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honors me with his company, through this illus-
trious assemblage, may not have to reproach me
with suffering him to depart wholly uninformed.
I lament they are not placed in chronological
order. I must give them as they are now z arranged.
Beginning at the east end, the first I shall point

out is

Sir Nicholas Bacon, in a black dress, furred ; by Sir Nicho-

_ 7 las Bacon.


A fine portrait by Sir Antonio More of Edw. Cour-


Edward Court eney, last Earl of Devonshire of his of Devon-


z The editor here, as at Gorhambury, has preserved the
description of the whole of the portraits mentioned in the first
edition of this work, arranging them in the order in which
they are placed at present. The late Duke of Bedford added
several valuable paintings of the Flemish school, and the very
interesting series of the portraits of artists which adorn the
elegant library. A general catalogue of the pictures at Woburn
is given in the Appendix. Ed.

2 H 2


name ; who, for his nearness in blood to the crown,
was imprisoned by the jealous Henry, from the
age of ten till about that of twenty-eight. His
daughter Mary set him at liberty, and wooed him
to share the kingdom with her. He rejected her
offer, from preference to her sister Elizabeth ; for
which, and some false suspicions of disaffection,
he suffered another imprisonment with Elizabeth.
He was soon released. He quitted the kingdom,
as prudence directed, and died at the age of thirty
at Padua.

He is represented as a handsome man, with
short brown hair, and a yellow beard, a dark
jacket, with white sleeves, and breeches ; behind
him is a ruined tower ; beneath him this inscrip-
tion, expressive of his misfortunes ;

En! puer et insons et adhuc jurenilibus annis :
Annos bis septem carcere clusus eram.
Me pater his tenuit vinclis, quae filia solvit :
Sors mea sic tandem vertitur a superis.

Fourteen long years in strict captivity,
Tyrant-condemn d I passed my early bloom,
'Till pity bade the generous daughter free
A guiltless captive, and reverse my doom. R. W.

Sir Philip $ ir Philip Sydney is painted in the twenty se-
Sydney. con d vear f his a g e . j n a quilled ruff, white

slashed jacket, a three-quarter length. He was a
deserved favourite of Queen Elizabeth : who well
might think the court deficient without him ; for,



to uncommon knowledge, valour, and virtuous
gallantry, was joined a romantic spirit, congenial
with that of his royal mistress. His romance of
Arcadia is not relished at present : it may be
tedious ; but the morality, I fear, renders it dis-
gusting to our age. It is too replete with inno-
cence to be relished. Sir Philip was to the Eng-
lish, what the Chevalier Bayard was to the
French, Un chevalier sans peur, ct sans reproche.
Both were strongly tinctured with enthusiastic
virtue : both died in the field with the highest sen-
timents of piety.

Queen Mary in her usual deformity, by Sir
Antonio More.

Th e head of Frances Countess of Somerset a . She Frances
is dressed in black, striped with white, and her ruff Somerset.
and ruffles starched with yellow. This fashion
soon expired; for her bawd and creature, Mrs.
Turner, went to Tyburn in a yellow ruff, and put
the wearers out of conceit with it. I need not en-



a This bears so little resemblance to the print by Passe,
of the same infamous character, that the editor is inclined
to doubt its being the portrait of the person it is said to re-
present. The inscription formerly called it Anne Countess
of Somerset, a misnomer which has been corrected. The
head of her sister Catharine Countess of Salisbury, which oc-
cupies a place in the gallery, is admirably painted, and in
the stile of dress and features, though much embellished, is
a striking likeness of the above mentioned engraving. Ed.


large on the well-known marriage and divorce of
this lady from the Earl of Essex. They are too
notorious to be insisted on ; as is her weakness, in
having recourse to the impostor Forman for
philtres to debilitate Essex, and impel the affec-
tions of Somerset towards her. Her wickedness,
in procuring the death of Overbury, who ob-
structed this union ; her sudden fall, and confes-
sion of guilt on her trial, need no repetition. Her
Earl avowed his innocency; he had been more
covert in his proceedings. Her passions were
more violent, her resentments greater, and, of
course, her caution less. They both obtained an
unmerited pardon, or rather reprieve, being con-
fined in the Tower till the year 1622, and then
confined, by way of indulgence, in the house of
Lord Wallingford. The little delicacy which
people of rank too frequently shew, by counte-
nancing the vices of their equals, was too conspi-
cuous at this time. The Countess felt their pity,
and was visited even by the stern Anne Clifford.
Somerset lived with his lady, after their confine-
ment, with the strongest mutual hatred : the cer-
tain consequence of vicious associations. He died
in the year l645 b ; she, before him. In her end
may be read a fine lesson on the vengeance of
Providence on the complicated wickedness of her

b Dugdalc Baron, ii. 420.


life. It may be held up as a mirror to posterity,
persuasive to virtue, and teach that Heaven in-
flicted a finite punishment on the criminal, in
mercy to her, and as a warning to future genera-
tions. I give the relation (filthy as it is) in the
Appendix ; but hope the utility of the moral will
excuse the grossness of the tale.

