government. By his eloquence, he succeeded in
the arduous task of persuading a lady out of her
love of power. He promised her regal state in
her native country. She accepted the terms,
erected the Venetian standard in her capital, and,
on her arrival at Venice, was met by the whole
senate, and the ladies of rank, and received, dur-
ing life, every mark of esteem which her patriot-
ism merited, with a magnificent establishment,
equal to the dignity she had so generously quitted.
This event happened about the year 1489 n .
Albert archduke of Austria, commonly called
the Cardinal Infant, in black, a great ruff, and Cardinal
' , tt ,.*, / , Infant.
with a sword. He was fifth son of the emperor
Maximilian II. and was originally brought up in
the church ; became cardinal, and had the arch-
bishopric of Toledo conferred on him His talents
were more fitted for the field and cabinet. Ac-
cordingly, we find him in universal esteem, for his
prudent administration as regent of Portugal, and
Gratiani'& Wars of Cyprus, 10, 11.
504 AMPTHILL PARK.
as a brave and enterprizing general in the Low Coun-
tries, in the reign of Philip II. who had invested
him with their government. In the year 1598,
Philip bestowed on him his daughter, the Infanta
Isabella, and with her the sovereignty of the Ne-
therlands. Under him was undertaken the famous
siege of Ostend, which cost the Spaniards a hun-
dred thousand men. He lived till the year 1621,
and died universally lamented by his subjects. He
was a patron of the arts. He was so struck with
the merit of Rubens, that he detained that able
painter some time at Antwerp; and to him we
owe the portrait of this illustrious prince .
Here is a fine half-length of a general, by
Baroccio ; an artist who died at a great age, in
1612. The person is represented with light hair
and whiskers, a hat, armour, and red sash.
A conversation ; consisting of Edward late
Duke of York, Lord Ossory, Lord P aimer ston,
Topham Beauclerk, Colonel H. St. John, and Sir
William Booth by: done when they were at Florence,
Ampth'ill Park, and that of Houghton, con-
tiguous to it, were granted by James I. to Sir
Fidxcard Bruce of Kinloss (a favorite, brought by
his majesty out of Scotland), or to his son Thomas
Anecdotes of Painting, ii. 81.
HOUGHTON PARK. 505
Earl of Elgin. It continued for some time in his
posterity, the Earls of Elgin and of Aylesbury. It
became, about the year 1690 (by purchase) the
property of Lord Ashburnham, who built the
house, which still retains nearly the original form.
It was alienated by John, the first earl of that
title, between the years 1720 and 1730, to Lord
Viscount Fitz-William. His lordship sold it in
the year 1736, to Lady Gozvran, grandmother to
the present Lord Osso?y.
From hence is a very short ride to Houghton Houghton
Park, formerly part of the estate of Ampthill.
The house is seated on a bold eminence, and com-
mands a fine view. The fronts are unequal ; one
being a hundred and twenty two feet in extent ;
the other, only seventy three feet six inches : two
of these are very beautiful; each has an elegant
portico and loggio above, ornamented with co-
lumns of the Doric and Ionic orders : the rest of
the house is of brick. On the intervening space
are a variety of cyphers, devices, and crests; such
as bears and ragged staves, staves and palms,
crowned lions and crowns, and beards of arrows,
or hedge-hogs and porcupines p . Some of these
certainly relate to the Sydnies. This gave rise to
* In an old edition of the Arcadia, date 1629, is a hedge-
hog, or porcupine, as a crest to the top of a frontispiece.
506 HOUGHTON PARK.
the assertion of the editor of Camden, that it was
built by the Countess of Pembroke,
Sydney's sister, Pembroke's mother ;
and that the model was contrived by her brother,
the incomparable Sir Philip Sydney, in his Area-
ta. Let this be admitted, we are not to wonder
at seeing his devices employed as ornaments.
From the letters on the south front, I. R. with a
crown over them, it is evident that the house was
built in the time of James I ; and, there is great
reason to suppose* 5 , that Inigo Jones, who was
warmly patronized by her son William Earl of
Pembroke, and from whose designs the Earl built
the noble front of his seat at. Wilton, was the
1 1t has since been ascertained', that Houghton house was built
by this celebrated countess. In 1615, Sir Edward Conquest,
keeper of the park, made over his interest in it to Matthew
Lister and Leonard Welstead, as her trustees, when she erected
a splendid mansion. After her decease, it was in 1630 granted
in fee to Lord Bruce, and was, for a considerable time, the re-
sidence of his descendants, the Earls of Elgin and Aylesbury.
