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princess. They, with true bigotry, refused her
the consolation of her almoner in her last mo-
ments ; and Kent had the brutality to give a most
reluctant assent to her request of having a few of
her domestics to perform their final duties to their
dying mistress. Kent even burst into the excla-
1 Complete Hist. ii. 430.



522 FLITTON CHURCH.

mation of saying, " Your life will be the death of
" our religion, and your death will be the life of
" it" A cause of triumph to Mary Stuart. He
founded this building, and took possession of it in
the beginning of the year 16 14. The tomb of the
countess is a mere cenotaph ; for she was buried,
in 1580, at Great Gaddcsden.

Henry Earl of Kent, and his second lady, the
good countess, repose in another wing, with Jus-
tice, Temperance, and other virtues, on each side.
Both are represented in white marble, recumbent,
and both in robes. His beard is small, his lip
whiskered ; one hand is on his breast, the other
on his sword. She is dressed in an ungraceful pair
of stays ; her hands before, holding her robes ; her
neck naked; her hair curled, and enormously
bushy. He died in 1651 ; she finished her ex-
cellent life in 1698, aged 92.

At one end is an inscription of Elizabeth Tal-
bot Countess-dowager of Kent, who died in 1651 ;
and another to Lady Jane Hart, relict of Sir
Eustace Hart. Her figure is in white marble, in
a reclining posture.

On the floor is a brass of Henry Grey, second
son of Sir Henry Grey, Knight, in armour.

In another appears Henry late Duke of
Kent, reclined on a sarcophagus, in a Roman
dress, in white marble, with a coronet in his



FLITTON CHURCH. 525

hand. His grace died in 1740. His first dutchess,
Jemima Crew, is represented with her counte-
nance looking up, and leaning on one side.
Opposite to his grace is a most amiable character
of his second lady, Sophia, daughter of William
Earl of Portland*.

A monument of his son Anthony Earl of
Harold, in a Roman dress. He died in 1723.
And near him is another son and a daughter of his
grace ; but not one of the figures do any credit tQ
the statuary.

Near the altar, on the floor, is an admirable

figure, in brass, of an honest steward ; a true

Vellum in aspect : in a laced night-cap, great ruff,

long cloak, trunk breeches. This was Thomas Hill,

receiver-general to three Earls of Kent.

Aske how he lived, and you shall knowe his end :
He dyde a saint to God, to poore a friende.
These lines men knowe doe truely of him story,
Whom God hath cal'd, and seated now in glory.

He died May 26th 1628, aged 101.

k Beneath is an inscription in memory of Lady Anne',
daughter to the Duke of Kent, and wife to John Egerton, late
Bishop of Durham; she died in 1780. In a fourth recess is a
monument erected by the Marchioness De Grey, in honor
of her parents the Earl and Countess of Hardwicke. The
shoulder of a mournful figure leaning over an urn appears to
be dislocated ; neither the design nor execution of the whole
does any credit to the sculptor. Ed.



524 LUTON CHURCH.

Gratitude forbids me from leaving this place
without my acknowlegements to the Reverend
Archdeacon Cove, the worthy incumbent, for his
great hospitality, and the various information he
favored me with respecting these parts.

From hence I went southwards, over a hilly
and open country. Ride over Luton Downs, and
Ltjton. reach Luton, a small dirty town, seated on the
Lea ; remarkable for its church and tower-steeple,
prettily chequered with flint and freestone. With-
Fine Font, in is a most remarkable baptisterium \ in form of
an octagon, open at the sides, and terminating in
elegant tabernacle-work. In the top is a large
bason, in which the consecrated water was kept,
and let down by the priest into the font, by means
of a pipe. On the top of the inside is a vine,
guarded by a lamb from the assaults of a dragon.
The vine signifies the church, protected by bap-
tism from the assaults of the devil.

