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Richmond, with equal mental purity, did not pique
herself (virtuous as she was) on any such romantic
ideas. The pious prelate Fisher, to whom she
entrusted her conscience, gravely tells us, she ac-
cepted her first husband, Edward Earl of Rich-
mond, at the instance of St. Nicholas, patron of
virgins, who appeared to her in a dream. We
are not told at whose recommendation she took
Sir Henry Stafford, and Thomas Earl of Derby ;
for she liked the state matrimonial so well, as
afterwards to accept the hands of both. She sig-
nalized herself during life by her piety, charity,
humility, and chastity. The first appeared in her
rigorous attendance on the duties of the church,
and her admittance into the fraternity of five reli-
gious houses. The second, in her noble founda-

k Gxoilim's Heraldry, 1 4-.



HATFIELD. ***

tions of Christ College, and that of St. John's in
Cambridge, besides a number of other great deeds
of charity. The third, in her declaration, that,
" if the princes of Christendom would undertake
a crusade, she would chearfully be the laundres8
to the army:" and then for her chastity! In her
last husband's days she obtained a licence from
him to live chaste, and after his death made the
marvellous self-denying vow in the presence of
Bishop Fisher, the year after her grand climac-
teric, in words and form below given 1 ; for this

1 " In the presence of my Lord God Jt.su Christ, and his
" blessed mother, y e glorious Virgin St. Mary, and of all y*
" whole company of heaven, and of y u also my ghostly father.
" I Margaret of Richmond, with full purpose and good deli-
" beration for y e weale of my sinfull saul, with all my hearte
" promise from henceforth y e chastyty of my bodye, that is,
" never to use my bodye having actual knowledge of manne
" after the common usage in matremony, the w ch thing I had
" before purposed in my lord my husband's days, then being
" my ghostly father y e byshop of Rochester, Mr. Richard
" Fitzjames, and now eft-sence I fully confirm it, as far as in
" me lyeth : beseeching my Lord God that he will this poore
' wylle accept to y e remedy of my wretched lyfe, and relief
" of my sinful soule, and that he will give me his grace to
" perform the same ; and also for my more meryte, and
*.* quyetness of my soule in doubtful things perteyning to the
" same, I avovve to you, my Lord of Rochester, to whom I am,
" and have been sense y c first time I see you admitted, ve-
" rely determined as to my cheife trusty counsellour, to owne
" my obedience in all things, concerning the weale and pro-
" fyte of my soule."



542 HATFIELD.

reason she is usually painted in the habit of a nun,
and is here represented veiled.
Curious 1$ this room is the very curious picture on

Historical .

Piece, board, representing some of the amusements of the
court of Henry VIII., who frequently relaxed his
savage disposition in little progresses about the
neighborhood of his capital. This appears to
have been in the spring of the year 1533; for Halle
says m , that " this seasone the kynge kepte his pro-
" gresse about London, because of the quene ;"
which means on account of Queen Anna Bullens
being then pregnant. Accordingly we see Henry,
with his royal consort", in the condition described,
at a country wedding, fair, or wake, at some place
in Surrey, within sight of the Tower of London.
In the back ground is an open room, in a tempo-
rary building, with the table spread. At the en-
trance appears a man, seemingly Henry s favor-
ite, Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, inviting
them in.

There are great numbers of other figures;
many of which appear to have been portraits. In
one group, is a lady with a gold chain, between
two men with white beards. The utmost festivity
is exhibited. There are four fidlers, and a number
of dancers. Behind the king, is his 'squire, carry-

m P. CCXVII.

n I think the king and queen are masked.



HATFIELD. 543

ing the dagger and buckler ; and near Henry are a
boy and a girl.

Other figures are a man on foot, with a buck-
ler on his back : a yeoman of the guard, in red,
with a rose and crown on his breast : a person very
much resembling Cranmer, who, at this period,
was in high favor, appears with another, walking
on each side of a young lady : five figures on horse-
back ; the first with a hawk on his hand, and a
portmanteau before him ; the second, on a bay
horse, followed by a lady on horseback ; after her,
a cavalier, with another lady behind him.

