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action of benediction : another of Hugh de Pate-
shut, who died in 1241, remarkable for having the
stigmata, or marks of our Saviours wounds on the
hands and feet: a- respectful superstition of an-
tient times. Dean Heyzvood is represented in his
habit, and again naked, with the emaciated change
which death occasions.

Here are several monuments within the walls,
of a most frugal nature, having no appearance of
any part but the head and feet. From an inter-
mediate bracket, it is probable some favorite saint
might have been honored with a rich image.

I have a singular drawing of a tomb now lost,
of a knight naked to his waist : his legs and thighs

p Saxon Chr. 51.

L g'



148 ABSURD EPITAPHS.

armed, and at his feet and head a stag's horn ; his
hair long and dishevelled ; a scroll in his hands, as
if he was reading a confession, or act of contri-
tion : across his middle, on his baslet, is his coat
of arms ; which shew him to have been a Stanley.
He is called Captain Stanley, and is said to have
been excommunicated, but to have received fu-
neral rites in holy ground (having shewn signs of
repentance) on condition that his monument should
bear those marks of disgrace. I find a Sir Hum-
phry Stanley of Pipe, who died in the reign of
Henry Nil. who had a squabble with the chapter,
about conveying the water through his lands to
the close. He also defrauded the prebendary of
Stotford of his tithes : so probably this might be
the gentleman who incurred the censure of the
church for his impiety.
Absurd On the floor, near the west door, are two droll

Epitaphs*

epitaphs. " William Roberts of Overbury, some
" time malster in this town (tells you) for the love
" I bore to choir service, I chose to be buried in
" this place. He died Dec r . 16th, 1748."

The other gives you the posthumous grief of a
deceased wife, and the classical knowledge of the
living husband :

K. S. E.
Secunda Horatii Linea'

* O, et presidium et dulce decus meuna.



CHAPTER HOUSE. 149

viz.

Eiizabetka, EZ : Polsted

msestissima conjux r

Quae

obiit ultima dies Mortis, 1712.

In St. Marys chapel is a fragment of singular
sculpture, of two gothic arches : beneath one is a
king sitting, with one hand on a young prince;
beneath the other a monarch also seated.

Till lately, there lay near the north door a
very thick and clumsy tomb-stone, with a cross
fleury on it, and a great knife, resembling those
represented in Montfaucon I. part II. tab. lxv.
as sacrificial. I know of no rites in the Christian
church which required such an instrument ; there-
fore presume it to be a simple chopping knife, and
that the person whom the stone commemorates,
was neither more nor less than a butcher. These
modest acknowlegements are not unfrequent: I
have seen a deceased shearer denoted by his
shears, and a taylor by his goose.

C/H A PTF R

On the part of the south choral aile is the chap- House.
ter-house, which is approached through a passage
with gothic arched seats on its side. The room is
an octagon, consisting of two long and six shorter

r A wag translated these two words in a similar epitaph on
a lady who did not make the best of wives, thus a most sad
wife indeed!



150 THE CLOSE. WATER.

sides, ornamented with arches, like the approach ;
but the lost pillars, instead of being restored, are
now supplied with an uniform plaister, supported
in the center by a clustered column. Above is a
library, instituted by Dean Heywood, containing
some valuable books and manuscripts.
The Close. The close, or surrounding space, is built on
three sides. The palace, originally founded by
Bishop Langton, was rebuilt in a very handsome
manner by Bishop Hacket. The deanry, destroyed
in the civil wars, was restored after the restora-
tion.

In the hall of the antient palace was painted
the life and most memorable transactions of Ed-
wa?'d I. and his officers ; among which were the
valiant deeds of Sir Roger de Pulesdon against my
countrymen \

The prebendal houses are built around the
close. The whole property of which is in the
church, except two houses on the south side,
bordering on the pool, which, before the present
causeways were made, were granted to the city,
that the inhabitants might have landing-places, and
access to the cathedral ; which in old times had a
.vast concourse of devotees to the shrine of St.
Chad.
Water. This precinct is supplied with water from

* Efdeswik.