On the north side of the gallery Sir Nicholas Sir Nicho-


1 nrogmorton. morton.

A full length portrait of Robert Earl of Essex, RobertEarl
by Zucchero, in white. Elizabeth's passion for
Essex certainly was not founded on the beauty of
his person. His beard was red, his hair black, his
person strong, but without elegance, his gait un-
graceful c . But the queen was far past the heyday
of her blood : she was struck with his romantic
valour, with his seeming attachment to her per-
son, and I may add, with the violence of his pas-
sions ; for her majesty, like the rest of her sex,

StoopM to the forward and the b old.

At length his presumption increased with her
favor ; her fears overcame her affection, and, after
many struggles, she consigned him to the scaffold ;
having thoroughly worked himself out of her gra-
cious conceit d .

c Reliquicc Wottoniance, 3d. ed. 170. d Ibid. 165.


ThomasEawl Thom as Earl of Exeter, eldest son to the great


Burleigh, is painted a full length. Notwithstand-
ing this nobleman was inferior in abilities to his
younger brother, yet was he a man of spirit and
of parts. He served as a volunteer at the siege
of Edinburgh castle in 1 573 ; distinguished him-
self in the wars in the Low Countries ; and, with
his brother, served on board the fleet which had
the honor of defeating the Spanish armada. He
entered also into the romantic gallantries of the
reign of Queen Elizabeth, and was a knight-tflter
in the tournaments performed for the amusement
of her illustrious lover, the Duke oiAnjou, in 1581.
In the following reign he was employed as a man
of business ; was created Earl of Exeter ; and
finished his course, aged eighty, in February 1622.
RobertEarl His younger brother is placed near him, stand-
bury. ing : a mean, little, deformed figure, possessed of
his father's abilities, but mixed with deceit and
treachery. His services to his master and his
country, will give him rank among the greatest
ministers, but his share in bringing the great
Raleigh to the scaffold, and the dark part he
acted, in secretly precipitating the generous, un-
suspecting Essex to his ruin, will ever remain in-
delible blots on him as a man. His dress is that
of the Spanish nation, (though he was averse to


its politics) a black jacket and cloak, which add
no grace to his figure.

Three heads of Diana, Margaret and Anne, Ladies


daughters of Francis, fourth Earl of Bedford.

Lucy, Countess of Bedford, exactly resembling Lucy

, . Countess of

that at Alloa. ' Bedford.

Diana Russel, wife to Francis, Earl of New- Lady

. , Newport.

port, a head.

Her sister Margaret, wife to James Earl of Countess of

sy ,. 7 Carlisle.


A fine full length of a nobleman, in a black A Noble-


and gold vest, and with a high-crowned hat in his
hand. On the back ground is a curtain, almost
concealing a lady ; of whom only one hand and a
part of her petticoat are seen. By this is JEtatis.
1614. L cy I.
Edward Earl of Manchester, lord chamber- Edward

i m 7 tt t i Earl of

lain to Charles II. Long hair and robes. Manches-

Catherine, eldest daughter of Francis, fourth

Earl of Bedford, and widow of the unfortunate Lady Brook.

Robert Lord Brook, who was killed at Lichfield,

She is represented in mourning.
Thomas, Earl of Southampton, in black with a Thomas

Earl of

star on his mantle. Southamp-

Hea d of Anne Countess of Bedford. Anne

Christiana, daughter to Edward Lord Bruce, C ^^^ f

of Kinloss, and wife to the second William Earl of Christiana,

Countess of


Devonshire, a small head 6 , with long hair; her
dress white. This lady, who is less talked of than
others, was by far the most illustrious character of
the age in which she. lived. Her virtues, domestic
and public, were of the most exalted kind. Hos-
pitality, charity, and piety, were in her pre-emi-
nent. I speak not of her great maternal cares ;
nature dictates that, more or less, in all the sex :
but her abilities in the management of the vast
affairs of her family, perplexed with numberless
litigations, gave her a distinguished character. She
at least equalled her lord in loyalty, and was in-
defatigable in inciting the nobility, who had quitted
the cause of majesty, to expiate their error. After
the battle of Worcester, she lived three years in
privacy at her brother's house at Ampthill, and
had correspondence with several great personages,
on the subject of restoring the exiled king. The
reserved Monk had such an opinion of her pru-
dence, as to communicate to her the signal by
which she might know his intentions on that sub-
ject. She lived in high esteem, to a very advanced
age; died in 1674, and was interred by her be-
loved lord, at Derby.