A beautiful painting of a Madonna and the AMadonxa.
Child by Rubens, concludes the list of pictures in
this room.

In the drawing-room are heads of that gloomy Philip and
pair, Queen Mary and Philip II.

A portrait of Charles Gerard, Baron Gerard Gerard

.Larl of

of Brandon, created Earl of Macclesfield in Maccles-

FIELD.

1679; he died January 7th, 16.94. He is dressed
in black, in a sitting attitude, with his head on his
breast; a close coif on his head, a turnover on his
neck, and with grey hair and beard. He was a
brave and successful commander on the side of
Charles in the civil wars ; yet, notwithstanding his
zeal for the royal cause, he was one of the persons
who thought it his duty to present the Duke of
York, in the King's Bench, as a Popish recusant :



544 HATFIELD.

in which he thought he did his country equal ser-
vice, as when he bled in the field in support of regal
authority. It is thus, that sometimes Tories are
taken for Whigs, or Whigs for Tories, when they
censure the deed of their party disgraceful to mo-
rality, or adopt a measure urged by the opposite,
which they may think essential to the interests of
the community. An honest man cannot be a par-
tizan.
Guise* 5 ^ he ^ uc ^ c Giiise, called Lc Balafre, or the
slashed, from a scar on his left cheek, occasioned by
a wound he received in the battle oiThierri against
the Huguenots. He is dressed in black with a
blue ribbon ; his beard peaked. He was a prince
of great military talents ; and by his success, the
most popular leader of the league ; by his insolence
and his turbulent disposition, he became dangerous
to the state. He was grown too potent to be
taken off by the ordinary means of justice. It was
determined, by his king Henry III. that he should
be assassinated. No notice from his friends could
prevent him from rushing on his fate. The beau-
tiful Noirmoutier went to him at Blois for that pur-
pose, and passed the last night in his arms. He
fell the next day by the poinards of a select party
of the guards, on December 23d, 1588, at the age
of 38. His brother the cardinal was killed the
next day ; and both their bodies reduced to ashes,



HATFIELD. 545

least the tragical sight should excite the people,
by whom Guise was idolized, to rise into open re-
bellion .
Jane, the mother of lord treasurer Burleigh, Mother of

' ' Treasurer

and daughter and heir of William HeckingtoJi, of Burleigh.

Bourn, in the county of Lincoln. She died March

10th 1587, far advanced in years, and was buried

at Stamford. She is sitting, dressed in black, with

a stick in her hand, and represented blind and very

decrepid. This portrait has hitherto been mistaken

for the wife of the treasurer 9 .

Asa contrast, in the same room, is a head by
Lely, of the profligate, rapacious Dutchess of Dutchess of
Cleveland, the well known mistress of Charles II.
To stamp the utmost infamy on her, no more need
be added, than that she contributed to the ruin of
the virtuous Clarendon, who, with a generous
pride, scorning to stoop to so worthless a character,
incurred her insatiable revenge.

A beautiful picture, by Kneller, of a dowager A Countess
countess of Salisbury, sitting in her weeds in an bury.
easy attitude, pensive, with her arms across. This
lady was Frances, daughter to Simon Bennet, esq.
and relict to James fourth Earl of Salisbury. She
died in 1713.

See in Davila, book ix a full and curious account of the;
whole transaction.

* This mistake was corrected by T. C. Brooke, Esquire.

2 N



54$ HATFIELD.

