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that Side which was thought moft favourable
to the Principles of the Devolution ; yet it was
without Bitternefs or Vehemence, without ever
departing the Decency of his Profeffion,
the Dignity of his Station, or the Charity
prefcribed by his Religion. On the contrary,
along with the trueft Affection to the Govern-
ment, (though he was then under the Dif-
pleafure of the Court) he preferved at the fame
Time fo much good Temper and good Will
towards the oppollte Party ; took fuch un-
wearied Pains to foften the violent Prejudices
conceived againft them by the Administration ;
and fhewed on all proper Occafions fo cordial
and friendly a Concern for the Welfare and
Honour of the whole Univerfity; that they, who
moft difliked his political Tenets, could not
help acknowledging his Candour and Mode-
ration. The fame prudent Condud: in this
Refpedt which he obferved himfelf, he recom-
mended to his Clergy in that memorable PalTage
towards the Conclufion of his fifth Charge, *
which ftruck the Hearers by its Novelty and

* Page 197

d 4 Pro-

xl Life of Archblfoop S E c K E R .

Propriety at the Time in a very remarkable
Manner, and is well worthy the ferious Perufal
of all who happen to be in iimilar Circum-
fiances. Indeed the whole Series of thofe
excellent Charges, which he delivered in the
Courfe of his governing that Diocefe, were
liftened to by a very learned and critical Au-
dience with peculiar Marks of Attention and
Regard. The firft of them, which contains
Directions for regulating the Studies, the Tem-
per, and general Conduct of the Clergy, was
printed foon after it was fpoken, and palled
through feveral Editions. Having in this con-
fidered them as Miniflers of the Gofpel at large,
in his fubfequent ones he proceeded to con-
fider them as Ministers of the feveral Parimes
in which they officiated ; and defcended to
more particular Directions, both with Regar4
to the Difcharge of their fpiritual Functions,
and alfo the Care of their Temporalties, their
Incomes, Churches, Lands, and Houfes.

But Words were not the only Perfuafives he
made ufe of. He enjoined no Duty, he im-
pofed no Burthen on thofe under his Jurifdic-
tion, which he had not formerly undergone, or
was not ftill ready, as far as it became him,
p undergo. He preached conflantly in his


Life of Archbifoop S E c K E R . xli
Church at Cuddefden every Sunday Morning,
and read a Lecture on the Catechifm in the
Evening ; (both which he continued to do in
Lambeth Chapel after he became Archbifhop;)
and in every other Refpect, within his own
proper Department, was himfelf that devout,
difcreet, difmterefted, laborious, confcientious
Paflor, which he wifhed and exhorted every
Clergyman in his Diocefe to become.

A Conduct like this could not fail of attract-
ing the Notice and Efteem of all thofe who
wifhed well to the Caufe of Learning and Re-
ligion, in whofe Thoughts he had been long
marked out for the highefl Honours of his
Profeffion. He continued notwithftanding in
the See of Oxford upwards of twenty Years ;
going on that whole Time in the fame even
Courfe of Duty, and enjoying with the higheft
Relifh thofe leifure Hours, which his Retire-
ment at Cuddefden fometimes afforded him, for
the Profecution of his favourite Studies. At
Length however his diftinguifhed Merit pre-
vailed over all the political Obftacles to his
Advancement; and placed him, without any
Effort or Application of his own, in that im-
portant Station which he had fhewn himfelf
fp well qualified to adorn. For within a very


xlii Life of Archbifiop SECKER.
few Days after the Death of Archbifhop HUT-
TON, he received a MeiTage from the Duke of
Nt-wcaftky acquainting him that his Grace had
propofed him to the King for the vacant See
of Canterbury. He returned the Duke a fhort
Note of Thanks, expreffing at the fame Time
his Wifhes that his Majefty might fix on a pro-
perer Perfon. Soon after this his Grace deiired
an Interview with the Bimop, at which he in-
formed his Lordmip that the King had ap-
pointed him Archbifhop. This Promotion ac-
cordingly took Place, and he was confirmed at
Bow-Church, April 21, 1758.