It is no wonder that so illustrious a character

e This and eleven other heads of the same size, are copies
by a painter of the name of Russel.


should attract the powers of the poets. She had
the honor of being celebrated by one equal in rank
to her own. That accomplished nobleman Wil-
liam Earl of Pembroke, wrote several poems to
her, and dedicated a collection of them to her.
" There is wit and ease in several ; but a great
" want of correction ; and often of harmony."
The following is the least faulty f ; the subject,

That he would not be beloved.
Disdain me still, that I may ever love;
For who his love enjoys can love no more ;
The war once past, with peace men cowards prove,
And ships returned, do rot upon the shore.
Then tho' thou frown, I'll say thou art most fair,
And still I'll love, tho' still I must despair.
As heat to life, so is desire to love ;
For these once quench'd, both life and love are done.
Let not my sighs nor tears thy virtue move j
Like basest metals, do not melt too soon.
Laugh at my woes, although I ever mourn :
Love surfeits with rewards, his nurse is scorn.

A portrait formerly called Lucy Countess of Lucy

. . . Countess of

Bedford, in a white satin gown worked with Bedford.
colors, a laced single ruff, and a long scarlet velvet

f Communicated to me by Mr. Walpole ; who is in pos-
session of this very scarce book : a thin small quarto, published
in 1 660. It consist^ of the Earl's poems, and responses by
Sir Benjamin Rudyard; and other poems, by both, on other
subjects. See Royal Authors, i. 192, for a farther account of
this noble poet.


cloak hanging gracefully with one arm folded in it.
On her head is a pearl coronet, and pearls on her
wrists. In the back ground, she appears in a
garden, in the true attitude of stately disdain, bent
half back, in scorn of a poor gentleman bowing to
the very ground. Unfortunately for her lover, it
is probable that Donne had just told her,

Out from your chariot, morning breaks at night,
And falsifies both computations, so;
Since a new world doth rise here from your light,
We your new creatures by new recknings go.

This shews that you from nature lothly stray,

Thus suffer not an artificial day.
In this you have made the court the antipodes,
And will'd your delegate the vulgar sunne.
To doe profane autumnal offices,
Whilst here to you wee sacrificers runne,

In all religions as much care hath bin

Of temples frames and beauty, as rites within.

Henry Earl A half length of Henri/ Earl of Southampton,
ampton. by Sol.mon de Caus z , with short grey hair ; in
black, with points round his waist, a flat ruff,
leaning on a chair, with a mantle over one arm.
This nobleman was a friend to -the Earl of Essex,
and through friendship, not disaffection, attended
him in the mad and desperate insurrection which
brought the favorite to the block. The plea was
admitted, he was condemned, but reprieved ; and

* WalpoUs painters, i. 20.



of Berk-

, continued in the Tower till the accession of James I.
when he was instantly restored to his honors and
estate. By reason of.his love to the Earl of Essex,
he never was on good terms with the minister, the
Earl of Salisbury. He was one that attended
Mansfield's army into the Netherlands, and died
in 1624, at Bergen op Zoom, of a fever, contracted
in that fatal expedition.

Head of Dorothy, daughter to Thomas Lord
Viscount Savage, and wife to Charles, second
Earl of Berkshire.

Heads of Edward, John, Francis, and Cathe-
rine, children of Francis, fourth Earl of Bed-

A full length of a nobleman, in a black jacket,
double ruff, brown boots, and a stick in his hand ; Northum
armour by him ; a manly figure, with short black
hair and square beard, miscalled Car Earl of So-
merset \ I forget whether the print among the
illustrious heads (Vol. II. 19.) was not copied 1
from this. But Car was a person of effeminate
features and light hair.

A full length of Henry Dangers, created
Baron Dauntsey by James I., and Earl of

Earl op

Earl of

h It is now considered as the portrait of Henry Earl of
Northumberland, who came to the title in 1585. Ed.
1 It certainly was. Ed.