A Farl N N A most charming picture, by Vandyck, of Al-

Northum- -grcmon Earl of Northumberland, of Ann, his first
wife, daughter of William second Earl of Salisbury,
and of one of their daughters, a child in white.
Both Earl and Countess are in black : he standing;
lady sitting. His abilities as a seaman are well
known. He took the side of liberty at the
beginning of the civil wars, but soon grew weary
of counsels which he foresaw tended to the sub-
version of the state. After the unsuccessful
treaty of ILvbridge, in which he acted as first
commissioner for the parlement, he had the
charge of the king's children till they effected
their escape. After the murder of the king, he
retired to Petworth, till the Restoration, which
he was active in promoting; he received several
honorary acknowledgements, when he returned
again into retirement, and died in 1668, aged
66.

Lord Cran- A lord Cranburn, in yellow hair, dressed in
burn. black: a fine three quarters piece.

Catherine Catherine, daughter of the first Earl of Salis-

CoUNTESS OF ' ^ -

Cumber- bury, and wife to Henry Earl of Cumberland;

light full hair, a kerchief over her neck ; dressed in

black, with coloured ribbons.
T,ord Loud Burleigh, by Zucchero, a three quarters.

urleigh. pj e j g j n ^ s roD es, a bonnet, and has a white

beard.



HATFIELD. 547

A full-length on board, of Mary Queen of Queen of

J Scots.

Scots, in a rich close cap, a long black mantle

edged with white, reaching to the ground, and
greatly distended, body black, sleeves striped, a
small gold crucifix, a cross and rosary ; beads of
gold richly wrought, and set in rubies. The in-
scription,

Maria D. G. Scotiae piissima regina Franciae dotaria. Anno

aetatis regnique 36.
Anglicse captivitatis JO. S. H. 1573.

This very much resembles one I have seen in Scot-
land; the inscriptions the same, only the dates on
the latter are 36 and 1578, which is right, for she
was born in 1542.

Her cruel rival, Queen Elizabeth, by Zucchero. p^ "*
A portrait extremely worth notice ; not only be-
cause it is the handsomest we have seen of her,
but as it points out her turn to allegory and apt
devices. Her gown is close bodied ; on her head
is a coronet and rich egret, and a vast distended
gauze veil : her face is young, her hair yellow, fall-
ing in two long tresses ; on her neck, a pearl neck-
lace : on her arms bracelets. The lining of her
robe is worked with eyes and ears, and on her
sleeve a serpent is embroidered with pearls and
rubies, holding a great ruby in its mouth : all to
imply vigilance and wisdom. In one hand is a

2n2



i4i> HATFIELD.

rainbow, with the flattering motto. Non sine sole

IRIS.

Robert Robert, first Earl of Salisbury, in his robes,

FIRST . J

Earl of with his wand as Lord High Treasurer : short grey

Salisbury.

hair.
Henry vni. Henry VIII. painted thinner than I ever saw,
with a hooked nose ; in a bonnet and feather, rich
jacket, black cloak furred: the George pendent
from a rich chain; his hand on his sword. A three
quarters piece.
William William, second Earl of Salisbury, in black,

second Earl

of Salis- -with long hair, a star on his cloak, and a dog by
him. He was captain of the band of gentlemen
pensioners to Charles I. privy-counsellor and
ambassador extraordinary to the court of France.
He was one of those characters who preferred his
own safety, to all other considerations. He had
been in two reigns so supple a courtier, as to over-
act every thing he was required to do ; no stretch
of power was ever proposed, which he did not ad-
vance and execute with the utmost tyranny ; but
on the first appearance of danger he deserted his
royal master, fled to the parlement, and subscribed
an engagement to be true to his new party, to
whom he passively adhered : and on the usurpa-
tion, condescended to be a member in Croni-
we/fs parlement. He ended his inglorious life in
1668, aged 78. This portrait and that of his sou



HATFIELD. T49

Charles, Viscount Cranbourn, who died in his fa-
ther's life-time, are both by Lclg q .

Henry VI. on board, in a close black cap ; Henry vr.
blue body, black sleeves ermine, rich chain: a
meagre, meek, devout figure with his hands
clasped. There is another picture of this prince
at Kensington, from which Vertue made a print.