In accepting this high and burthen fome Sta-
tion Dr. SEOKER a&ed on that Principle which
influenced him through Life ; he facrificed his
own Eafe and Comfort toConfiderations of pub-
lic Utility. Apart from this, the mere fecular
Advantages of Grandeur were Objects below his
Ambition ; were, as he knew and felt, but poor
-Compenfations for the Anxiety and Difficulties
'attending them, His Idea of thefe Things was
always the fame with that which is exprelTed in
his intended Speech to the Convocation of 1 76 1 ;
" Non funt, experto credite, non funt tanti vel
" honores vel reditus ampliffimi Ecclefiafticis
" deilinati, ut a quopiam enixe cupiantur.

S( Multum

Life of Archbijhop SECKER. xliii
" Multum habent folicitudinis, non parum
fs forfan invidias, vera deledtationis nihil, nifi
" quoties occurrit, occurrit autem raro, infig-
*< nis benefaciendi occafio -j-." Thefe were
not mere Words of Courfe ; they were the
genuine Sentiments of his Heart -, his whole
Conduct bore TefUmony to the Sincerity with
which he fpoke. He had never once through
his whole Life afked Preferment for himielf,
nor hewn any unbecoming Eagernefs for it;
and the Ufe he made of his newly acquired
Dignity very clearly {hewed, that Rank, and
Wealth, and Power had in no other Light
any Charms for him, than as they enlarged
the Sphere of his active and induftrious Bene-

The firil: Thing that engaged his Attention
was the Care of his new Diocefe, which he
immediately vifited. And finding that partly
the real, and partly the prefumed, Unwhole-
fomenefs of fome Parts of it had deterred too
many from living on their Benefices, he made
this the firft Article of his Charge, and prefled
the Neceffity of Refidence upon his Clergy, in
the ftrongeft, yet moft affectionate Terms f .

f Oratio Synodalis, P. 368, 369.

| Firft Charge to the Diocefe of Canterbury, p. 207219.


xliv Life of Archbifliop S E c K E R .
But whenever particular Circumftances ren-
dered the perfonal Prefence of the Minifter him-
felf clearly impracticable, he then earnestly
recommended peculiar Care in the Choice of a
Subftitute ; and fo much Tendernefs and Libe-
rality in the Proviiion made for him as might
be fome Compenfation for the Unhealthinefs or
Difagreeablenefs of his Situation *. Yet as
this would, he knew, bear hard on fome Incum-
bents, whofe fmall Preferments, or narrow Cir~
cumftances, or numerous Families obliged them
to obtain Help on ag eafy Terms as they
well could -, in fuch Cafes he frequently made
an Addition himfelf to the Curate's Salary, and,
as a ftill further Encouragement, rewarded
occafionally with Preferment, thofe who had
refided long upon their Cures, and performed
their Duty well; efpecially in unwholefome

In little more than two Years after his Grace's
Promotion to the See of Canterbury, died the
late King GEORGE the Second. Of what paffed
on that Occafion, and of the Form obferved
in proclaiming our prefent moft gracious Sove-
reign, (in which the Archbimop of Courfe

* Fir ft Charge to the Dioccfe of Canterbury, P. 219 222.

5 took

Life of Archbifoop S E c K E R . ~xl v
took the Lead) his Grace has left an Account
in Writing. He did the fame with regard o
the fubfequent Ceremonials of marrying /. $
crowning their prefent Majefties, which *4
Confequence of his Station he had the Honour
to folemnize, and in which he found a great
Want of proper Precedents and Directions.
He had before, when Rector of St. James s,
baptized the new King, (who was born in that
Parifh) and he was afterwards called upon to
perform the fame Office for the greateft Part of
his Majefly's Children; a remarkable, and per-
haps unexampled, Concurrence of fuch Inci-
dents in the Life of one Man.

