five hundred years ago) by one of his predecessors,
for passing from Whetstone, along the present road,
through his parks, instead of the old miry way
by Friarn Barnet, Colnie-hatch, Muszvell-hill,
Crouch-end, and (leaving Highgate to the west)
by the church of Pancras. In the time of Queen
Elizabeth, it was farmed from the bishop, for forty
pounds a year 1 . After resting for a small space
over the busy prospect, I descended into the plain,
reached the metropolis, and disappeared in the
1 Nor den's Speculum Brit. Middlesex, 1 5,
NORTHAMPTON TO LONDON.
lNa preceding year, I determined to vary part
of my journey to the capital, by quitting the com-
mon road near Daventry. I began with making
a digression about five miles to the south of that
town, as far as Fawsley. I passed through the
village, and by the church of Badby. The manor, Badby.
in Saxon times, was bestowed on the abbey of
Crow land, by one Norman, a sheriff; and the
grant was confirmed by Witlaf and Beored, kings
of Mercia, in 868. That great convent held it
for no very long period. In 1017 it devolved to
Leqfric Earl of Leicester, by the death of his bro-
ther, also of the name of Norman, to whom the
house of Croxvland had granted it for one hundred
years, on the payment of a pepper-corn : but
Leofric severed it from Croxvland, and bestowed
it on the abbey of Evesham. On the dissolution,
Henry VIII. gave it to Sir Edmund Knightly, third
son of Richard Knightly of Faxcsley ; and it now
is the sole property of Lucy Knightly, Esquire.
In this parish, and at a small distance to the
west of the village, is Ardbury-hill, noted for the
vast ditch and rampart which surround it. It is
of an irregular shape, conforming to that of the
hill ; notwithstanding which, it may have been
Roman, and possessed afterwards by the Saxons ;
who bestowed on it the present name of Ard,
which signifies, in the British, high ; and Bury,
which, in their own tongue, denotes an eminence*.
Catesby. At a small distance from hence is Catesby :
long the property of a family of the same name.
Sir William Catesby, one of the three favourites of
Ricliard III. was lord of this manor. His ances-
tors possessed the place in the reign of Edward
III ; and it continued in his posterity till the infa-
mous conclusion of his line, in Robert Catesby,
the execrable 15 contriver of the Gun-powder Plot.
From Badby, I rode through some woods, and
Fawsley. through Fawslcy-park, to the house of Fazvsley,
the seat of the antient family of the Knight leys ;
standing in an improved demesne, above some
pretty pieces of water, which wind along a fine
* Morton, 524.
b Dot's Church Hist. ii. i30.
The present owner derives it from a very long
race of ancestors, who were settled here from the
year 1415 : at which time it was purchased by
Richard Knightly, descended from a Stafford-
shire family : taking its name from a manor in
that county, which they had possessed from the
twentieth year of William the Conqueror.
The present house is a motley building ; part House.
being exceedingly old, part middle-aged, and part
new. The hall is a magnificent gothic room, of a
vast height, timbered at top, and fifty-two feet
long. The recess, or bow-window, is richly orna-
mented at top with sculpture in stone. All the
other windows are very large, and placed at a
great height above the floor. In every one are the
arms of the family, and their alliances. I enume-
rated above sixty ; for it has been greatly allied^
from very early times.
The chimney-piece is large, grand, and well
carved. Above it is a great window. The smoke
is conveyed by flues passing on each side of it ;
so that the chimney does not in the lest disturb
the uniformity of the room : at the lower end are
two arched doors. There would be a faultless
propriety, if it was not for a modern wooden skreen
trespassing on the lower end.
The kitchen is most hospitably divided. On Kitchen.
each side of the partition is an enormous fire-place,
396 PORTRAITS IN FAWSLEY-HOUSE.
fitted for a hecatomb of beeves : they are placed
back to back, so as not to interrupt their respec-
Portraits. The portraits preserved here are very curious :
that of Sir Valentine Knightly caught my eye first,
as senior of the company. He is represented half-
length, in black, with short brown hair, whiskers,
and a small beard ; one hand on his sword, the
other on his side. I find nothing more remark-
able of him, than being father to a more active
Sir Richard Knightly : who is painted in
two periods of life; once in advanced years,
sitting ; his head kept warm by a coif; his dress
black ; his ruff laced. Near him are his specta-
cles, a Bible, and hour-glass. Between his legs is
a little girl playing with his stick, while he, laying
one hand on her shoulder, forms a true picture of
aged affection. In the inscription he is stiled of
Norton; a manor belonging to the family, and
possibly the residence of Sir Richard at this
The other portrait represents him in the thirty-
third year of his age, A. D. ] 567. On his head
is a bonnet : his dress is yellow : his cloak black :
his ruff small. He is painted with a sword and
small rod. It should seem, from some not ill-
wrote lines, that he had passed his youth licen-
PORTRAITS IN FAWS LEY-HOUSE. 3^7
tiously ; but afterwards made a most rigid reform.