William Herbert, third Earl of Pembroke, in William
a black dress, sitting : has a blue ribbon and piu> or p EM .
pie hose. \ BR0KE -

Richard III. represented with three rings ; Richard hi.
one of which he is taking off or putting on his
little finger. His countenance discredits the re-
lation of his having been a handsome man.

James I. James i.

Henry VIII. in a gold vest, by Mabuse. Henry vnf.

Fair Rosamond, and her bowl: fictitious as to fair Rosa-
the painting. M0ND -

The head of Laura, in a furred robe with red Laura.
sleeves, reading. La Belle Laure, the celebrated
object of love with the virtuous and elegant
Petrarch, for the space of twenty one years before,
and twenty six after her death ; for he first saw her
on April 6th 1 39,7. She devoted herself to religion,
and persuaded him to do the same. Laura died in

* Of the latter, there is a fine whole length, in a Vandyck
dress, at Petworth : his sister Anne married Algernon Percy, Earl
of Northumberland, the owner thereof.



550 HATFIELD.

the convent of the Cordeliers, in Avignon, April
6th, 1348 : he in 1374, in Italy, his native coun-
try, to which he had retired, after the loss of
the object of his affection. Her age was probably
about 40, his 70 ; both of them became the sub-
ject of the finest pens for centuries after their
death. Francis I. celebrates her memory in a
beautiful epitaph. The tender and amorous Earl
of Surrey made them the subjects of two sonnets :
he modestly yields the palm to Petrarch, but der
nies the superiority of beauty in Laura, in pre-
ference to his mistress, the fair Geraldine. The
inscription on this picture is,

Laura fui ; viridem Raphael fecit, atque Petrarcha.

Elizabeth Elizabeth of York, in a rich crimson gold
of York. . . . . , , '

and ermine dress, with a red rose in her hand.

She was eldest daughter to Edward IV.

born at Westminster, February 11th, 1466,

promised in marriage to the Dauphin, son of

Lewis IX. wooed by Richard III. red with the

murder of her two innocent brothers, and, at

length, married to that ungracious prince Henry

VII. Happy only by that alliance, in giving

peace to this kingdom, long visited with the

scourge of civil war. She died on her birth day

in 1502, and was interred with great pomp in

Westminster abbey.



HATFIELD. (551

In* the room called my Lord's apartment, is the
head of a Due de Guise, with short brown hair Charles

Due DE

and turnover, pale brown and red jacket; black Guise.
cloak ; a narrow blue ribbon. I believe him to
have been Charles, son of Le Balqfre. After the
death of his father, he was imprisoned in the castle
of Tours, from which he escaped, and made se-
veral fruitless attempts to resist the power of
Henry IV. Struck with the virtues of that great
prince, he returned, by the mediation of Sully, to
his allegiance, and served the king with distinguish-
ed zeal, courage, and success. He died in the
year 1640, aged 69.

Here is the head of another Due de Guise. A Henry Due

de Guise.

thin, pale, long-faced figure, in a black dress ; a

bonnet with jewels, and a blue ribbon. Perhaps

another Henry, second son to the former, who

succeeded to the title r .

A head of the enthusiastic assassin Ramillac, Ravaillac.

is among these illustrious personages. His dress

is black ; on his head is a bonnet ; his face is

deformed by several stains of black, and other

colours.

Ahead of our great physician, doctor Syden- Doctor

Sydenham.

* The portraits of foreigners, in the houses of our antient

nobility, are well worth notice, as they are generally originals,

presented on embassies and other negotiations. I am told the

French give any money for them when sold.



