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his Grace. That wonderful mechanic naturally
fell under the Dukes patronage, and was the
grand contriver of all the works which his noble
friend carried on. Many of his projects were of



74 MR. JAMES BRINDLEY.

so stupendous a kind, and so incomprehensible
to vulgar minds, as to subject him to great ridi-
cule, till the scoffers were put to confusion by the
successful execution.

Wherever any great difficulty arose, he con-
stantly took to his bed, excluded all light, and lay
in meditation for two or three days, till he had in
idea completed the whole of his plan. A poet
would have said, he was visited by his muse in
those hours of seclusion. Brindlcy certainly was
illuminated, amidst the darkness, by his attendant
genius. He reminds me of the younger Pliny,
who adopted almost a similar method : " Clause?
"fenestra manent. Mirk enim Silent io et tent-
t( bris animus alitur. ab Us. qua axocant abduc-
" tus, et liber, et mihi relictus, non oculos animo
" sed animum oculis sequor, qui eadem qua mens
" vident quoties non vident alia \"

When he found his health and faculties to de-
cline, he virtuously determined to extend as far
as possible his services, even beyond the grave.
He communicated all his plans and designs to
Mr. Hugh Henshall, his wife's brother, who had
been employed by the proprietors, from the be-
ginning, as clerk of the works. His assiduity and
abilities seem to have compensated for the loss of

* Epist. lib. ix. ep. 3G.



ADVANTAGES OF THE CANAL. 75

his great ally ; for the most difficult parts in the
undertaking have been successfully executed, since
Mr. Brindleys death", under the direction of Mr.
Henshall.

Notwithstanding the clamors which were
raised against this undertaking, in the places
through which it was intended to pass, when it
was first projected, we have the pleasure now to
see content reign universally on its banks, and
plenty attend its progress. The cottage, instead
of being half-covered with miserable thatch, is
now secured with a substantial covering of tiles
or slates, brought from the distant hills of Wales
or Cumberland. The fields, which before were
barren, are now drained, and, by the assistance
of manure, conveyed on the canal toll-free, are
cloathed with a beautiful verdure. Places which
rarely knew the use of coal, are plentifully sup-
plied with that essential article upon reasonable
terms : and, what is of still greater public utility,
the monopolizers of corn are prevented from ex-
ercising their infamous trade ; for, by the commu-
nication being opened between Liverpool, Bristol,
and Hull, and the line of the canal being through
countries abundant in grain, it affords a convey-
ance for corn unknown to past ages. At present,

He died at Tumhurst, in the parish of Wolstanton, Staf-
fordshire, September 27 lb, 1772.



76 ADVANTAGES OF THE CANAL.

nothing but a general dearth can create a scarcity
in any part adjacent to this extensive work.

These, and many other advantages, are de-
rived, both to individuals and the public, from
this internal navigation, and when it happens that
the kingdom is engaged in a foreign war, with
what security is the trade between those three
great ports carried on ; and with how much less
expence has the trader his goods conveyed to any
part of the kingdom, than he had formerly been
subject to, when they were obliged to be carried
coastways, and to pay insurance?

I believe it may be asserted, that no under-
taking, equally expensive and arduous, was ever
attempted by private people in any kingdom ; and,
in justice to the adventurers, it must be allowed,
that, considering the difficulties they met with,
owing to the nature of the works, or the caprice
of persons whose lands were taken to make the
canal, that ten years and a half was but a short
time to perform it in; and that satisfaction has
been made to every individual who suffered any
injury by the execution of the undertaking. The
profits arising from tonnage are already very con-
siderable ; and there is no doubt but they will in-
crease annually ; and, notwithstanding the enor-
mous sum of money it has cost in the execution,
the proprietors will be amply repaid, and have



STONE. COLLEGE. 77

the comfort to reflect, that by the completion of
this project, they have contributed to the good of
their country, and acquired wealth for themselves
and posterity.

Immediately after leaving Stonejield, reached Stone.
the little town of Stone, a place remarkable for
religious antiquity. Legend tells us, that the be-
fore-mentioned Wulferus, then a Pagan, put to
death his two sons, JVulfad and Riifin, on sus-
picion of favoring the Christian faith ; JVulfad at
this place, Rufin at Burston, about three miles
distant. Over each, stones were erected, as usual,
in memory of the dead ; whence the names of these
places are derived. Wulfere, after this unnatural
deed, was struck with the utmost remorse, and,
by the influence of his queen and St. Cedda, or
Chad, who lived in a neighboring hermitage, was
converted to the religion he had so lately perse-
cuted ; and, by way of expiating his guilt, among
other works of piety, founded at Stone a college
of canons regular, about the year 670. His
queen Ermenilda is said to have also founded a
nunnery here. On the invasion of the Danes, the College.
religious were dispersed ; but on the abatement of
the cruelty of those barbarians, it is probable they
returned, or at lest a new establishment was form-
ed. This is certain, that religious were found here
after the Conquest ; for there is an idle tale of two