In vita Fortuna.
So hitherto, by helpe of hevenlie powers,
My doubtful lifFe hath ronne his postinge race;
Whos recklesse youthe hath passed such stormie showers
As might have cute me of in halfe this space.
Yet mightie Jove, by his celestial grace,
Hath brought my barke to such a blissful shore,
As daylie doth advaunce me more and more.
In vita Fortuna,
It is probable he had an enthusiastic turn. He
took part with the puritans, who early began to
give disturbance to the church of England. Their
spirits were so greatly embittered by the unfavor-
able conclusion of the mock conference between
their ministers and the royal paedagogue, in 1603 C ,
that they gave vent to their rage in a variety of
most scurrilous pamphlets against the prelatical
order. These were the productions of secret
presses, that travelled from place to place. The
lord of Fazvsley was found guilty of harboring
them. He was cited before the Star-chamber,
and would have been severely treated, had it not
been for the mild Whitgif't, archbishop of Canter-
bury, who had been the principal object of their
c Rapin, ii. 162.
398 PORTRAITS IN FAWSLEY-HOUSE.
abuse*. The agreement of Sir Richard with Sir
Francis Hastings, in a petition to the house for
granting a toleration to the Roman catholics, must
not be thought inconsistent with the views of his
party ; for, had success followed, the puritans
might have clamed, and most probably obtained,
the same indulgence. He died in 1615.
His first wife was Mary, daughter of Mr.
Richard Termor, of Easton Neston ; his second,
was Lady Elizabeth Seymour, sixth 6 daughter to
the protector Duke of Somerset. There are two
portraits of this lady: one dated 1590, at. 40.
Her hands and face are small : her dress a quilled
ruff; black gown hung and beset with vast strings
and rows of pearls. The other is also in black,
with a high ruff. This lady brought her husband
seven sons and two daughters : she died in 1 602,
and was interred in the church at Norton^.
A full-length of Thomas Lord Grey of
Groby, in armour, long hair, a turnover and boots ;
with a boy in red giving him his helmet. This
nobleman was eldest son to the first Earl of Stam-
ford, and married to Anne, second daughter of
Edward Bourchier Earl of Bath. He is repre-
sented as a young man of mean abilities; who
took a determined part in the civil wars against
* Bridges, 66. c Vincent's Discoverie, 483. f Bridges, 79.
FAWSLEY CHURCH. TOMBS.
his sovereign, was active against him in the field,
and submitted, when others, equally warm in the
cause of liberty, declined the dangerous office, to
sit among the judges on the trial of the king ; and
finally, to sign his name to the warrant which
brought him to the block. These services were
fully rewarded. He had lands to the amount of a
thousand a year bestowed on him g , and revelled in
the plunder of the royal manor of Holdenby ; but
before the Restoration, death luckily rescued him
from the fate of his brother-delinquents.
I must close this list with mentioning two most
beautiful heads of women, done in crayons ; much
to the honor of the fair performer, a lady of the
The church is dedicated to St. Peter, and was Church.
bestowed by Henry II. on the monks of Daven-
try. On the dissolution, it was given to the col-
lege of St Frideswide, Oxford; but is now in the
gift of Mr. Knightly. Within, are numbers of Tombs.
antient tombs of the family, even from its first
settlement in this country; but many of them
much mutilated. That of Sir Richard Knightly,
who died in 1534, and Jane his wife, are magni-
ficently represented in alabaster, recumbent, on an
* Drake's Perl Hist. xx. 50.
altar-tomb : he in armour, with a herald's mantle
over it, and a defence of mail over his thighs.
Sir Edmund Knightly, and his wife Ursula,
sister to John Vere Earl of Oxford, are figured on
a brass plate ; he, according to the fashion of the
times, is armed, notwithstanding he was a serjeant
at law. He died in 1542.
A vast mural monument preserves the memory
of another Sir Valentine and his spouse, Anne,
daughter of Sir Edward Ferrers of Badesly, in
Warwickshire. He died in \566. This memo-
rial is a great pile of marble, with a great black
sarcophagus in the middle, and finished with a
The seats of the church are most ridiculously
carved with a variety of droll subjects : such as a
cat fiddling, and the mice dancing ; an animal
riding on a sow, bridled and saddled : and other
figures equally calculated to spoil the gravity of
the best-disposed congregation.