In 17S8, John Duke of Bedford purchased Houghton. The
late duke took down the venerable remains, and applied the
materials to the erection of the Swan Inn, at Bedford; the
estates belonging to it became the property of the Earl of
Ossory, by exchange in 1801. Ed.
r Ly son's Magna Britannia, i. 96.
TOMBS IN MAULDEN CHURCH. 50?
This place must not be confounded with
Houghton Conquest : a very antient house, at the Houghton
. * . J Conquest.
foot of the hill. This had been the property of the
very old family of the Conquests, and was pur-
chased, with the manor, from the last Mr. Con-
quest, by the late Earl of Ossory.
I did not leave the neighborhood without visit- Tombs in
ing the church of Maulden, a mile or two to the Church.
east of Ampthill. This is noted for the octagonal
mausoleum erected by Thomas Bruce Earl of Elgin,
in honor of his second wife Diana, daughter of
William Lord Burghly, and by her first marriage
Countess of Oxford. Her tomb, of white marble,
is placed in the center. On it is a sarcophagus,
or at lest what was designed to represent one ; out
of which rises a miserable figure of the countess
in her shroud : on whom the country people, by a
very apt similitude, have bestowed the title of The
lady in the punch-bozvl. In a niche in the wall of
the building is the bust of her husband, with long
hair, a short beard, and turnover ; and on the floor
is another bust (I think) of her son-in-law, Robert
Earl of Elgin, placed at a respectful distance, as
well as the other, for the reason given in the in-
scription, Eminus stantes venerabundi, quasi con-
templabuntur 1 .
r See the whole epitaph in the Appendix. Thorium Earl of
Elgin died in 1663 ; the countess in 1654.
In the church are the brasses of Richard Faldo
and his family, inlaid on a tomb of shell-marble.
After a short ride, I reached the large house
of Wrest, seated in a low and wet park, crossed
with formal rows of trees. The pleasure-grounds
have, since their first creation, been corrected by
Brown : his hand appears particularly in a noble
serpentine river. Several parts are graced with
obelisks, pavilions, and other buildings, the taste of
the age before.
From his melon-ground the peasant slave
Had rudely rush'd, and levell'd Merlin's cave.
In the quarters of the wilderness are to be seen
two cenotaphs, for the late duke and dutchess,
erected by the duke himself: and, if you gain
a steep ascent, from the hill-house is a most ex-
tensive view of the country. The front is plain
and extensive. Within, is a great court. This
place is the property of the Earl of Hardwicke';
in right of his Lady Jemima, marchioness Grey,
daughter to John Earl of Breadalbane, by Amabel,
daughter to Hem*y Grey, thirteenth Earl and first
Duke of Kent of the name. That illustrious
Philip Earl of Hardwicke, died in 1790, when Wrest came
into the possession of his eldest daughter, the Baroness Lucas-
family had been possessed of the manor of Wrest,
and other estates in this county, at lest from the
time of Roger de Grey, who died owner of it in
the year 1353.
The portraits and their history would take up
a volume. I must, therefore, be excused for giving
a more brief account than their merits might de-
In the hall is a full length of the unfortunate Portraits.
Mary Queen of Scots, cet. reg. 38, 1580, in black, MaryQueen
with her hand on a table: a copy from one at OF 00TS '
Another of her grandmother, Margaret, Margaret
daughter of Henry VII. and Queen of James IV. Gotland.
of Scotland. Another full-length, in black hair,
naked neck, with a marmoset in her hands.
Three very fine portraits of James I. in his James I.
robes. Anne of Denmark, in white ; dressed in a Anne of
hoop, with a feather fan, and neck exposed. Their
son Henry, in rich armour, boots, and with a Henry
truncheon. His military turn appears in the dress
of most of his portraits. Had he lived, England
might probably have transferred the miseries of
war to the neighboring kingdom. His mother had
inspired him with ambitious notions, and filled his
head with the thoughts of the conquest of France.
She fancied him like Henry V. and expected him
to -prove as victorious. I am sorry to retract the
character of this lady, but I fear that my former
was taken from a parasite of the court l . She was
turbulent, restless, and aspiring to government,
incapable of the management of aifairs, yet always
intriguing after power. This her wiser husband
denied her u , and of course incurred her hatred.
Every engine was then employed to hurt his pri-
vate ease : she affected amours, of which she
never was guilty, and permitted familiarities,
which her pride would probably have never con-
descended to. James was armed with indifference.
At length, in 1619, he saw her descend to the
grave; but not with the resignation of a good
Christian monarch, as might have been expected
from her conduct.
