 1140, en-
couraged their virtue, by founding a nunnery of
In this house Henry VIII. was privately mar-
ried, by Doctor Rowland Lee, afterwards bishop
of Lichfield, to Anna Boleyne. It maintained at
that time thirteen nuns : on the dissolution, only
nine; when its revenues, according to Dugdale, were
.45. 7s. I0d.; to Speed, .68. 8s. It was
first granted to Sir Richard Lee; but finally be-
came the property of Sir Harbottle Grimston, and
his heirs y .
y Tanner, 183.
S82 BATTLE OF BARNET.
London After passing through the village of London
Colney. Qolney, seated on the Colne, at about a mile's
Ridgehill. distance I ascended Ridgekitl, remarkable for a
most extensive and rich view northwards of the
fine country about St. Alban's. At South Mints,
enter the county of
Wrotham and soon after leave, on the left, IVrotham Park ;
a beautiful house, built by admiral Byng, who was
put to death in 1757 !
About a mile farther, reach the bloody field of
Battle of Barnet, marked by a column, that shews the spot
Barnet. j r
where the decisive battle was fought between the
houses of York and Lancaster, which fixed the
crown on the head of Edzvard IV.
The great earl of Warwick, resentful of the
injuries he had received from that prince, deposed
him from the throne he had enabled him to mount.
So popular was the character of this potent baron,
that a numerous army flew to his standard : every
one was proud of bearing his cognisance, the bear
and ragged staff, in his cap : some of gold, ena-
melled ; others of silver ; and those who could not
afford the precious metals, cut them out of white
BATTLE OF BARNET. S83
silk, or cloth. When he visited London in peace-
ful times, he came attended by six hundred men,
in red jackets, embroidered with ragged staves
before and behind. He kept house at his palace
in Warwick- Lane. Six oxen were consumed at
every breakfast ; and every tavern was full of his
meat ; and every guest was allowed to carry off
as much, roast or boiled, as he could bear upon his
Edward, on his return to England, was joy-
fully received in London. Hearing that Warwick
was on his march towards the capital, he hastened
to meet him, and posted himself at Barnet. So
bad was the intelligence in those days, that Edward
advanced in the night so near to WarxvicKs camp,
that the earl, unapprized of his vicinity, kept firing
his ordnance over that of the king the greatest part
of the night, without the least execution. On
the morning, being that of Easter-day, April 14th
1471, both the leaders placed their armies in order.
Warwick wore as his cognisance an ostrich's fea-
ther% the badge of Edxvard, the son of king Henry :
his friend Vere Earl of Oxford, a star ; the fatal
cause of the loss of the day. Edward wore a sun ;
from a fancy, that before the battle of Mortimers
z Stow's Hist. London, edit. 1G1 1, p. ISO.
a Ibid. 422.
384 BATTLE OF BARNET.
Cross, he saw three distinct suns at last unite in
one b . The battle began at four in the morning,
which opened in a thick mist, with that deadly
hate which the long series of civil wars had created.
The battle raged with various success, as might be
expected from the undaunted courage and ani-
mosity of the leaders, and from the reflection on
the certain destruction consequential of defeat.
They fought obscured in fog till ten o'clock;
victory seemed to incline to Warwick; when
his people, mistaking the stars in the helms of
Oxford's soldiers, for the suns of Edward's party,
charged their own friends ; who, crying Treason !
Treason ! fled with eight hundred men. The mar-
quis of Montacute, with the fickleness usual in
those times, had privily agreed with Edxvard to
desert his brother Warxvick, and had changed his
livery. This was discovered by some of the earl's
men, who instantly put him to death : a fit reward
of fraternal perfidy ! JVarzvick, seeing his brother
slain, Oxford fled, and the fortune of the day
turned against him, leaped on a horse, in hopes of
escaping ; but coming to an impassable Mood, was
there killed, and stripped naked, and, after being
exposed, with the body of Montacute, for three or
four days, in the church of St. PauCs, was interred
b Hollinshed, 660. Shakespeare, Henri/ VI. part iii. act 2.