From Fawsley I returned into the London road,
near the eighth stone from Toucester ; and cross-
ing it, reached the village and church of Flore, or
Flore. Floxcer, pleasantly seated on rising ground, at a
small distance from the great road. In Dooms-
day-book it is called Flora; perhaps from its
agreeable situation. I left the church unvisited.
FLORE: TOMBS IN THE CHURCH.
I must speak from Mr. Bridges* of the most re-
markable particulars. It is dedicated to All
Saints. It was bestowed in the reign of king Church.
John, by a Ralph de Kaines, on Merton abbey, in
Surrey; but at the dissolution, was given to
Christ-church, Oxford ; under the patronage of
which it continues.
On a grey stone, in brass, is the figure of the Tombs.
Virgin, clasping our Saviour in her arms.
Beneath them are Thomas Knaresburght, in ar-
mour, and Agnes his wife; both with suppliant
hands, addressing themselves to the object of the
adoration of their days. She in these words : O
Blyssyd Lady, pray to IHU, of us to have mercy.
He died in die ramis palmarum, 1450 ; she, on
the 26th of March, 1488.
The following curious epitaph informs us of the
end of Robert Saunders, and Margaret his wife.
" Robert Saunders, the seconde sone of Thomas Saunders
" of Sybbertoft, lyethe here buryed :
" To Margret Staunton, the hey re of Thomas Staunton, he
* was fyrste marryed ;
" Which Margret being dead, Joyse Goodivyn
" he tooke to wyfe.
" The xiii daye of November, A. xcv. xlix.
' he departyd thys lyfe ;
" And restethe at God's pleasure, tyll the daye of perfec-
" God sende us and hyra then a joyful resurrection. Amen."
h P. 506, tfc.
Close by Flower I enter on the new turnpike-
road, which forms a communication between Da-
ventry and Northampton, and which opens into
the London road between Dodford and JVeedon.
About two miles from Northampton, I passed
Upton, through the village of Upton, and by Upton-hall,
the seat of Sir Thomas Samwell, Baronet, and pro-
perty of his ancestors since the year 1600; when
it was purchased from Sir Richard Knightley by
William Samwell, Esquire, a gentleman of antient
After a short space, I crossed the northern
water, or Naesby-head, a river that rises due north,
and by its junction a little below with another
stream, which flows from Faw sley -pools, forms that
which receives at Northampton the name of Nen.
Leland calls one of these branches the Aron ; the
other the JVeedon.
Jorthamp- I entered this beautiful town at the west gate,
and passed beneath the site of the castle. No-
thing, excepting an outer wall and foss, remains ;
in part of which is a vast stratum of ferruginous
Castle. Opposite to the castle is a great mount, once
the foundation of some more antient fortress ; per-
haps one of the line of forts which crossed this and
the neighboring counties. One exists at Touces-
ter, and another I shall have occasion to speak of,
lying about three miles to the east. I cannot
speak with certainty of the period in which
it was occupied by the Saxons, who gave it the
name of Hamtune. Mr. Bridges supposes it to
have risen from the ruins of Eltavon, a Roman
station on the side of the town. It appears that
the Danes were possessed of Northampton in 9 1 7;
and from thence long made their barbarous ex-
cursions \ Before the year 1010, they had quitted
the place ; but in their inroads in that year, they
burnt the town, and desolated the country.
In 1064, it found in the Northumbrians, under
Morcar, who had advanced as far as Northamp-
ton, a cruel set of banditti, who committed most
unprovoked outrages. They murdered the inha-
bitants, burnt the houses, and carried off thou-
sands of cattle, and multitudes of prisoners. But
in the reign of Edward the Confessor, here were
LX burgesses in the king's lordship, and LX
houses. At the time of the Conquest, fourteen
were waste ; but at the time of the survey, there
were forty burgesses in the new borough k .
Simon de Sancto Licio, or Senliz, a noble Nor-
man, founded here the castle. He had married
* Sax. Chr. 104, 106.
k Doomsday -book t in Morion's Northampt.
Maude, daughter of JValtheof, the Saxon earl of
Northampton, and succeeded to the title.
The Conqueror bestowed this town, and the
whole hundred of Fawsley, then worth fort}'"
pounds a year, on St. Liz, to provide shoes for
his horses'. From that period it became consi-
derable, and frequently was the seat of parlements,
and was on several other occasions honored with
the royal presence.