Lord Somers, in a long wig and his chancel-
lor's robes, -sitting.
A person unknown ; a full length, in a black
cloak laced with gold, laced bonnet, triple gold
Over the chimney is a copy of the Cornaro
In the eating-room is a full-length of Philip
See Carte, iii. 746. This historian is far from being sin-
gular in this account.
Baron of Wharton, with long hair, breast-plate,
and truncheon, and boots; at, 26, 1639- This
nobleman took part with the parlement in the civil
wars. Mr. Granger* relates on the authority of
Walker, that at the battle of Edgehillhe hid himself
in a saw-pit : a fact incredible, as he gave a very
clear account of the battle, in a long speech in
Guildhall 7 . He survived long, and in 1677 was
sent to the Tower for doubting the legality of one
of Charles's parlements, after a recess of fifteen
months z .
Lady Rich, in black. This is, I suspect, the Lady Rich *
lady who was married by Laud to Charles Blount
Earl of Devonshire, during the life of her first
husband, Robert Lord Rich, afterwards Earl of
Warwick. She was daughter to Walter Devereux
Earl of Essex, and had been addressed by Blount
while he was a younger brother, and she favored
his passion. Her friends broke off the match, and
married her to a very disagreeable suitor, her first
lord. When Blount, after some years' absence in
the Irish wars, returned laden with glory, and,
by the death of his elder brother, honored with the
title of Mount] oy, he commenced a criminal con-
nection with his former mistress. She was fully
x Biog. Hist. ii. 1 42. r Brake, xi. 474.
"* Macpherson, i. 2f6.
and legally divorced from Lord Rich. Blount,
now Earl of Devonshire, determined to make her
reparation, and persuaded Mr. Laud, then his
chaplain, to marry them. In those days this was
looked on as so high a crime, that King James was
for several years extremely averse to the bestow-
ing any perferment on him: and Laud himself had
such a sense of his fault, as to keep an annual fast
on the unlucky day ever after. These two pic-
tures were painted by Vandyck, and formed a part
of the Wharton collection ; they were bought by
Sir Robert Walpole, and sold after his death.
Lord chancellor Hardwicke, in his robes,
by Hoare : a character superior to my pen.
His son, the present Earl, by Gainsborough.
On the stair-case is Henry seventh Earl of
Kent, a full length, in black. Elizabeth, daughter
of Gilbert Earl of Shrewsbury, is painted in the
same color, with a ruff, flaxen frizzled hair, and a
great black egret. He died in 1639 ; she in 1651.
His successor Anthony, grandson of Anthony,
third son of George Earl of Kent, is drawn in
black, with his hand on a book : a meagre person-
age. He was surprised with the peerage at his
parsonage of Bur bach, in the county of Leicester,
where he lived in hospitality, and the full dis-
charge of that great character, a good parish-
priest. He was summoned to parlement, but pre-
ferred the duty to which he was first called*; never
would forsake his flock, and was buried among
them in 1643.
His wife, Magdalene Purefoy, a half-length, is
represented sitting, with a book in her hand, and
a long motherly black peaked coif on her head.
Amabella, surnamed, from her super-eminent Amabella
* Countess op
virtues, The good Countess of Kent, is drawn in Kent.
black and ermine, full curled hair, and a kerchief
over her neck; at. 60, 1675 : by Lely. She was
second wife to Henry, son and successor to the
parson of Burbach, and daughter to Sir Anthony
Ben, of Surrey. Her epitaph speaks her deserts \
Her husband is in his robes, with a small beard
and whiskers, painted by Closterman ; at. 53,
1643. He died in 1651.
Their son, Anthony Earl of Kent, and his lady,
Mary, daughter and sole heir to John Lord Lucas;
both in their robes, by Lely. The date to his por-
trait is 1681, at. 36. He died in August 1702;
she, in November, in the same year.
The old dining-room is most curiously furnish-
ed : mock pilasters finished with stripes of velvet,
and worked silk festoons between each. This is
said to have been done for the reception of Anne of
Fuller's Worthies, 299. > See Appendix.