From the Time that he was made Dean of
St. Paul's, his late Majefty ufed to fpeak to
him. at his Levee occafionally, but with no
particular Marks of D inunction. But after he
became Archbihop, the King treated him with
much Kindnefs, and on one Occasion was
pleafed to aflure him very particularly, that he
was perfectly fatisfied with the Whole of his
Conduct in that Station. And furely his Ma-
jefty, as well as all his People, had good Rcafon
to be fo. For never did any one fupport the
Rank, or difcharge the various Duties, of a
Metropolitan, with more true Dignity, Wifdom,


xlvi Life of Arcbbtfhop S E c K E R .
and Moderation, than Archbifhop SECKER *.
Hf confidered himfelf as the natural Guardian,
* ^ only of that Church, over which he pre-
iided, but of Learning, Virtue, and Religion
at large; and, from the Eminence on which
he was placed, looked round with a watchful
Eye on every Thing that concerned them, em-
bracing readily all fit Opportunities to promote
their Interefts, and oppofing, as far as he was
able, all Attempts to injure them.

Men of real Genius or ex tenfive Knowledge,
he fought out and encouraged. Even thofe of
humbler Talents, provided their Induftry was
great, and their Intentions good, he treated
with Kindnefs and Condefcenfion. Both Sorts
he would frequently employ in Undertakings
fuited to their refpeclive Abilities, and rewarded
them in Ways fuited to their refpeclive Wants.
He afiifted them with Books, promoted Sub-

* Ecqua vero in parte fpem noftram fefellit ? imo vero exfu-
peravit. Sine offeniione pardum, fine ir.vidia, fine ambitione,
ecclefis principatum adeptas, fine arrogantia cum dignitate
vera fuftinuit; magni vir animi, & vere &p%ix,o{, qui poluiam
ecclefiafticam animo compleftebatur, confilio dirigebat, auftcri-
tate tuebatur, exemplo ornabat ; in negotiis impiger & indefeffu.", a fe alienum putabat quod ad clericorum jura, mores,
famamque pertinebat ; auftoritate ita ufus ut nihil pro libidine
aut infolentia imperil aftcitaret, fed omnia ad o/xo^a/xd)/ corn-
.munefque ecclefise utilitates referret, Johannis Burton ad ami -urn
epiftola, P. 14. Printed at Oxford, in 1768, and fold by


Life of Archbijhop S E c K E R . xl vii
fcriptions to their Works, contributed largely
to them himfelf, talked with them on their
private Concerns, entered warmly into their
Interests, ufed his Credit for them with the
Great, gave them Preferments of his own.
He expended upwards of .300. in arranging
and improving the Manufcript Library at Lam-
beth. And having obferved with Concern, that
the Library of printed Books in that Palace
had received no Acceflions fince the Time of
Archbifhop TENNISON, he made it his Buiinefs
to collecl: Books in all Languages from moft
Parts of Europe at a very great Expence, with a
View of fupplying that Chafm; which he accord-
ingly did, by leaving them to the Library at his
Death, and thereby rendered that Collection one
of the nobleft and moft ufeful in the Kingdom.
All Deiigns and Institutions that tended to
advance good Morals and true Religion he
patronized with Zeal and Gen<erofity. He
contributed largely to the Maintenance of
Schools for the Poor, 'to rebuilding or repair-
ing Parfonage Houfes and Places of Worship,
and gave at one Time no lefs than .500
towards erecting a Chapel in the Parifb of Lam-
beth, to which he afterwards added near .100
more. To the Society for promoting Chrif-


xlviii Life of Archbifiop S E c K E R .
tian Knowledge he was a liberal Benefadtor ;
and to that for propagating the Gofpel in
Foreign Parts, of which he was the Prefident,
he paid much Attention ; was conftant at all
the Meetings of its Members, (even fometimes
when his Health would but ill permit it) and
fuperintended their Deliberations with con-
fummate Prudence and Temper. He was iin-
cerely defirous to improve to the utmoft that
excellent Inftitution, and to difFufe the Know-
ledge and Belief of Chriftianity as wide as the
Revenues of the Society, and the extreme
Difficulty of eftablilhing Schools and Miffions
amongft the Indians, and of making any
effectual and durable ImprefTions of Religion
on their uncivilized Minds, would admit. But
Dr. MAYHEW, of Bofton in New-England,
having in an angry Pamphlet accufed the So-
ciety of not fufficiently anfwering thefe good
Purpofes, and of departing widely from the
Spirit of their Charter; with many injurious
Reflections interfperfed on the Church of Eng-
land, and the Defign of appointing Bifliops in
America ; his Grace on all thefe Accounts
thought himfelf called upon to confute his In-
ve&ives, which he did in a fhort anonymous
Piece, entitled, An Anfwer to Dr. MAYHEW'J