552 HATFIELD.

ham, as noted for his charity and liberality, as his
extraordinary skill in his profession. Among his
other great merits, was his introducing the cool regi-
men in the small pox. Thousands have fallen a
sacrifice to the neglect of it by his successors *, till
in our days it has been happily revived, to the pre-
servation of thousands.
First Eari. Thomas, eldest son of the treasurer Burleigh,
created Earl of Exeter by James I. in 1604. He
was a nobleman of great merit, and shone equally
in the field and in the tilt yard ; distinguished him-
self in the wars of the Low Countries, and with
his brother, Sir Robert, was a volunteer on board
the fleet which destroyed the Spaiiish armada.
His pious foundations were also very considerable.
He died in February 1622, aged 80. His dress
is a black cloak furred ; a bonnet. In his hand is
a glove. He has a white rod, and by his white
beard, (which is divided) appears to have been
advanced in life, at the time he was painted. I do
not know his pretensions to the wand.

* I had the small pox when I was a child, it was in the heat
of summer. I lay in a red bed in a room exposed to the
western sun ; and was half smothered with bed cloaths. My
ferer increased by a great fire, and by the exclusion of all
air, my disorder, which was an excellent kind, had a good
chance of becoming putrid. I recollect very well, that the
very air about me was infected, and I abhorred my own at-
mosphere.



HATFIELD. 55$

Catherine Cornaro Queen of Cyprus. I have Catherine

. . . - CORNARO.

given an account of this illustrious female in p. 502.

James, the late and sixth Earl of Salisbury, a Late Earl
head in crayons. He is in his robes, with full grey bury.
wig. .

A very fine Madonna, after Corregio: and
another, by Guido.

An antique of Alexander's head. On the back An antique.
of the helmet, is the face of Socrates. This was
found in the park. It is set, and has round it a
Saxon inscription. Possibly it might have been
converted into an amulet, and used as such by an
ignorant and superstitious people. In one of the
apartments is a statue, in brass, of James I.

In the coffee-room is a painting of Hatfield, be-
fore it underwent any alteration.

In King James's dining-room, is a full-length of
that lunatic hero, Charles XII. in his blue cloaths Charles xn.
and boots.
. His illustrious rival, Peter the Great ; a full- Peter the

Great

length, in armour, with a rich robe over it ; at a
distance a view of a fleet.

. Lady Sondes in grey, sitting; by old Stone. Lady
She was wife of Sir Gregory Sondes, of Leescourt, 0NDES -
in the county of Kent, afterwards created Earl of
Fever sham. < f

* Present Earl of Salisbury in his robes, by Present

Earl of
Salisbury.



554 HATFIELD.

Romney, and his lady in yellow by Reynolds, the
latter is engraved.
Charles i. A very good portrait of Charles I. in a grey
jacket and boots, with the blue ribbon tied under
his arm, instead of being pendent, a mode begun in
his reign. This is said to have been the dress in
which he set out for Spain, on his romantic court-
ship.
Margaret Margaret Countess of Salisbury, wife to
Salisbury. James the third Earl. A half-length in blue, with
flowers in her hand ; by Lely.

Mary Queen of Scots, full-length.

Count Christopher de Harlay, count Beaumont,
Beaumont.

ambassador from Henry IV. to Queen Elizabeth

in her last year, and the first of her successor. He

was a nobleman of great personal merit, and an

able negotiator. He is painted as a tall thin man,

in a dark jacket with white sleeves, and a great

ruff, cet. 34, 1605, the year in which he concluded.

his embassy. He died governor of Orleans in

1615.

Gallery. The gallery is a hundred and sixty-two feet
long, with two great wooden chimney pieces on the
sides, and the same at each end. Here is pre-
served a small and very antient organ.

Library. The library is fifty-eight feet and a half by
twenty-six. Over a vast marble chimney-piece is



HATFIELD. 555

a portrait, in mosaic, of the first Earl of Salisbury,

with grey hair, at. 48. The room is hung with

the original gilt leather.

, In the winter dining-room, (for this vast house

hath both its winter and summer apartments), is a

three quarters piece of Thomas, sixth Earl of Earl of

Thanet.
Thanet, in his robes, and a great full-bottom black

wig ; and another portrait, by Lely, of his lady, in His Lady.
blue with a red mantle, and dark hair. They were
connected to this family by the marriage of their
daughter Anne with James, fifth Earl of Salis-
bury.