MEMBERS OF THE CHURCH. 151

Maple Hay, about a mile and a half to the north;
two fountains having been bestowed on the church'
by Thomas Bromley, for ever, on the annual pay-
ment of 15.?. 4td. I find that this donation was
made before 1293; for in that year a dispute
arose between the dean and chapter, and Thomas
de Abbenhale, about the passage of the water
through his lands r .

The whole close is of exempt jurisdiction, and Members of
quite independent of the city, Its members are,
a dean, precentor, chancellor, and treasurer, who
have prebends annexed to their offices. There
are twenty-seven other prebends, of which that of
Eccleshal is annexed to the bishoprick. Out of
these thirty-one, the dean and four more are stiled
canons residentiary ; which four are chosen out of
the prebendaries and dignitaries. Here are twelve
minor canons : five of whom are called priest-
vicars ; the other seven, lay-vicars, or singing-
men. Both these were formerly collegiated, and
had their hall and houses. That of the priest-
vicars is a handsome room, rebuilt, and usually
lent for the purposes of assemblies, and other
amusements. A new house also stands on the
ground once occupied by the house of the cho-
risters : before it stood, within memory, a very

* Mr. Greene's MSS,



1.52 S T - MARY'S. ST- MICHAEL.

pretty gate, which formed the entrance ; on which
was inscribed Domus Choristes.

Besides these members, are an organist, two
vergers, a sacrist, and sub-sacrist. It is remarka-
ble, that the four archdeacons have here no stalls,
as is usual in all other cathedrals.
St. Mary's. The other churches are that of St. Mary, re-
built since the year 1716, when, the body being
ruinous, its fine spire steeple was unnecessarily
pulled down. In the time of Edxvard III. a re-
ligious guild was instituted, and after that much
promoted by Dean Heyxcood. Five priests be-
longed to this society, who officiated in the
church u . It is a vicarage, in the gift of the dean.
St. Mi- St. Michael, or Greenhill, is on an eminence

CHAEL. .

east of the town ; remarkable for its extensive
church-yard. This, and that of Stow, or St.
Chad's, are curacies dependent on St. Marys.
St. Chad is reckoned the oldest of the churches of
this city. In its north end formerly stood the
shrine - of St. Catherine, whose chauntry-priest
had his stipend from the vicars-choral of the ca-
thedral. Near it is the well of the saint, where
he had his first oratory; which in antient times
was much frequented by devotees.

Grey The grey friars had a house here, founded

Friers.

Lefond It in. iv. 117.



GREY FRIARS. TOMB-STONE. 15S

about 1229, by Bishop Alexander, who gave
certain free burgages, on which it was erected.
It was destroyed by fire in 1291, but rebuilt in
the thirty-sixth of Henry VIII. It was granted
to Richard Crumblethorn. At present, both house
and land support an hospital at Seal, in Leicester-
shire. The water which now supplies the city,
was granted on St. James s day, in 1301, by
Henry Campanarius, son of Michael de Lichfield,
bell-founder. Henry gave his fountains at Foul-
xvel, near Alreschaxo, in pure and perpetual alms
to the friars of this house, with power to cover
them with a head of stones, and of carrying the
pipes through his land, on condition that, when-
ever they wanted repair, the friars were to indem-
nify him and his heirs for the damage done to the
ground. Several parts of the house are yet stand-
ing, and form a pleasant and comfortable habita-
tion. In digging near it, was found a large tomb-
stone, with a cross fleury, surrounded by a sin-
gular inscription, to the following purpose :

Ricardus mercator victus morte noverca
Qui cessat mercari pausat in hac ierarca.
Extulit ephebus paucis vivendo diebus
Ecclesiam rebus ditat variis speciebus,
Vivat ut in Ccelis nunc mercator Michaelis.