In this apartment is the portrait of that eminent
statesman and honest man Sir William Temple : a
copy from one by Lely ; yet a most beautiful pic-
ture. He is placed sitting, and looking towards
you, in a red vest ; his hair long, black, and flow-
ing ; his whiskers small. In his hand is the triple
alliance : the greatest act of his patriotic life ; but
st)on frustrated by the profligate ministry of the
In the chapel-closet is the glory of the name",
Lady Jane Lady Jane Gray, the sweet accomplished victim
to the wickedness of her father-in-law, and the
folly of her father. Her person was rather plain ;
but that was amply recompensed by her intellec-
tual charms. She was mistress of the Greek and
Latin tongues ; versed in Hebrew, Chaldee, Ara-
bic, French, and Italian ; skilled in music ; and
' excellent at her needle. I have seen in the library
at Zurich several of her letters, written in a most
beautiful hand, to Bullinger, on the subject of re-
ligion ; and a toilet, worked with her own hand, is
preserved there with great reverence. She fell at
the age of seventeen. Could there be wanting any
proof of her amazing fortitude, it was supplied
near her last moments with the most invincible
one : As she was passing to the scaffold (whether
c This interesting portrait has been removed to the library.
by accident, or whether by the most cruel inten-
tion) she met the headless body of her beloved
husband. A line in Greek, to the following pur-
pose, was her consolation : " That if his lifeless
" body should give testimony against her before
" men, his most blessed soul should give an eter-
" nal proof of her innocence in the presence of
The dress of this suffering innocent is, a plain
white cap, a handkerchief, fastened under her
arms, and a black gown : a book in her hand.
In the same room is the picture of Banaster Banaster
Lord Maynard, who married a daughter of this Mayxard.
A portrait of the valiant Sir Charles Lucas,
by Dobson : a half-length, in armour, fine sash,
long hair. He was barbarously shot to death, at
Colchester, after quarter given ; and for a reason
that should have endeared him to a soldier the
vigorous defence made by the garrison.
His niece, Mary Lucas, sole heiress to his
elder brother Lord Lucas, married to Anthony
Earl of Kent.
Sir Anthony Ben, m hoary short hair, quilled
ruff, red dress faced with black.
His lady, in black, a kerchief, and curled hair.
These were parents to the good countess.
In the passage is a most curious portrait of Lady
2 l 2
Lady Susanna Grey, daughter to Charles Earl of Kent,
Grey. and wife to Sir Michael Longueoille. She was a
celebrated workwoman ; and the dress in which
she is drawn is said to have been a wedding-suit of
her own doing. Her gown is finely flowered ; her
petticoat white and striped ; her robe lined with
ermine; her veil vast and distended ; her wedding-
ring hanging from her wrist by a silken string. She
is fabled to have died of the prick of a needle in
her finger, and looks as pale as if the fact was
true. The same idle story is told of Lady Eliza-
beth Russel, whose monument is shewn in West-
minster abbey, as that of the lady who suffered by
so uncommon an accident.
Sir Randle In another room is the portrait of Sir Randle
Crew, in a bonnet, run, gold chain, and robes, as
lord chief justice of the King's Bench: a dignity
he filled with credit in the last year of James I.
and first of Charles I. He had the honor of being
displaced in 1626, for his disapprobation of the
imprisonment of those gentlemen who refused the
arbitrary loan proposed by the court. He disco-
vered, says Fuller, no more discontentment at his
discharge, than a weary traveller is offended at
being told that he is arrived at his journey's end \
* British Worthies, Cheshire, 178. It must not be forgot
that Sir Randle had been speaker of the House of Commons in
He lived many years, in great hospitality, in West-
minster : he purchased the estate of the Falshursts
of Crew, in Cheshire ; built the magnificent seat
of Crew Hall; and was the first who brought the
model of good building into that distant county.
He died in 1642. He was the son of John Crew
of Nantwich, and the ancestor of the present
The next portrait is that of his younger brother Sir Thomas
Sir Thomas Crew, in red robes, and a coif as
king's serjeant. He was among the most active
supporters of the rights of the Commons in the
reign of James I. The king, under pretence of
redressing certain matters in Ireland, sent him,
and several of the most obnoxious members, into
that kingdom, with proper commissions d . In
1623 he was chosen speaker, and made a speech,
which his majesty heard with no more patience
than approbation e ; yet, by his lord keeper, thank-
ed him for several parts of it. He was again
speaker to the first parlement of Charles I. and
died in February 1633, aged 68. By his mar-
riage with Temperance, fourth daughter of Regi-
nald Bray, Esquire, he obtained the manor of
Stene, in Northamptonshire ; which became the
settlement of him and his posterity, till it devolved
to this house, by the marriage of Henry Duke of
4 Drake, v. 525. e Ibid.y'i. 10,
Kent with Jemima, eldest daughter of Thomas
J Crew RD ^ is son ' Jh n ^ 0T ^ Crexv, is represented in
his baronial robes, with long grey hair, and a small
coif. He was created Lord Crew of Stene, in 1661,
having been active in promoting the Restoration,
and freeing his country from the confused govern-
ment it had long laboured under. No one was
more active in defence of the liberties of his coun-
try, in the beginning of the troubles of the former
reign, than himself. He had been member for
Northamptonshire in the long parlement; was
chairman to the committee of religion ; and was
committed to the Tower, for refusing to deliver
up the petitions and complaints f . He was nomi-
nated one of the commissioners for the treaty of
Uxbridge: he was one of those entrusted with the
receipt of the king's person from the Scots, and
the conveying him to Holmby House. He again
acted as commissioner in the treaty of the Isle of
Wight ; and finally, was so far in the favor of the
usurper, as, in 1657, to be constituted one of the
sixty which formed the upper house of his mock
parlement g . The game being soon over, he con-
ciliated himself to the approaching change, and
proved so active an instrument in the Restoration,
as not only to make amends for his past demerits,
f Drake, viii. 489. * Whitclock, 233, 334, 666.