James third Earl of Salisbury, a full-length, in James third
his robes of the garter; a full-bottom wig, with hat Salisbury.
and feather on a table. He was called to the
council board in 1679, elected knight of the garter
in 1680 ; measures merely of policy to deceive the
people into a notion of a change of measures.
Other popular leaders received marks of favor
from the court, but to no sort of effect, for the
earl not only voted for the exclusion bill, but
even seconded the violent Shaftesbury s motion for
the king's divorcing his queen, and taking another
from a protestant house. He died in 1683.

His lady Margaret Manners, daughter of His Lady.
John Earl of Rutland ; a. full-length, in brown, with
a blue mantle.

A beautiful picture of a Lady Latimer, in Lady

r J Latimer,



556 HATFIELD.

brown, with a blue mantle : with her hands clasped,
reading; by Lely. She was daughter and co-
heiress of Simon Bennet, of Bechampton co. Bucks,
esquire ; wife of Edward Osborne, Lord Latimer,
eldest son of Thomas, Earl of Danby, and sister
of Frances, wife of James, fourth Earl of Salis-
bury.

Lady A lady in a loose dress and green mantle : a

Ranelagh. .

three-quarters piece, sitting. This I believe to be

the beautiful Lady Ranelagh, daughter of James,

third Earl of Salisbury, and second wife to

Richard Jones, Earl of Ranelagh. She was first

c married to the elder brother of the last Lord

Stawel, who piqued himself on having the finest
woman, horse, and house in England. He had
begun the last, but died before it was half finished.
Lady Ranelagh is among the beauties at Hampton
Court. In the decline of her beauty, she never
would be seen but by candle light.

Frobenius. I missed in this visit, a picture very worthy of
preservation, a head of John Frobenius, by Hol-
bein. He is dressed in a black gown, lined with
fur. Frobenius was a native of Franconia ; but
settled at Basil in Switzerland, of which city he
became a citizen. He was a man of considerable
learning, and the finest printer of his time. Eras-
mus resided a long time with him, attracted
by his personal merit and his admirable skill in his



HATFIELD CHURCH. 557

profession ; for to him we are indebted for the most
beautiful edition of the works of his illustrious
friend. Frobenius died in 1527, and was honored
by the same hand with two epitaphs, one in Greek,
the other in Latin.

Neither did I find the picture inscribed
Frederic P. lagra, de Dieu comte Palatyn deRyk.
Small, and in an ermined cap, in his hands two
covered dishes, with a napkin over them. I be
lieve this prince to have been Frederic IV. father
of the unfortunate palatine, king of Bohemia.

I forgot to mention in their places, in the Pa ^J** s
first rooms ; a holy family, by Leonardi di Vinci ;
a naked child lying at full length, contemplating a
scull ; and a Jupiter and Leda ; all by the same
great master; also a good painting of .a young
woman, with a melancholy look, sitting, and
leaning on one hand, behind her is an old woman
with a letter.

A flight into Egypt, very good ; and another
painting, both by Bassan.

The church of Hatfield is dedicated to St. Church.
Ethelreda, the virgin wife; first, of Tonbert,
prince of the South Girvii, and afterwards of
prince Egfrid, son of Qswy, king of Northumber*
land, as I might prove by several credible wit-
nesses '.



1 Bentham's hist. Ely, 49, to whom I refer for the evidences.



558 &ATFIELD CHURCH.

In the Salisbury chancel, built by the first earfr,
is the monument of the great founder, who is re-
presented in white marble, in his robes, recum-
bent on a black slab, beautifully executed. This
is supported at each corner by a cardinal virtue,
with the attributes of each, poorly done. Beneath
is a skeleton, in white marble, lying on a mat of the
same colored marble, admirably counterfeited. I

A strange figure, sprawling on one side with
a great bird, naked arms, and well-cut drapery, in



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