" Richard the merchant here extended lies,

" Death, like a step-dame, gladly clos'd his eyes.



154, ST. JOHN'S HOSPITAL.

** No more he trades beyond the burning zone,

" But happy rests beneath this sacred stone.

" His benefactions to the church were great j

* Though young, he hasten' d from his mortal state.

" May he, though dead in trade, successful prove,

" Saint Michael's merchant in the realms above."

The stone is still to be seen there. A figure of it
was sent to the Gentleman s Magazine, by Mr.
Greene, in this city. The inscription and transla-
tion are copied from the same magazine : the latter
appearing to me to be equally faithful and inge-
nious.
Hospital of 'A little beyond, stands the hospital of St.
St. John. j onrif consisting of a master and twelve poor bre-
thren. The master is a clergyman, who has a good
house and stipend for superintending the charity,
and reading daily prayers in the chapel belonging
to it. The founder is uncertain. We only know
that William Smith, while bishop of Lichfield, in
the time of Henry VII. formed here a new foun-
dation for a master, two priests, and ten poor
men. Henry patronized the charity, and endowed
it with the old hospital of Denhal, and the lands
and impropriation of Burton church, both in
Wiral, in Cheshire. Smith also founded the
grammar-school in this city x .

Among other things worthy of attention in this

x Ldandltin. iv. 117.



LICHFIELD CITY. 155

city, is the cabinet of curiosities, antient, natural,
and artificial, in .the possession of Mr. Green 7 ,
surgeon. It contains numbers of most valuable
and instructive pieces in each class. A visit to
my worthy friend is the more agreeable, as he
takes great pleasure in gratifying the curiosity of
all that favor him with their company.

The city is divided from the close by a large ClTY -
piece of water, of which there were originally
three; at present remain only this and another,
called Stoicpool, a little to the east. Bishop
Langton made the causeway, bridges, and dams,
at each end of the pool. Before that, the great
road went round Stozcpool, near Stoiv church.
The city is neat and well built; contains little
more than three thousand souls 2 ; is a place of
great passage, has a considerable manufacture of
sail cloth, and a small manufacture of saddle-
cloths and tammies.

It was originally governed by a guild and guild- jj ow G0-
master; which were the origin of corporations,
and took rise before the time of the Conquest;
the name being Saxon, signifying a fraternity,
which unites and flings its effects into a common

y Mr. Green died in 1793. His cabinet has been dispersed
6ince his decease. Ed.

. z In the Census of 1801 the population is stated at 4512.
V.o.



VliRNED.



156 LICHFIELD DISTRICT.

stock, and is derived from Gildan, to pay*. A
guild was a public feast, to commemorate the
time of the institution; and the guild-hall the
place in which the fraternity assembled : these (at
lest after the Conquest) paid fines to the crown,
and formed part of its revenue. Richard I.
enabled it to purchase lands to the value of ten
pounds ; but it was not chartered till the reign of
Edward VI. who formed it into a regular corpora-
tion by its first charter. This was confirmed by
Queen Mary and Elizabeth; and Charles II.
granted a new one, confirming all the others.

This city is governed by a recorder, high
steward, sheriff, two bailiffs, a town-clerk, and
coroner. One of the bailiffs is elected by the
bishop ; the others to be elected annually by and
out of the brethren which form the corporation.
The city has the power of life and death within its
jurisdiction; a court of record, and a pie-powder k
court, which regulated the disputes arising in
fairs.
District. The district of the city and county of Lichfield
is called the sheriff's ride, and lies at unequal

* Spebnan, 260. Rennet's Gloss, to Paroch. Antiq.

b So called from pieds poudreaux, or dusty feet, because
country people usually come with dusty shoes to fairs. See
Doctor Pettingal's able dissertation on the word, Archaol.
i. 190



LICHFIELD CASTLE. 157

distances around. In this the corporation has ex-
clusive jurisdiction.