78 STONE PRIORY.

nuns and a priest being slain there, by Enysan, a
Norman. This Enysan, of Walton, was the true
re-founder. Caution must be used in reading the
histories of these times, which are filled with pious
romance. Little credit should also be given to
the murder of the sons of Wulfere. The Saxon
Chronicle is silent about the deed. That prince
was a convert to Christianity, and seems to have
founded the house through the common motives
of zeal.

Enysan, on his re-establishment of this house,
filled it with canons from Kenelworth, and made
Priory, ft a cell to that place. The Staffords, who were
his superiors, assumed the honor of this new foun-
dation ; and a second Robert de Stafford, about
the year 1260, rendered it independent of Kenel-
worth, excepting the right of patronage, and a
yearly pension. The church of this priory was
the place of interment of several of this great fa-
mily; and numbers of magnificent tombs, with-
their figures in alabaster, lay there till the disso-
lution; when they were removed to the Augus-
tines, on Stafford Green. On the road-side is a
fragment of a thick wall, perhaps a remnant of
the priory. The church is quite new, and is a
very elegant building, dedicated to St. IVulfad,
one of the supposed martyrs. At the time of the
suppression, a tablet, giving the whole history of



ASTON HALL. BURSTON.



79



the house, was hung up in the priory : it is related
in old English metre; but is so tedious, that I
must refer the readers, who desire to peruse it, to
the cited author*.

As soon as I left Stone, I saw on the right a Ast<w.
large house called Aston, originally the property
of a branch of the He-ceninghams of Suffolk.
Walter, the last of the line, left two daughters ;
the second (who only had children) conveyed by
marriage the estate to Sir James Simeon, who re-
built the hall. He also built in the garden a mau-
soleum; in which, I think, he is interred. The
place is at present the property of Edward Weld,
Esq. of Lulworth castle, in Dorsetshire, and de-
scended to him of late years, by virtue of a mar-
riage of an ancestor with a daughter of this house,
in the reign of Charles II.

The road from this place, for several miles,
passes along a pretty vale, watered by the Trent>
bounded by two hills, and much enlivened by the
course of the canal. About the third mile from
Stone, I went by Burston, a small hamlet, noted Burs-tost,
formerly for a chapel erected over the spot where
Rujin, second son of Wulfere, was supposed to
have been martyred ; and on that account, in old
times, greatly frequented by the devout.

x Duzdak Mon. ii. 126.



SO SANDON.

About a quarter of a mile from hence, on the
Sandok. top of a hill, stands the church of Sandon. This
manor, in the twentieth of William the Conqueror,
was in the hands of the king ; who bestowed it on
Hugh Lupus ; and he again gave it to William de
Malbang, or Nantwich. It passed from this fa-
mily (by the gift of Adena, second daughter of
William, grandson to the former) to Warren de
Vcrdon ; and by his daughter Alditha, to Sir Wil-
liam Stafford ; and by the marriage of Margaret,
daughter of one of his descendants, in the twelfth
of Edward III. to Thomas of Erdesxvik. It con-
tinued in possession of that family till the reign
of James I. In his time it was sold to George
Digby, groom of the stole to that monarch, by
his half-brother Richard Erdesxvik. Charles Lord
Gerard, of Bromley, became master of it, by mar-
riage with a daughter of Mr. Digby ; whose grand-
daughter, by matching with William Duke of Ha-
inilton, conveyed it to Lord Archibald Hamilton ;
who, in 1776, disposed of it to Lord Harrowby.
A law-suit concerning this place gave rise to the
fatal duel, in November 1712, between James
Duke of Hamilton and Lord Mohun ; in which
both combatants lost their lives.

The antient mansion stood near the church,
within a moat; but is now demolished, and a



MONUMENTS OF THE ERDESWIKS. 81

beautiful house y , commanding a fine view, was
built by Lord Archibald Hamilton, on an eminence
impending over the Chester road. The steep slope
is beautiful, cloathed with plantations of recent
date, but extremely flourishing.

The church is in the gift of Lord Harrow by.
Before the dissolution, it belonged to the abbey of
Cumber mere; being bestowed on it by the founder,
Hugh de Malbang.