Danby by Charles I. ; by Vandyck. His beard
square and yellow, his jacket black ; over that
a red mantle, furred and laced with gold. His
rich armour lies by him. Near him is writ-
ten, Omnia prcecepi. He was son of Sir John
Dancers of Dauntsey, in Wiltshire, by Elizabeth,
daughter and co-heir of John Nevil Lord Latimer*.
His elder brother, Sir Charles Danvers, lost his
head for his concern in Essex's insurrection.
James, who on all occasions testified his respect to
that unhappy nobleman, countenanced every family
who suffered in his cause, and accordingly, had
Dangers restored in blood. Besides a peerage, he
made him governor of Guernsey, and created him
knight of the Garter. He passed his life as a
soldier, under Maurice Prince of Orange, in the"
Low Countries; under Henry IV. in France;
and under the Earl of Essex and Lord Monjoy in
Ireland. At length, in 1644, died, as his epi-
taph says, at his house of Cornbury Park, Ox-
fordshire, full of honor, wounds (verified in the
portrait, by a great patch on his forehead), and
days, in the seventy-first year of his age. Besides
his military glory, we may add that of founding
the Physic Garden at Oxford, in 1639,, pur-
chasing for that use the ground (once the Jews' ce-

k Dugdale's Baron, ii. 410.


metery) and inclosing it with a wall and beautiful
gate, at the expence of five thousand pounds l .

William Duke of Bedford, a full length, in William
a long wig, and the robes of the Garter. Bedford.

The head of Lady Cook, dated 1585, set. 44. Lady Cook.
She has on a quilled ruff, is dressed in black,
richly ornamented with pearls. I apprehend this
lady to have been the wife of the son of Sir An-
thony Cook, one of the tutors to Edward VI., and
distinguished by being father to five daughters,
the wonders of their age for intellectual accom-

At the west end of the Gallery

General Monk. Monk.

A fine three quarters of Killegrew, leaning on Killegrew.
a table, a medallion with the portrait of Charles
the First near him.

A head of Lord William Russet, the sad vie- Lord Wil-
tim to his virtuous design of preserving our liber- IAM USSEL *
ties and constitution from the attempts of as aban-
doned a set of men as ever governed these king-
doms. True patriotism, not ambition or interest,
directed his intentions. Posterity must applaud
his unavailing engagements, with due censure of
the Machiavelian necessity of taking off so dan-
gerous an opposer of the machinations of his ene-
mies. The law of politics gives sanction to the

1 Wo9&\ Hist. Oxon. lib. ii. 45. and Dugdale as above.


removal of every obstacle to the designs of states-
men. At the same time, we never should lessen
our admiration and pity of the generous charac-
ters who fell sacrifices to their hopes of delivering,
purified to their descendants, the corrupted go-
vernment of their own days. To attempt to clear
Lord Rassel from the share in so glorious a de-
sign, would be to deprive him of a most brilliant
part of his character. His integrity and ingenu-
ousness would not suffer even himself to deny that
part of the charge. Let that remain unimpeached,
since he continues so perfectly acquitted of the
most distant design of making assassination a
means ; or of intriguing with a foreign monarch,
the most repugnant to our religion and freedom,
to bring about so desired an end.
Lady Ra- The sad relict of this virtuous nobleman, the
' daughter to the good and great IVriothesley, Earl
of Southampton, is placed near him ; a small full
length, in widow's weeds, with her head reclined
on one hand, and a book by her, with a counte-
nance full of deep and silent sorrow. I imagine
her in the third month of her affliction, filled with
the following meditation.

" Lord, let me understand the reason of these
" dark and wounding providences, that I sink not
" under the discouragement of my own thoughts.
" I Joiow I have deserved my punishment, and


" will be silent under it; but yet secretly my
" heart mourns, because I have not the dear
" companion and sharer of my joys and sorrows:
" I want him to talk with, to eat and sleep with.
" All these things are irksome to me now : the
" day unwelcome, and the night so too. All
" company and meals I would avoid, if it might
" be, yet all this is, that I enjoy not the world in
" my own way, and this sure hinders my com-
" fort. When I see my children before me, I
" remember the pleasure he took in them ! This
" makes my heart to shrink. Can I regret his
" quitting a lesser good for a bigger ? O ! if I
" did stedfastly believe, I could not be dejected !
" But I will not injure myself, to say I offer my
" mind any inferior consolation to supply this
" loss : no, I most willingly forsake this world,
" this vexatious, troublesome world, in which I
" have no other business but to rid my soul from
" sin, secure by faith and a good conscience my
" eternal interest; with patience and courage
" bear my eminent misfortunes, and ever here-
" after be above the smiles and frowns of it; and
" when I have done the remnant of the work ap-
" pointed me on earth, then joyfully wait for the
" heavenly perfection, in God's good time ; when,
" by his infinite mercy, I may be accounted
" worthy to enter in the same place of rest and