Adjoining to the church is a chapel, founded,
as appears by the following lines, by John Lord
TVenlock :

Jesu Christ, most of myght,

Have mercy on John le Wenlock, knight,

And of his wyffe Elizabeth,

Wch out of this world is past by death ;

1 Engraven in Gent. Mag. 1778. *



LUTON CHURCH. 525

Well founded this chapel here.
Helpe them with y r harty praer ;
That they may come to that place
Where ever is joy and solace m .

This Lord IVenlock rose in the reign of Henry r LoRD

# O .7 VVENLOCK.

VI. ; was knighted, made constable of Bamburgh
castle, and chamberlain to the queen. He ac-
quired great wealth, and was able to lend his
master a thousand and thirty-three pounds six
shillings and eight-pence ; for which he received
an assignment of the fifteenth and tenth, granted
by parlement in 1456; and soon after he was re-
warded with being made knight of the Garter.
He valiantly supported the royal cause at the first
battle of St. Albans, and was carried out of it
dreadfully wounded; yet, with the fickleness of
the times, he joined the Duke of York in 1459,
and was of course attainted by the Lancastrian
parlement. He fought valiantly in Towton field,
and received, as recompence for his former loss,
the office of chief butler of England, and the stew-
ardship of the castle and manor of Berkhamstead ;
and was created a baron n . He was employed by
the Yorkists in several important embassies, and
advanced to the great post of Lieutenant of Calais.

m Br. Mux. H. M. 11. fo 1531. fo. 15.
* Dugdale's Baron, ii. 264. .



526 LUTON CHURCH.

Notwithstanding all these favors, he again revolt-
ed, and joined the Earl of Warwick to restore the
deposed Henry. He raised forces, and joined
Margaret of Anjou, before the battle of Tewkes-
bury. He was appointed by the general, John
Earl of Somerset, to the command of what was
called the middle ward of the army. When So-
merset, who led the van, found himself unsup-
ported in the fierce attack he had made on the
enemy, he returned, enraged, to see the cause. He
found Lord TVenlock, with his troops, standing in
the market-place. Whether a panic had seized
him, or whether, through a mutability of mind, he
was meditating a new revolt, does not appear;
but the earl, unable to curb his fury, rode up, and
with one blow of his battle-ax clove the scull of the
supposed traitor . He was interred at Tewkes-
bury ; and his tomb is still to be seen in that
noble church.

In this chapel are several tombs : one very
magnificent, in the altar-form, with a rich canopy,
open beneath on each side. On the top are va-
rious arms, some inclosed in a garter. On a
wreath is a crest, a plume of feathers.
William On the tomb lies the effigies of JVilliam Wen-
lock, in the habit of a shaven priest : his hands

Q Halle's Chr. xxxii.



LUTON CHURCH. S2?

closed as if in prayer ; beads hang from them ;
and on a label from his mouth is a small shield of
a chevron, between three croslet gules, and these
words :

Salve Regina Mater miserecordie
Jesu fili Dei miserere mei.

On the side which opens into the chapel is this
inscription :

In Wenlok brad I, in this toun lordsehipes had I.
Her am I now layed, Christes moder helpe me, Lady.
Under thes stones, for a tyme, schal I reste my bones.
Deye not I ned ones myghtful God graunt me thy wones.
Ave.

On the other side, in the chancel,

Wills sic tumulatus de Wenlok natus

In ordine presbyteratus.
Alter hujus ville : dominus Someris fuit ille

Hie licet indignus : anime Deus esto benignus.

This William was prebendary of Brownswood, in
the church of St. Pauls', London, in 1 363 ; be-
fore which he had been rector of St. Andrew's,
Holborn. In 1 379, Richard II. made him custos
of the hospital of Farle, in Bedfordshire p . He
died in 1392, and was buried here, in pursuance

p Se* Bromfield's Collect, article Let*.



528 LUTON CHURCH.

of his will. By the garter, in which one of the
coats of arms is included, it is evident that the
tomb was erected by the founder of the chapel.
This also directs us to the origin of Lord JVenlock.
It is most likely that his father was related to this
prebendary, and that he left his possessions to
him ; and that Lord JVenlock, in the height of his
prosperity, paid this ostentatious compliment to
the memory of his kinsman.