The monuments are curious. The finest is in
memory of the celebrated Sampson Erdeswik, the
learned antiquary of the county; a faithful guide
of all that concerned the families, till his death,
which happened in 1603. He might have spared
himself the expence of a monument; his work
would have perpetuated his name. He erected
one in his life-time; and is represented recum-
bent, a colossal figure in a jacket with short skirts,
and spurs on his legs. Above, in two niches, are
his two wives, kneeling: the one was Elizabeth
Dikeswel; the other Maria Neale, widow to Sir
Everard Digby, and mother to the unfortunate
victim to the gunpowder plot. Besides inscrip-
tions to these ladies, is a pedigree of the house ;
for which, as well as several other epitaphs of the
Erdeszciks, the reader is referred to the Appendix x .

y Now the residence of Lord Harroivby. Ed. 2 No. I.

G



m MONUMENT OF GEORGE DIGBY.

I shall only mention, that the tombs are of the
altar-form, and have the figures of the persons
commemorated engraved on the stone.

The inscription on a plain marble tomb, in

Of George memory of Mr. Digby, once owner of the place,

is very worthy of preservation : as it records a

remarkable piece of history, I shall give it here

at length, and add notes to the. obscure parts.

Si quis hie jaceat, roges, viator,

Georgius Digbceus,

Armiger.

Vir (si quis alius) celebrati nominis.

Nobili clarus prosapia, sed vita nobiliori :

Quippe qui

Ipsum nobilitatis fontein caeno turbatum

Demum limpidum reddidit :

Hoc est

Ut memet explicem,

Qui regis Jacobi purpuram

Maledicti Schopii a dicterici foedatam

a Gaspar Scioppiud was a German of great erudition, but of
a most turbulent disposition ; he became a convert to Popery
in 1599, and naturally distinguished himself by a blind and
furious zeal against his former religion ; and went so far as
even to recommend the utter extirpation of its professors. He
was a fierce antagonist to Scaliger, Causabon, and other Pro-
testant writers ; and in his book stiled Ecclesiasticus, 1611, he
attacked James I. in a very indecent manner.



MONUMENT OF GEORGE DIGBY. $3

Obtrectatoris sanguine b

Retinxit.

Nee tamen homuncionem penitus sustulit

Sed gravius stigma fronti incussit

Quam Henricus magnus

Libello c ,

Quo scilicet toto vitse curriculo

(Utpote omnium contemptui expositus)

Sensit se mori.

Hujus egregii facinoris intuitu

A Jacobo honoribus auctus est

Digbceus
Meritis tandem annisque plenus
Vivere desiit, semper victurus.

Ipsis Idibus Decembris a . fo^ ^ Lxxxyj

Tanti herois laudes

b The affront offered to our monarch, induced Mr. Digby,
and some other followers of the Earl of Bristol, then ambas-
sador to Spain, to attack Scioppius in the streets of Madrid,
in 1614; where they left him for dead. As soon as he reco-
vered, he removed to Padua, dreading another attack. He
lived afterwards in continual apprehensions, and shut himself
up in his room for the last fourteen years of his life. He
died in 164-9, at enmity with all mankind.

c He was as profuse of his abuse of Henry IV. in the book
above mentioned, as he was of the English monarch. The re-
gency of France, in honor to the memory of that great prince,
directed it to be burnt by the hands of the common hangman.

G 2



81 CHARTLEY.

Licet non taceant historic i

Haec saxa loqui curavit

Lectissima heroina Jana Baronissa Gerrard

De Bromley ,

Clarissimi Digbcei filia

Superstes unica.

From Sandon the hills recede to the north. I
Chartley. directed my course to Chartley, about four miles
and a half distant, and about three north from the
great road. This venerable pile is built round a
court, and great part of it is curiously made of
wood, embattled at top, and the sides carved. In
many places are the arms of the Devereux; the
devices of the Ferrars and Garnishes ; and, in
Saxon characters, the initials of the founder,
W. D. (Walter Devereux) with the motto Loial
suisje. Over the door of the gateway is carved a
head in profile, with a crown above. In the mid-
dle of the court stands a fountain : and the whole
building is surrounded with a moat. The view
within the court is faithfully shewn in Plot, tab. v.
In several of the windows are painted glass.
In the great bow- window of the hall are the horse-
shoes, the antient device of the Ferrars; in others,
the arms of that family, of the Devereux, Gar-
nishes, and Shir lies, A bed is still preserved here,
the work of Mary Stuart, who was for some time



CHARTLEY CASTLE. 85

imprisoned in this house : besides this, at present
there are no vestiges of its former grandeur. With-
in and without is a mortifying appearance of ne-
glect and approaching decay d .