2 i


u repose, where he is gone for whom only I
" grieve."
Dudley The series of portraits on the south side com-

Earl of r

Warwick, mences with Ambrose Dudley, Earl of Warwick, a
head with a bonnet, black dress, the George pen-
Dudley His unworthy brother the Earl of Leicester.
Leicester. A head of John Russel first Earl of Bedford,
IrBzmoli. a P ronle > w i tn a l n g wni te beard, and the George
hanging from his neck; this gentleman was the
founder of the family, and owed his rise to his
merit and accomplishment. Philip Archduke of
Austria, being in 1508 driven by a storm on the
coast of Dorsetshire, was entertained by Sir Tho-
mas Trenchard ; who sent for his neighbor, Mr.
Russel, who was skilled in the languages, to wait
on his highness. The Duke was so pleased with
his conversation, as to insist on his going with
him to the King, then at Windsor. Henry, at the
recommendation of the Duke, took him into his
service. In the following reign he advanced in
fortune with vast rapidity. He fortunately was
cotemporary with the fall of monastic life, and ob-
tained vast grants of the possessions of the church.
Edzvard VI. created him Earl of Bedford. The
last act of his life was a voyage to Spain, to bring
over Philip II. (grandson of the prince to whom
he owed his rise), to espouse his royal mistress.



Earl of

He died in March 1555, and lies buried at Chey-
neys in Buckinghamshire, with his lady, by whom
he acquired that estate. The church of Cheyneys,
from that time, became the deterna domiis of all
this great family, and contains a most superb col-
lection of different fashioned monuments.

An Earl of Rutland, a full length, in a rich
flowered jacket, red full skirts, a single laced ruff,
short hair and beard, brown boots ; a plumed
helmet near him. He wears the honor of the
George. From his boots (a fashionable part of
dress in the time of James I. and Charles I.), I
suspect him to be Francis Earl of Rutland, who
commanded the fleet which conveyed Charles,
when Prince of Wales, in his return from his ro-
mantic expedition into Spain. This nobleman
died in 1635.

Next is the portrait of Sir William Russel William
(afterwards Duke of Bedford) when young. He Bedford.
is dressed in the robes of the order of the Bath,
leaning on his sword ; and by him a dwarf, aged
thirty-two. On the picture is inscribed Johannes
Privezer di Hungaria, fecit 1627; a painter of
merit, but whose works are rare.

Lai>y Anne Ayscough, eldest daughter of the Lady Anne
first Earl of Lincoln, and wife to William Ays-
cough, son to Sir Francis Ayscough of Lincoln-

2 i 2


Comptrol- A head of a gentleman of the name of Rogers,

ler Rogers. *r . . .

Comptroller to Queen Elizabeth. I imagine him
to be Sir Edward Rogers, a person of some con-
sideration at the time of her accession ; for he
was one of the few who waited on her at Hatfield,
on the death of Queen Mary, and formed one of
the privy-council held there on that great event.

Prince dk j strange figure of a man, in black, half-
Nassau. e

length, in a close black cap, and a letter in his

hand, directed to Pr. de Nassau. I am informed,

by a very able herald, that from the arms on the

picture, the personage represented is the Count

de Nabsau-Uranien Nassau.

Duke of Head of the Duke of Monmouth.

Monmouth. ^ _ r o r\ > c<

Sir Edw. Sir Edward btradling, 01 St. Donet s, in South
Wales. A head, with whiskers, a turn-over, and
black dress. I imagine him to be the gentleman
who had a regiment under Charles I., who was
taken prisoner at the battle of Edgehill, and who
died on his release at Oxford.

James Earl James Earl of Carlisle, in long hair, buff coat,

0FCARLISLE -and red sash".

Anne Coun- Anne, wife of Ambrose Dudley, Earl of War-

Warwick wick an d daughter to Francis, second Earl of

n This is probably not the portrait of the nobleman of
whom so full an account is given in the Tour of Scotland, but
of his son who married Catherine, daughter to Francis fourth
Earl of Bedford.


Bedford, in black and white sleeves, and a black

Lady Wimbledon, wife of Lord Wimbledon. , ir Lady

' t Wimbledon.

Lady Bindloss, wife to Sir Francis Bindloss,

-r> - r Lady

of Bewvick, near Lancaster, and daughter to Tho- Bindloss.

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