In the middle is an altar-tomb of shell-marble,
with the brass plate of a woman.

In the wall, beneath two arches, are the tombs,
I think, of the Rotherhams, owners of this chapel
after the JVenlocks. On one had been an inscrip-
tion to a Rotherham, who had married Catherine,
daughter of a Lord Grey ; and was himself nephew
to Scot, alias Rotherham, archbishop of York.

The following odd medley of English and La-
tin, merits transcribing. It is on the tomb of
John Ackworth, Esquire, who died in 1513 ; and
is represented here with his two wives, eight sons,
and nine daughters.

O man, who eer thow be, timor mortis shulde trouble the j

For when thow beest wenyst,

Veniet te

Mors superare.

And so - - grave grevys

Ergo mortem memorare
Jesu mercy : Lady helpe : Jesu mercy.



LUTON CHURCH. 529

Near the altar is a large mutilated figure m
the wall, in a priestly habit, with a pastoral staff,
or a crosier, lying on him. He was an abbot, and
probably of St. Albans, for the abbots had a seat
near this town r . The chancel appears to have
been rebuilt by abbot IVhethamsted ; whose
motto, Val les ha bun da bunt val les, is
to be seen on the walls.

Part of this place was said to have been be-
stowed by king Offa on the monks of St. Albans.
Gilbert de Clare Earl of Gloucester, had the pa-
tronage of the church; which they bought from
him in 1166, for eighty marks, and kept in their
own hands, till they were compelled to appoint a
vicar. The purchase was in the time of abbot
Robert*. It appears that this place, Houghton,
and Potesgrave, had been bestowed on the mo-
nastery, for the support of the kitchen for the
guests. This is seen in the charter of confirma-
tion, made by King John, in the first year of his
reign l .

The church is dedicated to St. Mary, and is a
vicarage in the gift of the Earl of Bute.

Luton Ho, the seat of that " nobleman, lies near Luton Ho.

r Leland Itin. vi. 63. * Chauncy, 438.

1 Dugdale Mon. i. 179. Hatty I. had confirmed the same.
Iu his charter the nanus are mis-spelt. See Chauncy, 434.
u John Earl of Bute, who died in 1792. Ed.

2 M



530 LUTON HO.

the London road; about three miles from the
town. I lament my inability to record his taste
and magnificence ; but alas ! the useful talent x ,
Principibus placuisse viris, has been unfortunately
denied to me. I must therefore relate the antient
story of the favored spot. In the twentieth of
Edzvard I. it was possessed by Robert y , who took
the addition of de Hoo, from the place ; which sig-
nifies a high situation. His grandson, Thomas,
was created Lord Hoo and Hastings, by Henry
VI. in 1447. He, if no mistake is made in the
account, settled two parts of the tithes on the

x The editor, not having had an opportunity of visiting
Luton Ho, takes the liberty of borrowing the following ac-
count of it from Mr. Lysons's Magna Britannia.

" The principal rooms, particularly the library, which is
" one hundred and forty-six feet in length, the drawing-room,
" and the saloon are on a magnificent scale. The collection
" of pictures is very large and valuable, chiefly of the Italian
" and Flemish schools. Among the portraits are, Margaret
" Queen of Scots, with her second husband Archibald Douglas ;
" the first Earl of Pembroke; the Earl of Strafford; General
" Ireton; Mr. Pym; Mrs. Lane, who assisted Charles II. on
" his escape after the battle of Worcester ; Lord Chancellor
" Jefferys ; Ben Jonson ; Dr. Samuel Johnson, Dr. Armstrong,
" and the late Earl of Bute, by Sir Joshua Reynolds. The
" chapel is fitted up with vefy rich gothic carving in wood,
" said to have been originally executed for Sir Thomas Pope
" at Tettenhanger in 1548, but brought to Luton by Sir Robert
" Napier" Ed.

y Chauncy, 352.