but to obtain, in 1661, the honor of Baron of
Stene. He died in 1 679, after attaining the good
old age of 82.
His wife Jemima, daughter of Edward Wal-
grave of Lazvf'ord, in Essex, is sitting, in black,
and a great black hood.
A very fine half-length of their son Thomas Thomas
Lord Crexv, in black, with long hair, and his hand
on his breast, by Lely. In the old dining-room
is another portrait of him, in his robes, dated
1680. He was father to Jemima, Dutchess of
Nathaniel Crew, Bishop of Durham, fifth bro- CrewBishop
ther to the former. I Ie is in red robes faced with
ermine, a turnover, and long hair; his counte-
nance good. By the death of his brother, he be-
came Lord Crew. Never was any person of his
time so subservient to the will of his master, as
this noble prelate. He was the most active mem-
ber of the inquisitorial commission, established by
James II. to promote his wild designs in religious
matters. Of the three bishops joined in it, one
declined acting ; a third, struck with his own im-
prudence, resigned. Crew continued obstinately
servile, and suspended thirty of his clergy for re-
fusing to come into the views of the court. Con-
scious of his conduct, he fled out of the kingdom
at the Revolution ; but at length made his peace,
and died in 1721, aged 88, after having been
bishop, and of Durham, 47. His charity, it is to
be hoped, has covered his multitude of political
sins. Oxford participated largely of his bounty ;
and the navigators of the Northumberland sea
may bless his well-planned benevolence as long as
tempests endure \
Lady A strange picture of Lady Harold, daughter
to Thomas Earl of Thanet ; first married to Lord
Harold, the late Duke of Kent's eldest son, and.
afterwards to the late Earl Gower. She is dressed
in the riding-habit of the time, a blue-and-silver
coat, silver tissue waistcoat, a long flowing wig,
and great hat and feather.
Secretary I forgot to mention, that in a bedchamber is
A ham NG " a portrait of Secretary Walsingham, in a quilled
ruff: the active, penetrating, able, and faithful
servant of Queen Elizabeth ; the security of the
kingdom as well as of her own person. So atten-
tive to the interests of his country, so negligent of
his own, as to die (in 1590) so poor, as not to
leave enough to defray his funeral expences.
SirNicholas A fine portrait of Sir Nicholas Throgmorton :
TO j,. " his face thin, his beard black. At his girdle is a
large ring to hold his handkerchief. He has a
sword and stilletto, and is graced with a gold chain
and medal. He had a narrow escape in the time
h See article Bamborough, Tour Scotl. 1769.
of Queen Mary ; being tried, and narrowly ac-
quitted, for a supposed concern in Wyai's insur-
rection. Was employed by Elizabeth in import-
ant embassies to France and Scotland. His abi-
lities were great : his spirit was said to have bor-
dered on turbulence : his death, therefore, was
esteemed rather fortunate: it happened in 1570,
at the table of Cecil ; not without suspicion of
poison ' : an end in those days more frequently
attributed than it ought to be.
The mausoleum of the Greys adjoins to the Flitton
church of Flitton, about a mile and a half from
the house. It consists of a centre and four wings.
In one is the tomb of Henry fifth Earl of Kent,
and his countess Mary, daughter of Sir George
Cotton of Cumbermere, Cheshire: both are in
robes, and painted ; both recumbent, with uplifted
hands : his beard long and square, his ruff quilled.
This was the fiery zealot who sat in judgment on
Mary Stuart, and, with the Earl of Shrewsbury,
was deputed to see execution done on the unhappy