This city sent representatives in the thirty- Members.
third of Edwardl. ; the fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh,
and twentieth ofEdzvardll. ; and first, fourteenth,
and twenty-seventh of Edward III. ; from whose
reign they were discontinued, till that of Edzvard
VI c . The members are returned by the sheriff
and bailiffs. The right of electing is in the free-
men by servitude; in the burgage-holders, or such
who live in the town and pay a small acknow-
legement to the corporation; and in the free-
holders of forty shillings a year, within the sheriff's
ride.

Lichfield is quite an open town : all the traces
of the ditches made by Bishop Clinton are lost, as
well as of the tower, on which he is said to have
bestowed such great expence d . The name only of
Castle Ditch, in the east part of the town, pre- astle.
serves its memory. Probably in this fortress
Richard II. kept his sumptuous Christmas, in
1397, when he consumed two hundred tuns of
wine, and two thousand oxen e ; but with more
certainty we know that it was his place of confine-
ment, in his road to the tower of London, in 1 399,

c Willis's Notitia Parliam, iii. 50.

d Goodwin, 367. c Stoiv's Ckr. 318.



158 WALL. LOWS.

a captive prince. The unhappy Richard here at-
tempted his escape, by slipping from the window
of the high tower into a garden ; but being seen,
was carried back to his imprisonment f .
Etocet R Wdlte, the antient Etocetum, lies about a mile
and a half from Lichfield, on the Wat ling-street
road, on a rising ground. There are still some
remains of the walls to be seen, mixed with roots
of some very old ash-trees. Coins and tiles evince
it to have been the Roman Etocetum, as well as its
distance from Pennocrucium, a place somewhere
on the river Penh, not far from Penkridge ; but
the site not well ascertained. The Watling-street
road enters the county near Tamworth, and is con-
tinued into Shropshire, as far as Wroxeter. Near
Wall, another Roman road crosses it ; and at the
intersection is an exploratory mount, about
forty feet in diameter, called Offlo, in sight of
Borough Cop, near Lichfield, on which the mar-
tyrdom of the thousand Christians, in the tenth
persecution, is said to have happened. This is
asserted by John Ross, a Warxvickshire antiquary,
who died in 1491, near twelve hundred years after
the event ; which he alone relates.
Lows. These lows, which have the same signification

as laws in Scotland, and mean a mount, and

f Stow's Chr. 322.



WHITTINGTON. ELFORD. 159

placed here in sight of one another, were usually
designed as exploratory, and for the repetition of
signals ; and sometimes were sepulchral.

I made one day an excursion; passed through
Whittington, a village with a church and spire-
steeple, about two miles N. E. of Lichfield;
thence proceeded through Fisherwick park g , a fine
seat of the Earl of Donegal, built from a design
of Mr. Browns: the grounds bounded by the
Tame, a beautiful river. Elford church, village,
and house h , the seat of the late Earl of Suffolk,
form a pretty groupe of objects on the opposite
bank. I forded the river, and went by Elford
Low, a verdant mount, which Doctor Plot proved,
from examination, to have been sepulchral ; but,
from its situation and elevation, I suspect it
might have had on it a specula, or watch-tower.

Elford, before the Conquest, was possessed by Elford.
Earl Algar ; after which the Conqueror himself
seized on it for his own use. About Henry the
Third's reign, William of Arderne was lord of it,

Fisherwick has recently been purchased by Richard How-
ard, Esq. and the noble mansion is now (1810) in a state of
demolition for the value of the materials. Ed.

h On the death of Lady Andover, daughter-in-law to the
Earl of Suffolk, Elford devolved on her daughter Frances, wife
to Richard Bagot, Esq. who assumed the name of Howard.
Ed.