SOMMERIS. 531

abbey of St. Albans, for the use of strangers.
Lord Hoo left only daughters. From one, who
married Sir Geqfry Bullen, was descended Queen
Elizabeth. I do not discover the time in which
the tower in Luton Park was built. It is an an-
tient structure, of flint and Tottenhoe stone inter-
mixed.

About two miles to the north-east of Luton Sommbrm.
Hoo, is the village of Sommeris, where, as Leland
informs us, Lord TVenlock had begun sumptuously
a house, but never finished it : that the gatehouse
of brick was very fair and large. The gateway
and part of a tower are yet to be seen. In the
last are fourteen or fifteen brick steps ; and there
was originally a hole, or rather pipe, which con-
veyed the lowest whisper from bottom to top.
Part of this, and of the other building, was pulled
down by Sir John Napier, about forty years ago.
Leland also acquaints us, that these estates of Lord
JVenlock passed, by marriage of an heir general *
of his, to a relation of Thomas Scot, alias Rother-
ham, archbishop of York from 1480 to 1500 : a
prelate remarkable for nepotism, and the prefer-
ment of his kindred by marriage, and other ways a .
This family assumed the name of Rotherham, and
flourished here for some centuries. John was
sheriff of the county in the seventeenth of Edzvard
z Leland, vi. 63. a Goodwin Prces. Angl. 70.

2m2



552 HATFIELD.

IV. and others, in after-times, enjoyed the same
honor b . Luton Hoe and this place became the
property of the Napiers ; from them they passed
to Mr. Hearn, who sold them to the Earl of
Bute.

From Luton I pursued my journey southward :
entered

HERTFORDSHIRE,

and near the twenty-sixth mile-stone, passed
through the village of Hardin, or Harpedon, and
. by its chapel, dependent on JVhethamsted. This
manor belonged, in 1292, to Robert Hoo, and
continued in his line till the death of Thomas Lord
Hoo and Hastings, about the latter end of the
reign of Henry VI. ; when it devolved to his three
daughters c . The manor was sold soon after their
marriages to Matthew Cressi/, in the time of Ed-
ward IV. It continued in his line till the reign
of Queen Elizabeth, when, by the marriage of a
female descendant, it fell to the Bardolfs. Rich-
ard Bardolf sold it to Sir John Witherong, created
baronet in 1 662 ; and it is now possessed by John
Bennet, Esquire.

b Fuller's British Worthies, 123, 124.
c Chauncy, 525.



HATFIELD. 533

About four miles from this village, passed
through St. Peter's street, in St. Albans, and
turning towards the east, after a ride of about five
miles, reach the small town of Hatfield, prettily Hatfield.
seated on a gentle ascent. Its Saxon name was
Haethfeld, from its situation on a heath. The
important synod, held during the heptarchy, at Synod.
the instance of Theodore, consecrated archbishop
of Canterbury in 668, in which the most interest-
ing tenets of Christianity were declared and con-
firmed d , is generally supposed to have been held
at a place of the same name in Yorkshire. Hat-
field was part of the revenues of the Saxon princes,
till it was bestowed by Edgar on the monastery of
Ely. At the time of the Conquest, it was found
to be in the possession of that great house; in
which it continued, till that abbey was converted
into a bishopric, in the reign of Henry I. It then
became one of the residences of the prelates ; for
they had not fewer than ten palaces belonging to
the see e ; and from that circumstance was called
Bishop's Hatfield, to distinguish it from other
places of the same name. It probably fell into
decay during the long wars between the houses of
York and Lancaster ; for I find it was rebuilt and

d .Beda, lib. iv. c. 17. p. 160. Beda had been an eleve of
this venerable archbishop.
e Bentham's Ely, 163.