I must particularize the great council held there
in 1164, in which the contumacy of Thomas
T$ecket was punished by a heavy fine. At this
time, the whole people came, as one man ; and yet
all were unequal to the pride and obstinacy of the
single prelate m . The other great council, or parle-
ment, was summoned in 1 1 76, to confirm the
statutes of Clarendon ; in which the rights of the
crown and customs of the realm, especially as to
judicial proceedings, had been established".
During the civil contests in which England
was so unhappily involved, Northampton came in
for its share of the calamities incident to war. In
that between king John and the barons, it was
stoutly defended on the part of the king against
1 Blunt's Antient Tenures, 1 6.
m Lord Lyttelton's Henry II. 41 to 56.
n The same, v. 20' 4, octavo, 2d edit.
Robert Fitzwalter, fanatically stiled marshal of the
army of God and the holy church ; who, for
want of military engines, was obliged to raise the
siege p . This post was of such importance, that,
after the charter of liberties was extorted from
John, the constable for the time being was sworn
(by the twenty-five barons appointed at a com-
mittee to enforce its execution) to govern the
castle according to their pleasure. This was done
in the fullness of their power ; but as soon as the
perjured prince got the upper hand, he appointed
Fulk de Bream (a valiant but base-born Norman)
to the command, as one in whom he could entirely
confide 9 .
In the year 1263, the younger Mountfort and
his barons held it against their sovereign Henry
III. The king marched against them with a
strong force ; and having with his battering rams
formed a great breach in that part of the town-
walls nearest to the monastery of St. Andrew, en-
tered the place, and, after a short but vigorous re-
sistance, made the whole garrison prisoners r .
In 1460, Henry VI. made Northampton the
place of rendezvous of his forces. The strength
Cambden, i. 519. p Dugdale Baron, i. 219.
1 Dugdale Baron, i. 743. r Carte, ii. 141.
of his army encouraged his spirited queen to offer
battle to his young antagonist, the Earl of Marche,
then at the head of a potent army. A conference
was demanded by the earl, and rejected by the
royal party; who marched out of the town,
and encamped in the meadows between it and
Hardinston. The battle was fierce and bloody;
but by the treachery of Edmund Lord Grey of Ru-
then, who deserted his unhappy master, victory
declared in favor of the house of York. Thou-
sands were slain, or drowned in the Nen : among
them the duke of Buckingham, Earl of Shrews-
bury, John Viscount Beaumont, and Lord Egre-
rnont. The duke was interred in the church of the
Grey Friars ; others of the men of rank, in the
adjacent abbey of De la Pre ; and others, in the
hospital of St. John, in the town.
The town had been inclosed with a strong wall,
probably before the reign of King John ; for men-
tion is made, in the second year of his reign, of the
east-gate, one of the four. The walls were of
breadth sufficient for six men to walk abreast.
Both walls and castle were early neglected ; for
they appear to have been in 1593 in a ruinous
state*; yet the latter was used as a prison before
* Nor den, as quoted by Bridges, +32.
the year 1675 : and within had been a royal free-
chapel, dedicated to St. George ; to which a chap-
lain was presented by the crown, with a salary of
hs. a year.
In the civil wars, Northampton was seized by
Lord Brook, for the use of the parlement. In 1642,
he fortified it with a foss and ramparts ; converted
the bridges into draw-bridges ; and brought seve-
ral pieces of cannon here to defend it, in case of
attack. Whether it distinguished itself by any
particular acts of disloyalty beyond other places,
I cannot say; but in \66% pursuant to an order
of council, the walls, gates, and part of the castle,
were demolished 1 .
The most antient of the religious houses in this houses?*
town was the priory of St. Andrew, founded about St. An-
the year 1076, by Simon de St. Liz, (first Earl of
Northampton of his name) and Maude, his wife.
He peopled it with Cluniacs, and in 1 084 made it
subject to the abbey of St. Mary de Caritate, a
monastery upon the Loire. This occasioned it to
undergo the common fate of all alien priories, that
of being seized into the king's hands. It was sur-
rendered to Henry at the dissolution, by Francis
Abree, then prior; who, in reward for his ready
compliance, was appointed the first dean of Peter-
Its revenue, according to Dugdale, was
<. 263. 7s. Id.; to Speed, . 344. 13*. Id. The
house stood near the north end of the town, and,
with the demesne lands, was granted by Edzvard
VI. to Sir Thomas Smith 1 ".
The Grey Friars, or Franciscans, had a house
on the west side of the place. They originally
hired a habitation in St. Giles s parish, but after-
wards built one on ground given them by the town,
in the year 1 245. John Windloxve, the last war-
den, and ten of his brethren, surrendered their
poor revenues, of of. 6. 13s. 4d. per annum, on
October 28th, \539 y ; after which it was granted
to one Richard Taverner.