IfiO ELFORD CHURCH.

and his posterity was seised of it till the marriage
of Maud, sole heiress of Sir John Ardeme, with
Thomas, second son of Sir John Stanley, of
Latham, Knight; he dying in 1463, the 6th of
Edward IV. Margaret, his daughter, conveyed
it by marriage to the Stantons : by the same means
it passed from the Stantons to the Smiths ; from
the Smiths to the Hudd lesions ; and from the
Huddlestons to the Bowes. So very rapid was the
change of family in this place ! It continued with
the Borves four or five generations ; but, about the
end of the seventeenth century, became the property
of the Honorable Craven Howard, by marriage with
Mary, daughter of George Bozves, Esquire : and
continued in his posterity (the Earls of Suffolk) till
the death of the late able and honest peer ; when
it devolved to his sister, the Honorable Frances
Hoxcard.
Church. In the church are several fine monuments, in
the antient stile.

In the north wall is a painted figure, with
curled hair, gown down to his knees, buskins on
his legs, sword, gold chain, his hands closed, and
a ring on his thumb.

An alabaster tomb of an Ardeme, in a conic
helmet, mail round his neck, chin, and shoulders,
and a collar of S S : one of his hands clasps that



ELFORD CHURCH. 161

of his wife, who has on a rich pearl bonnet, a
cloak, and gown. Around the tomb are various
figures, in the dress of the times.

Sir William Smith, who died in 1500, lies
armed, has a collar of SS, and is represented
beardless. He lies between his two wives : Isabel,
in long hair and a coronet, daughter of John
Nevil Marquis of Montacute, brother to the great
Earl of Warwick ; and Anne, daughter of William
Stanton, by whom he acquired this place. Monks,
and coats of arms, surround the tomb : the first, to
express his piety ; the last, to gratify the vanity of
survivors.

Sir John Stanley, son of Thomas Stanley and
Maud Arderne, lies under an arch, with both
hands supplicatory, in armor, with a mail muffler.
His head rests on a helm, with the Eagle and
Child, the cognizance of the Stanleys.

Under another arch is his eldest son, a child
with curled hair, and in a long gown, recumbent:
one hand points to his ear; the other holds a
ball, the unfortunate instrument of his death ; on
which was inscribed Ubi dolor ibi digitus.

About two miles further, in a place called
Ejford Park Farm, I observed a barrozo which is
small, and evidently sepulchral. There had pro-
bably been a battle on this spot during the hep-

M



162



CROXAL CHURCH. CLIFTON.



Croxal
Church



tarchy: whether between Saxons and Danes, or
two Saxon princes, is uncertain.

Croxal church stands on an eminence. Within
are two tombs, with the figures of an armed man
and his wife, curiously engraven on each. One
commemorates John Horton, of Cat on, and his
spouse, Anne, daughter of John Curzon, of this
place. He died in the year 1500. His name is
expressed in form of a rebus ; the word Hor cut
upon a tun.

The other tomb is of George Curzon, Esquire,
and his wife Catharine, who died in 1605. By
the marriage of their only daughter Mary, to the
famous Sir Edward Sacboille Earl of Dorset, it
was conveyed to that noble family, in which it
still remains. The Curzons had been possessed
of it ever since the reign of Henry I.

Pass by Hazelar hamlet and chapel. The last
is prebendal, and at present converted into a pig-
stye. Ride for some time by the side of the little
river Mease, the boundary, in this part, between
Staffordshire and Derbyshire. A little further is
Clifton, the village and church of Clifton, usually called
Clifton Camville, from a family of that name, who
possessed it from the year 1 200, or the second of
King John, to about the year 1315. The spire of
the church is extremely elegant, joined to the



THORP. 163

tower by flying buttresses. In the church is a
tomb, with the effigies of Sir John Vernon of Har-
leston, in this neighborhood, and Dame Allen, his
wife. He is dressed in a long bonnet and gown,
with a chain from his neck, as usual with people
of worship; for he had been one of the king's
counsel, and custos rotulorim of the county of"
Derby. His wife is dressed in a square hood, with
a purse, knife, and beads by her side. They died
in 1545.