534 HATFIELD.

ornamented by Bishop Morton, in the reign of
Henry VII f . Among the shameful alienations
made from the bishopric of Ely, by Queen Eliza-
beth (by virtue of the imprudent statute, which
gave her power of exchanges over all) must be
included the manor of Hatfield. The palace had
at times been an occasional royal residence, not-
withstanding it was the property of the church.
William, second son of Edward III. was born
here in 1335, and was called, from that circum-
stance, William of Hatfield. Queen Elizabeth
resided here many years before she came to the
crown % ; and, on the death of her predecessor,
removed from hence, on the 23d of November, to
take possession of the throne. This place did not
continue long a part of the royal demesne. James I.
in the fifth year of his reign, exchanged it for
Theobalds, with his minister, Sir Robert Cecil, af-
terwards Earl of Salisbury ; who built, on the
site of the palace, the magnificent house now
standing ; and inclosed two large parks, one for
red, the other for fallow deer. At the bottom of
the first was a vineyard, in being when Charles I.
was conveyed there a prisoner to the army h .

r Bentharris Ely, 181.

See the curious account of the practices of the lord ad-
miral on her at this place, in 1543, in Burghley's State Papers,
99, 100.

* Herbert's Memoirs, 30.



HATFIELD



535



The building is of brick, and of vast extent, in House.
form of an half H. In the center is an extensive
portico of nine arches : over the middlemost rises
a. lofty tower, on the front of which is the date
1611, and three ranges of columns of the Tuscan^
Doric, and Composite orders. Between the se-
cond are the arms of the family, in stone \

In the chapel is a small antient organ; a fine Chapel.
window of stained glass, in twelve copartments ;
and a gallery, on the front of which are painted
the twelve apostles.

Since the publication of the foregoing sheets,
the grounds have been improved with great judg-
ment, according to the present taste. The house
has undergone a complete repair, consistent with
the original style, under the conduct of Mr. Dono-
well the architect. The pictures have been re-
paired by Mr. Tomkins, and disposed from the
former dispersed state into the several apartments ;
and the splendor of this noble family is reviving
with all the magnificence of the Cecils.

The roof of the hall is supported from the sides Hall.
with lions, each holding a shield of family arms ;
the gallery by grotesque figures : a bad taste not
having been quite extinct at the period in which
this house was built. On the cieling are copart-

1 Among Kip's Views is one of this house, engraven from a
drawing by Thomas Sadler, Esquire. -



536 HATFIELD.

ments with profiles of the Ccesars. Over the fire
place is a painting of a great clumsy grey horse,
given by Queen Elizabeth to Sir Robert Cecil ; a
sign that our breed was at that time far from ex-
cellent.

On the posts of the grand stair-case are figures
of lions, and naked boys with musical instru-
ments.
Dudley In the breakfast room is a portrait of Robert

Leicester. Dudley Earl of Leicester, the unmerited favorite
of Queen Elizabeth. His hair and beard are re-
presented grey, his gown black, his vest white and
gold ; on his head a bonnet, and by him his white
rod as steward of the queen's household.

Sir Simon Sir Simon Bennet of Bechampton, in the county
of Bucks, knight. His dress is that of a magi-
strate in a robe furred, and ornamented with a
gold chain : he has on a ruff, and high hat. He
died in 1631 ; was uncle to Simon Bennet, who
was his heir, and whose daughter Frances married
James, fourth Earl of Salisbury. The date on
this picture is aet. 70. 161 1.

His Lady. His lady in a great ruff, red dress furred; gold
chain, jewels on her breast, and with a feathered
fan set in silver.

Francis de A head of Francis de Coligni, Lord of Dande-
lot. Short hair and short divided beard, with gilt
armour. He was youngest son of the first Gas-



COLIGNI.



HATFIELD. 537

par de Coligni, Marshal of France, by Louise de
Montmorenci. He was brother to the famous
admiral who perished in the massacre of Paris.
He served during the wars of Italy and Pi-
cardie in the reign of Henry II. and was made
colonel-general of the infantry in 1555. By
,his intercourse with the protestants in Germany
he adopted their opinions. He acted under his
brother when besieged at St. Quintin ; and after-
wards assisted at the taking of Calais. In 1558,
he was closely questioned by the king respecting
his religion, but having too high a spirit to conceal
his sentiments, he was committed to prison : on
his release he joined the Huguenots, and died in
1569, aged 48, not without suspicion of being
poisoned ; leaving behind the character of a great
soldier, of great genius, activity and enterprize.