Life ef Archbifiop S E c K E R . xlix
Qb/ervations on the Charter and Conduft of the
Society for propagating the Gofpel -, printed for
RIVINGTON in 1764, and reprinted in Atnt-
rica. The Strength of Argument, as well as
Faifnefs and good Temper, with which this
Anfwer was written, had a confiderable Effect
on all impartial Men, and even on the Doctor
himfelf, who plainly perceived that he had
no common Adverfary to deal with; and could
not help acknowledging him to be " a Perfon
" of excellent Senfe, and a happy Talent at
" writing ; apparently free from the fordid
" illiberal Spirit of Bigotry; one of a cool
'* Temper, who often fhewed much Candour,
*' was well acquainted with the Affairs of the
" Society, and in general a fair Reafoner*."
He was therefore fo far wrought upon by his
" worthy Anfwerer -{," as to abate much in his
Reply of his former Warmth and Acrimony.
But as he ftill would not allow himfelf to be
" wrong in any material Point, J" nor forbear
giving Way too much to reproachful Language
and ludicrous Reprefentations, he was again
animadverted upon by Mr, AP THORPE, in a
fenfible Tract, entitled, A Review of Dr.

* MAYHEW'S Remarks on an anonymous Tradk, fcfr. P. 3.
flbid. P. 85. jlbid. P. 87.


1 Life of Archbifhop S E c K E R .

MAYHEW'S Remarks, &c. printed alfo for
RIVINGTON, in 1765. This put an End to
the Difpute. The Doctor on reading it declared
he fhould not anfwer it, and the following
Year he died.

It appeared evidently in the Courfe of this
Controverfy, that Dr. MAYHEW, and probably
many other worthy Men amongfr. the Diffen-
ters both at home and abroad, had conceived
very unreafonable and groundlefs Jealoiifies of
the Church of England, and its Governors; and
had in particular greatly mifunderftood the
Propofal for appointing Bifhops in fome of the
Colonies. The chief Reafons for defiring an
Eftablimment of this Nature, were, the Want
of Perfons vefted with proper Authority, to
adminifter to the Members of the Church of
England the antient and 1 ufeful Office of Con-
firmation ; to fuperintend the Conduct of the
epifcopal Clergy; and to fave Candidates for
the Miniftry the Trouble, Coft, and Hazard of
coming to England for Ordination. It was
alledged, that the Expence of croffing the
Atlantic for that Purpofe could not be lefs than
jT. 100. that near a fifth Part of thofe who
took that Voyage had actually loft their Lives ;
and that,' in Confequence of thefe Difcourage-


Life of Archbijhop S E c K E R . li

ments, one Half of the Churches in feveral
Provinces were deftitute of Clergymen. Com-
mon Humanity, as well as common Juftice,
pleaded ftrongly for a Remedy to thefe Evils ;
and there appeared to be no other effectual
Remedy but the Appointment of one or more
Bimops in fome of the epifcopal Colonies.
The Dangers and Inconveniences, which the
Diff enters feemed to apprehend from that Mea-
fure, were thought to be effectually guarded
againft by the Mode of Appointment which
was propofed. What that Mode was, may be
feen in the following Extract from the Arch-
bifhop's Anfwer to Dr. MAYHEW, in which
he explains concifely and clearly the only Plan
for fuch an Eftabiimment that was ever meant
to be carried into Execution.

" The Church of England is, in its Con-
" ftitution, epifcopal. It is, in fome of
" the Plantations, confefTedly the eftablifhed
" Church : in the reft are many Congrega-
" tions adhering to it ; and through the late
" Extenfion of the Brltifi Dominions, it is
" likely that there will bfe more. All Members
" of every Church are, according to : the Prin-
" ciples of Liberty, entitled to every Part of
" what they Conceive to be the 'Benefits of it,
e 2 ec entire

Hi Life of Arckbifoop SECKER.