BATTLE OF BARNET. S83
in the abbey of Bisham in Berkshire, founded by
the Montacutes, his maternal ancestors. About
four thousand were slain on both sides ; who were
interred for the most part on the spot. Edward
built here a chapel, and, according to the custom
of the times, appointed a priest to say mass for the
souls of the deceased. This place, in the days of
Stozv d , was converted into a dwelling-house. The
following conversation relative to this battle, be-
tween Civis and Roger, extracted from Doctor
Bulleiiis Dialogues both pleasant e 8$pietifull, &c.
will probably be acceptable to the reader :
" Civis. How like you this heath ? Here was
" foughten a fearful field, called Palme Sondaie.
" Battaile, in king Edward the fowerthes tyme.
" Many thousands were slain on this grounde,
" Here was slain the noble erle of JVarwiche.
" Roger. If it please your maistership, my
" granndfather was also here, with twenty tall men
" of the parishe where I was borne, and none of
" them escaped but my granndfather only. I had
" his bo we in my hande many a tyme : no man
" could stir the string when it was bent. Also his
" harnes was worn upon our S. Georges back, in
" our churche, many a colde winter after ; and I
" hearde my grand-dame tell how he escaped.
* Annals, 423.
" Civis. Tell me, Roger, I pray thee, ho we he
' did escape the danger ?
" Roger. Sir, when the battaile was pitched,
and appointed to bee foughten nere unto this
windmill, and the somons given by the harolts
of armies, that spere, polax, blackbille, bowe and
arrowes, should be sette a worke the daie follow-
ing, and that it shoulde be tried by bloudie
weapon, a sodaine fear fell on my grandfather ;
and the same night, when it was darke, he stale
out of the erle's campe, for fear of the king's
displeasure, and hid him in the woode ; and at
lengthe he espied a greate hollow oke tree,
with armes somewhat greene, and climbed up,
partly through climing, for he was a thatcher ;
but feare was worthe a ladder to him : and then,
by the helpe of the writhen arm of the tree, he
went down, and there remained a good while ;
and was fedde there by the space of a monthe
with old achorns and nuttes which squirrels had
brought in ; and also did in his sallet kepe the
raine water for his drinke, and at length escaped
Hadley At a small distance stand Haclley church, and
Church. j tg pi easan t village, on the edge of Enfield Chace ;
where, in my boyish age, I passed many happy days
with my uncle, the Reverend John Pennant , who,
HADLEY CHURCH. 3S7
during forty years, was the worthy minister. The
following epitaph, composed by the Reverend Mr.
Oarrow, schoolmaster at Hadley> truely describes
his well-spent life :
" Here lieth the body of the Reverend John Pennant,
" youngest son of Peter Pennant, of Bychton, in the county of
" Flint; and Catharine, daughter of Owen Wynne, Esq. of
" Glynne, in Merionethshire. He was rector of this parish
" forty years, and of that of Compton Martin, in Somersetshire ;
" and chaplain to her Royal Highness the Princess dowager of
" Wales. He resided here forty years ; and lived much
" respected, and died much regretted by the poor and his
" numerous acquaintance. He departed this life the 28th
" day of October, 1770, in his seventy-first year, full of piety
" towards his God, and of gratitude to his friends."
Here had been, in early times, a hermitage;
which Geffry de Magnaville, about the year 1 1 36,
bestowed on his new-founded abbey of JValden in
Essex*. The church was probably a chapel to the,
hermitage, and, from its being annexed to Walden % .
was called Hadley Monachorum. It is at present
a donative in the gift of the lords of the manor.
The present church is built with flints. Over the
west door is the date 1498, and the sculpture of a
rose and a wing. The same is found under the
upper window of Erifield, and on a gateway oppofr
e Newcourt's Repertorium; i. 621.
2 c 2
38S HADLEY CHURCH.
site to the Curtain in Shoreditch, once belonging
to the Benedictine nunnery of Halkvell. Sir
Thomas Lovel, who lived at the period in which
this church was built, was a great benefactor to
the nunnery, and had his residence at Enfield.
Whether he contributed to the building of Hadley,
does not appear ; otherwise it would seem to have
been a badge of his : but others have conjectured
it to have been a rebus, expressive of the name of
an architect, Rosewing.
To this church, on the demolition of that of
St. Christopher Le Storks, were removed the
poor remains of my pious mother, who died of
the small pox in London, in April 1744. At
the same time, those of my worthy sister Sarah,
born November 28th, 1730, who died November
11, 1780, were deposited in the same place.