The subtle Gondamar appears here a three Gondamar.
quarters piece. A thin figure with a spirited look ;
dressed in black, with a high hat. The most ver-
satile man of his time ; out-drank a king of Den-
mark ; was gallant among the ladies ; a speaker
of false Latin to King James, that the princely
pedagogue might have the pleasure of correcting
him ; and finally, was hardy enough to assure the
Earl of Bristol, our ambassador at Madrid, that
he was an Englishman in his heart ; adroitly de-
ceived all, and most effectually made our monarch
his dupe. He died in 1625 at Rommel in GueU



533 HATFIELD.

derland ; sent, as was supposed, to propose the
surrender of the Palatinate, and conciliate mat-
ters ; and bring on a peace between his master
and our pacific court.
Ambrose Ambrose Dudley Earl of Wartvick, eldest sur-

DlJDLEY. J

viving son of Dudley Duke of Northumberland.
Condemned with his father, but restored in blood :
took to a military life ; was appointed by Queen
Elizabeth Master of the Ordnance, Earl of War-
wick, and elected Knight of the Garter ; and had
the more substantial favor of a grant of the castle,
manor, and borough of Warwick, forfeited by his
father. He died in the year 1589, and lies be-
neath an elegant tomb in Wanvick church.
Lord Bur- Lord Burleigh and his son Robert, afterwards

LEIGH AND

his Son. Earl of Salisbury, are in one piece, half-lengths ;
each with a blue ribbon and white rod. The fa-
ther in a bonnet ; the son respectfully bare-headed.
This picture must have been drawn after the death
of Burleigh, for the son had neither the ribbon or
the white rod till long after the death of his father.
Here is besides a half-length of the latter, in black,
Avith the George pendent to a chain ; a bonnet and
white rod : also a third in his robes with a white
beard, and the motto, Cor unum, via una, truly ex-
pressive of the integrity of his character.

J eline A portrait of the famous Jaqueline Dutchess

Dutchess of f fl amau it only daughter of JVilliam Duke of
Hainault. .

Hainault, in her advanced life : a very ugly old



HATFIELD. 539

woman, in black ermine, and a cap worked with
lions, alluding to the arms of her country of Hai-
nault, which are, or, a lion rampant sable. This
lady passed through a variety of adventures : was
first married to John of France, Dauphin of Vi-
enne, and son of Charles VI. She afterwards
espoused John Duke of Brabant, cousin-german
to Philip the good Duke of Burgundy. After
living ten months with John, she eloped, and was

conveyed into England by Sir Bobsart

knight, where she married (her husband still
alive), the good Humphry Duke of Glocester. She
after that raised forces to maintain her dominions
for this favoured husband, who was obliged to
desert her on the Pope, Martin V. disannulling
this adulterous connection. She then gave her
hand to Francis Lord of Borselle and Count of
Ostrevant, Knight of the Golden Fleece; on
which Philip Duke of Burgundy arrested him,
and in the end Jaqueline was obliged to ransom
him by the cession of her estates to this good
duke, her cousin-german. Soon after which she
died of grief, in 1436. On the portrait is this
inscription :

Vrow Jacobea tan Beiren gravana van Holland. Star/. 1436.

A portrait of Queen Elizabeth, richly dressed, queen Eli-
On the table is a great sword, as if she was sitting ZABETH -



MOND.



540 HATFIELD.

ready to confer the honor of knighthood : a spot-
ted ermine, with a crown on its head and collar
round its neck, is represented running up the arm
of her highness. This little beast is an emblem k
of chastity, and placed here in compliment to the
virgin queen.
Margaret The next portrait is on wood, of a princess of

Countess

of Rich- high rank, celebrated for her piety and great au-
sterity. The love of her people, or the love of
power, might determine the spirited Elizabeth to
shun the nuptial bed. Margaret Countess of



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