At a small distance from the house, on a knowl,
are the poor remains of the castle ; consisting of Castle.
the fragments of two rounders, and a bit of a wall,
almost hid in wood. This fortress was very soon
permitted to fall in decay. Leland speaks of it as
a ruin in his days. When the power of the no-
bility was broken, by the policy of Henry VII.
numbers of the barons, finding their castle no
longer a protection to their insolence, were glad to
quit so incommodious a kind of habitation. We
often see, as in the present instance, an antient
mansion near the remains, or on the scite of a
more antient castle : the times were so much bet-
tered, and monarchy had recovered so much right-
ful strength, that the former became useless against
their prince, or their rival reguli, who then began
to acknowledge the power of law. Yet still
some species of castellated mansion, against po-
pular commotions, or the attacks of bands of rob-
bers, was requisite. Conveniency, and a sort of
elegance, was affected in their houses ; but a ne-
cessary suspicion still remained, and safety pro-

4 A fire in July 1781, completed its destruction.



86 CHARTLEY CASTLE.

vided for by the deep surrounding moat, by the
gateway, and the strong door.

Chartley castle was built by Handle Blunde-
ville, Earl of Chester, in 1220, on his return from
the Holy Land; and to defray the expence of this,
as also of Beeston, which he also founded, a tax
was levied on all his vassals. By his death, this
part of his estate devolved on William Ferrars
Earl of Derby, in right of his wife Agnes, third
sister of Handle.

. His son Robert, entering into the factious views
of the barons, received a defeat at Chesterfield in
1 266. His estates were confiscated, and the castle
and manor bestowed by Henry III. on Hamon
Le Strange; but, notwithstanding this, he pos-
sessed himself of it by force, and the king was
obliged to order his brother, Edmund Earl of
Lancaster, to besiege the place; which he took,
but not till after much loss on both sides. Ed-
mund, and the nobility who assisted in the siege,
thought proper to obtain his Majesty's pardon for
the lives lost on the occasion. Ferrars himself
received his pardon, was divested of the earldom
of Derby, but was suffered to retain this castle ;
possibly, being reduced so low as to be incapable
of giving farther disturbance. It continued in his
line till the reign of Henry VI. when, in 1447,
by the marriage of Anne, or Agnes, sole heiress



STOW CHURCH* *1

to William Lord Ferrars, to Walter Devereux,
sheriff of Herefordshire, it passed into another
great race of peers. The lady was at that time
only eleven years and eight months old ; but by
the king's special favor, in 1452, she had livery of
her lands, without further proof of her age. This
estate continued in his posterity (the Lords Fer-
rars, Viscounts Hereford, and Earls of Essex)
till the year 1646, when it fell to Sir Robert Shir-
ley, by his marriage with Dorothy, youngest sister
to Robert Earl of Essex, the noted parlement-
general ; and is at present possessed by their de-
scendant Earl Ferrers.

In hopes of finding, in the neighboring parish- r ST w u
church of Stow, the monumental honors usually
attendant on great families, I visited it, at the
small trouble of a mile's ride. I was disappointed,
for I found only one of this great line deposited
in the place. This is very frequent with a race of
heroes, whose active spirits carry them into scenes-
remote from their natal soil, or bring them to fates
that prevent possession of their parental sepul-
chres. Walter Devereux, the first Lord Ferrars,
fell in the field of Boszvorth, fighting valiantly in
behalf of Richard, and was buried among the un-
distinguished slain. Walter, his descendant, first
Earl of Essex, died Lord Lieutenant of Ireland,
September 22d, 1576, as supposed by poison,



Church.



88 STOW CHURCH.

and was interred at Caermarthen. His son, the
favorite of Elizabeth, fell a victim to his indiscre-
tion and ambition ; perished by the ax, and was
flung among the attainted herd. His son, for a
series of victories in the cause of liberty, received
from his grateful party the magnificent honors of
a public funeral in the capital, which his arms had
defended.

I found here only the tomb of J Falter, first
Viscount Hereford, grandson of the first Lord
Ferrers, and founder of the house of Chart ley.
He served with honor in the Flinch wars, under
Henry VIII ; and in the naval attack of Conquet,
in 1512, he was honored with the garter by his
royal master, and with the title of Hereford by
his successor. His death happened in 1558. He
lies here under a fine monument, erected in his
life-time; his figure is represented in robes, with
the collar of the garter round his neck : his head
reposed on a plume of feathers, wreathed round a
helmet. On one side of him is placed his first
lady, Mary, daughter of Thomas Marquis of
Dorset; on the other, his second, Margaret,
daughter of Robert Garnyche, Esquire, of Kynge-
ton, in Suffolk. Around the side is represented,
I suppose as mourners, six female and six male
figures ; the last begirt with swords.