Visit Thorp Constantine, a small church close Thorp.
to the seat of my matrimonial relation William
Inge \ Esquire, who deservedly bears the respect-
able and useful character of being the best justice
of any country gentleman in England. The living
is in his gift, and the whole parish his property.
The manor once belonged to the see of Ely ; for
it appears that Hotham, bishop of that diocese, in
1316, obtained for it a charter of free warren.

Henry Lord Scrope, favorite of Henry V. be-
headed for his ungrateful plot against his master,
left to this church a vestment worth Q6s. Sd.
on condition that the priest should pray for his
soul on Sundays, and in all his masses. His will,
made before his treason was discovered, was a
curious piece of hypocrisy \

1 William Inge, Esq. died in 1785. En.
k Rymer's Foedera, ix. 275.

M 2



164 SEKINDON. TAMWORTH.

I continued this little ramble to Sekindon, a
mile distant, on the edge of Warwickshire, re-
markable for a lofty artificial mount, the keep of
a Savon castle, with a flat area beneath ; at the
bottom are the remains of a great rampart, and the
whole surrounded with a deep ditch. This place
is celebrated for the battle between Ethelbald,
king of the Mercians, and Cuthred, king of the
West Saxons, in 755 \ when Ethelbald, disdain-
ing flight, was slain by Beonred, one of his own
officers, who, for a short time, usurped the
kingdom.

Tamworth. About four miles farther lies Tamxvorth, be-
tween the conflux of the Tame and the Ankor,
which formed at this place the appearance of an
island ; its Saxon name being Tameneordige and
Tamanweorthe ; ige signifying an island. It had
long been the residence of the Mercian princes, who
preferred it on account of its pleasant situation, and
the quantity of woodland, which afforded them
in plenty the pleasures of the chase. Off a dates
a grant, in 781, to the monks of Worcester, from

A royal re- jjg r0 y a i palace at Tamworth. Ceonulf. Bern-

SIDENCE. J r ,j >

wulf, and Burthred, date other charters, in the
years 814, 841, and 854, from the same place".
The precinct of their residence was an enormous

1 Saxon Chr. 59. m Brompton, 769. Ingulphus, 853.
n Dugdalt's Wancicksh. ii. 1 130. Plot's Staffordsh. 410.



TAMWORTH. 165

ditch, forty-five feet wide, protecting the town on
the north, west, and east ; the rivers serving as a
defence on the other side. The ditch is filled up
in many places, yet still there are vestiges of it,
and also of two mounts, on which probably stood
two small towers.

Tamworth was totally ruined by the jncursions Ruined by
of the Danes; at length it was restored by the Re S e TO redby
celebrated Ethelfleda, who, in the spring of 913, Ethelfleda.
erected a tower on the artificial mount on which
the present castle stands. Here, in 920, she
finished her glorious life, and in 922 she received,
I may say, posthumous honors, by the assemblage
of the Mercian tribes she had conquered, who,
with the princes of North Wales, here acknow-
leged the sovereign power of her brother Ed-
ward* ', probably obtained by her valour and
prudence.

The town, or borough, as it was called on the
Conquest, continued part of the royal demesne,
but was afterwards set at a certain rent to the
lords of the castle ; the first of whom, after that
event, was Robert Marmion, one of the followers Marmions.
of the Conqueror, on whom it was bestowed.
His posterity remained masters of it for some
generations, holding of the crown in capite } by the

Saxon Chr. 10*. p The same, 110.



166



TAMWORTH.



service of finding three knights at their own costs,
for forty days, in the wars of Wales.

On the death of Philip Marmion, in 1291,
the twentieth of Edward I. this fortress descended
to his eldest daughter Joan, wife of William
Mortein ; who dying without issue, it fell three
years after, by agreement among the co-heirs, to
Joan, a relation of Philip Marmion, and wife of

Freviles. Alexander Frevile. The Freviles by this means



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