That excellent woman, her twin sister Catherine,
survived till February 10, 1797, and on the
20th was interred in Hadley church.
On the top of the steeple there remains an iron
Beacon, pitch-pot, designed as a beacon, to be fired oc-
casionally, to alarm the country in case of invasion.
It takes its name from the Saxon Becnian, to call
by signs. Before the time of Edward III. the
signals were given by firing great stacks of wood ;
but in the eleventh of his reign, it was first ordered
HADLEY. ENFIELD CHACE. 389
that this species of alarm should be made with
pitch-pots placed on standards', or on elevated
buildings, within due distances of one another.
Hadley stands at the edge of Enfield Chace z , a ^^ LD
vast tract of woodland, filled with deer. The view
of the county of Essex, over the trees, is extremely
beautiful. This great extent of forest was first
granted, by William the Conqueror, to Geffry de
f Lambarde's Kent, 66.
s This Chace was inclosed in the seventeenth of the present
reign, and was found to contain 8349 acres; which were
thus allotted :
A. R. P.
Enfield parish 1732 2 6 including 200 to be in-
closed and let, in aid of
land-tax and poor's rate.
Old Park in ditto 30 15
Edmonton 1231 2 6
South Minis 1026
Old/old Farm 36 3 24
The Crown 3213 2 20
Tythe Owners 519 O 32
Four Lodges 313 3
To be enfranchised 6 2 1
The 200 acres allowed in relief of Enfield parish, are divided
into forty-one lots, and let at . 1 . 1 6s. per acre, and some for
two guineas, for ninety-nine years, commencing at Michaelmas
1778. The crown makes . 1 300 a year of twenty-four lots,
for the same term, and at various and higher rents.
390 ENFIELD CHACE. BARNET.
Magnaville, a noble Norman, one of his followers :
the name afterwards corrupted to Mandeville.
His posterity were Earls of Essex till the death of
William Fitzpier, in 1227, his descendant by the
female line ; when this chace, and the title of
Essex, fell to Humphry de Bohun Earl of Hereford,
in right of his mother, sister to Fitzpier*. It con-
tinued with the Bohuns till the decease of the
tenth of the name ; after which, the property of
the Chace descended to Henry Earl of Derby,
afterwards Henry IV. by virtue of his marriage
with Mary, younger sister to the last Bohun, and
became annexed to the dutchy of Lancaster 1 .
Barnet. From Hadley to Barnetis half a mile : a small
thoroughfare town on the top of a hill ; whence
its name, corrupted from the Saxon Berg net, a
little hill. It has also the title of Chipping Bar-
net, on account of its market. In Saxon times, a
vast wood filled this tract ; which was granted to
the abbey of St. Albans. An inscription in the
Church, church shews it was founded by a Beauchamp :
Ora pro anima Johannis Beauchamp hujus operis fundatoris.
Here is a fair monument to a countryman of
mine, Thomas Ravenscrqft, Esquire, born at Ha-
warden, of an antient family in that parish. He
h Vincent's Discoverie, 180. l Cambden, i. 398.
WHETSTONE. HIGHGATE. 391
lies in a gown and ruff, recumbent. He died in
1630. He and his son James were considerable
benefactors to this place. To him wets owin i the
vestry-room ; to James, an alms-house for six poor
women, which he amply endowed.
Near Barnet is a medicinal well, a gentle and
safe chalybeate ; in former times in great repute.
From this town is a quick descent. Near the
village of Whetstone I again enter Middlesex ; Whetstone.
which I quitted on going into Barnet. Just
beyond Whetstone, the road passes over Finchley Finchle*
Common; infamous for robberies, and often
planted with gibbets, the penalty of murderers.
The resort of travellers of all ranks, and the mul-
titudes of heavy carriages which crowd this road,
compared with those between St. Denys and Paris,
give a melancholy idea of the overgrown size of
our capital, which makes such annual havock of
the lives and fortunes of the distant visitants.
About a mile beyond this common, stands
Highgate ; a large village, seated on a lofty emi- Highgatb.
nence, overlooking the smoky extent beneath.
Here, in my memory, stood a large gateway, at
which, in old times, a toll was paid to the bishop
of London., for liberty granted (between four and