Above this house was a priory of Carmelites,
or White Friars, founded in 1271, by Simon
Mountfort and Thomas Chetzeood. It was valued
at . 10. 10*. and granted to William Ramesden 7 -,
after being resigned by John Howel, the last prior,
and eight brethren.
The Dominicans, or Black Friars, were fixed
n Willis, ii. 160. The recantation which he and his poor
monks were forced to make, is well worth perusal. See Ap-
x Tanner. r Willis, ii. 160. z Tanner, 386,
here before 1240. John Dalyngton was either
founder, or a considerable benefactor. Its re-
venues were only . 5. lis. 5d. * It was resigned
to the crown by its prior William Dyckyns, and
seven of his friars.
William Peverel, natural son to the Conqueror,
founded, before 1112, a house of Black Canons,
in honor of St. James. This Peverel had no less
than forty-four manors granted to him in this
county. The revenues of this house amounted
to . 175. 8*. Id. according to Dugdale; or
. 213. 17*. Qd. according to Speed. Henry
VIII. granted it to Nicholas Giffard b . Its last
abbot was William Brokden, who, with five monks,
resigned it in 1 540.
The Austin Friars, or Friars Eremites, had a
house here in the Bridge-street, founded in 1 322,
by Sir John Longueville of Woherton, in Buck-
inghamshire ; and several of his name were in-
terred there. John Goodwyn, the prior, with seven
friars, resigned it to the king in 1539. It was
soon after granted to Robert Dighton. Its reve-
nues are unknown .
The college of All Saints was founded in 1459, All Saints.
with licence of purchasing to the value of twenty
marks. It consisted only of two fellows. In
* Bridges, 455. b Tanner, 377. c Bridges, 456.
1535, it was found, clear of all reprizes, to be
worth xxxix*. ivd. College-lane, in this town,
takes its name from it d .
Hospital of j he hospital of St. John is an antient building,
St. John. ... .
standing in Bridge-street. It consists of a chapel,
a large hall with apartments for the brethren,
and two rooms above for the co-brothers. It was
founded for the reception of infirm poor, probably
by William St. Clere, archdeacon of Northampton ;
who died possessed of that dignity in 1168. He
is supposed to have been brother to one of the
Simon St. Cleres ; but Leland justly insinuates,
that they never were called by that name, but by
that of St. Liz e .
At the dissolution, its clear revenues were
. 57. 19s. 6d. Sir Francis Brian was then high
steward of the house, and had 4(Xs. yearly ; and
eight poor persons were maintained at %d. a day
each : a charity founded by John Dallington,
clerk, and confirmed in 1340, by Henry Burg-
herst, bishop of Lincoln. It is at present govern-
ed by a master, and two co-brothers or chaplains,
whose salary is . v. each, with xis. each, in lieu
of firing, and x*. on renewing of leases. The eight
poor people are named by the master, and main-
tained in lodging, firing, and common room, and
I*. Id. weekly.
d Bridges, 458. e Leland bin. i. 10. and Bridges, 459.
St. Thomas's hospital stands a little more to the St/Thome's.
south of St. Johns, beyond the south gate, in the
suburbs called The Quarters, which extend to the
south bridge. This owes its foundation, in 1450,
to the respect the citizens had for St. Thomas
Becket. Originally it maintained twelve poor
people: six more were added in 1654, by Sir
John Langham ; and one more of later years, by
Richard Massingberd. It is governed by a war-
den, who is one of the aldermen ; and the vicar of
All Saints is the chaplain, with an annual salary
of . III. xvis. vtudJ
I find, besides, an hospital on the south side of
the town, in the parish of Hardingstone, dedicated
to St. Leonard, for a master and leprous brethren;
founded before 1 240. The mayor and burgesses
were patrons. Dugdale valued it at ten pounds a
I must not omit mention of the short-lived uni-
versity which existed in this town ; and which arose University.
from the following occasion: In 1238, Otho, the
pope's legate, happened to visit the university of
Oxford, and took his residence at the neighboring
convent of Osney. He was one day respectfully
waited on by the students ; who were insolently
refused admittance by the Italian porter. At
f Bridges, 457. Tanner, 386".
length, after intolerable provocation from the clerk
of the kitchen, a Welsh student drew his bow, and