Near this is another tomb of alabaster, with



WYCH WESTON. HEYWOOD. 89

the figures of two persons engraven on it; but so
cankered with age, that neither inscription nor dis-
tinction of sex, can be made out.

On the chancel floor a brass plate preserves
the memory of Thomas Newport, steward of the
houshold to Walter, first earl of Essex, and deli-
vers his character in these terms :

Qui charus charis fuerat qui firmus amicis ;
Era ! Tiiomas Newport conditur hoc tumulo.
Qui felix ortu fuit et morte beatus ;
Quem Deus et coelum, quern pia vota habent.

From Stow I hastened to the Chester road, Wtch

Weston - .
which I reached at the hamlet of IVych, in the

parish of Weston on the Trent, whose spire steeple
appears at a small distance on the other side of
the road. This place is productive of salt, and
has been long noted for its brine-pits, the property
of Earl Ferrers.

After going about two miles farther, I passed Heywood.
through Great Heywood, a village bestowed by
Roger de Melend, alias Long Epee, a worthless
prelate, in the reign of Henry III. on his valet
Roger de Aston ; whose family made it their resi-
dence, till the marriage of a descendant with the
heiress of Tival, occasioned it to remove to the
new acquisition. In my memory the old seat was
in possession of the Whitbies. It has since been
re-united to the house of Tival, by purchase. The



90 VALE OF SHUGBOROUGH.

barn belonging to the manor-house of Heywood,
was of a most magnificent size ; but of late has
been greatly reduced.
Its long The horse-bridge over the Trent, adjoining to

Bridge. & ' J &

Heyzvood, was not less remarkable, for I remem-
ber it to have consisted of two-and-forty arches ;
but the number at present is much lessened.
There is a tradition, that it was built by the coun-
ty, in compliment to the last Devereux Earl of
Essex, who resided much at Chartley ; and, being
a keen sportsman, was often deprived of his di-
version for want of a bridge. I am not clear about
the truth of this report. There certainly had been
a bridge here long before, so that, if tliere was any
foundation for such a mark of respect, it could
only have been rebuilt after falling to decay.
Vale of From the middle is a view, of very uncommon

SHUGBO- 11 i 'l'li

rough. beauty, of a small vale, varied with almost every
thing that nature or art could give to render it
delicious; rich meadows, watered by the Trent
and Sow. The first, animated with milk-white
cattle, emulating those of Tinian; the last with
numerous swans. The boundary on one side, is
a cultivated slope ; on the other, the lofty front of
Cannock Wood, clothed with heath, or shaded
with old oaks, scattered over its glowing bloom
by the free hand of nature.

It is more difficult to enumerate the works of art



SHUGBOROUGH. 91

dispersed over this Elysium ; they epitomize those
of so many places. The old church of Cohvich ;
the mansion of the antient English baron, at
JFolsely Hall; the great-windowed mode of build-
ing in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, in the house
of Ingestre ; the modern seat in Oak-edge ; and
the lively improved front of Shugborough; are
embellishments proper to our own country.
Amidst these arise the genuine architecture of
China, in all its extravagance; the dawning of
the Grecian, in the mixed gothic gateway at Tival;
and the chaste buildings of Athens, exemplified
by Mr. Stuart, in the counterparts of the Chora-
gic monument of Lysicrates% and the octagon
tower of Andronicus Cyrrhestes f . From the
same hand arose, by command of a grateful bro-
ther, the arch of Adrian of Athens, embellished
with naval trophies, in honor of Lord Anson, a
glory to the British fleet ; and who still survives
in the gallant train of officers who remember and
emulate his actions. My much-respected friend,
the late Thomas Anson, Esquire, preferred the
still paths of private life, and was the best quali-
fied for its enjoyment of any man I ever knew ;
for with the most humane and the most sedate
disposition, he possessed a mind most uncom-

c Antiquities of Athens, ch. iv. tab. 1. 3.
The same, ch. Hi. tab. 1. 3.



9S SHUGBOROUGH.

monly cultivated. He was the example of true
taste in this country ; and at the time that he made
his own place a paradise, made every neighbor
partaker of its elegancies. He was happy in his
life, and happy in his end. I saw him about thirty
hours before his death, listening calmly to the me-
lody of the harp, preparing for the momentary
transit from an earthly concert to an union with
the angelic harmonies. The unfinished improve-
ments are carried on with great judgment, by his
worthy nephew and successor George Anson,
Esquire 5 .

Among the great number of statues which em-



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