" entire and complete, fo far as confifts with the
" Welfare of civil Government. Yet the Mem-
" bers of our Church in America do not thus
" enjoy its Benefits, having no Proteftant Bi-
" fhop within three thoufand Miles of them >
" a Cafe which never had its Parallel before
" in the Chriftian World. Therefore it is
" defired that two or more Bifhops may be
" appointed for them, to refide where his Ma-
" jefty fhall think moft convenient > that they
" may have no Concern in the leaft with any
' Perfons who do not profefs themfelves to be
*' of the Church of England, but may ordain
'* Minifters for fuch as do ; may confirm their
*' Children when brought to them at a fit Age
" for that Purpofe ; and take fuch Overfight of
" the epifcopal Clergy, as the Bifhop of Lon-
" dons Commiiraries in thofe Parts have been
" empowered to take, and have taken without
" Offence. But it is not defired in the lead
" that they mould hold Courts to try matri-
" monial or teftamentary Caufes ; or be veiled
" with any Authority now exercifed, either by
" provincial Governors, or fubordinate Magif-
c< trates ; or infringe or diminifh any Privi-
<f leges and Liberties, enjoyed by any of the
" Laity, even of our own Communion. This

" is

Life of Archbljhop S E c K E R . liii

" is the real and the only Scheme that hath
" been planned for Bifhops in America ; and
*' whoever hath heard of any other, hath been
" mifmformed through Miftake or Defign *."
And as to the Place of their Refidence, his
Grace further declares, " that it neither is, nor
*' ever was intended or defired to fix one in
*' New-England -, but epifcopal Colonies have
" always been propofed }".

The Doctor on reading this Account con-
fefled J, that if it were the true one, " he had
" been miiinformed himlelf, and knew of others
" who had been fo in common with him ; and
" that if fuch a Scheme as this were carried into
*' Execution, and only fuch Confequences were
*' to follow, as the Propofer had profefledly in
(f View, he could not object againft it, except
" on the fame Principle that he mould objcdt
" againfl the Church of England in general ."

As it came however from an unknown Wri-
ter, he thought himfelf at Liberty to confider
it as Nothing more than the imaginary Scheme of
a private Man, till it was confirmed by better
Authority ||. It now appears to have come from
the beft Authority, and it is certain that this

* Anfwer to MAY HEW, .P. 59. f It. 66. J Remarks on
1'raft, &C. P. 59. - Ib. P. 79. j] lb- P. 61.

e -J Mode

liv Life of Arcbbifiop S E c K E R . -

Mode of eftablifhing Bifhops in America, was
not invented merely " to ferve a prefent
Turh", being precifely the fame with that
propofed by Bimop BUTLER twenty Years
ago * ; and with that mentioned by his Grace,
in his Letter to the Right honourable HORATIO
WALPOLE Efquire, written when he was Bi-
mop of Oxford, and publifhed fmcehis Death -f-
by his Executors, Mrs. CATHERINE TALBOT,
and Dr. DANIEL BURTON ; in which the
whole Affair isfet in a right Point of View, his
own Sentiments upon it more fully explained,
and an Anfwer given to the chief Objections
againfl fuch a Propofal.

It is not neceifary to enter here into the
Merits of this Queftion. It is before the Pub-
lic, and every one is enabled to judge for him-
felf. But thus much, it is prefumed, may
fafely be inferred from the Account here given of
it j (which is the true one j) that the mere Pro-
pofal of fuch an Appointment, or rather the
Encouragement of what had been long before
propofed, is not a Crime of quite fo unpardon-
able a Nature, as the Archbifhop's Adverfaries
have .been pleafed to reprefent it. Poilerity will

Remarks on an anonymtus Frafl, -&c. P. 6 1 .

* SeeAPTHORpE's Review of Dr. MATHKW'S Remarks, P. 55.

* In the Year 1769 ; and fold by RIVINGTON.


Life of Archbifhop S E c K E R . Iv

ftand amazed, when they are told, that on thus
Account his Memory has been purfued in Pam-
phlets and News-papers with fuch unrelenting
Rancour, fuch unexampled Wantonnefs of
Abufe, as he would fcarce have deferved, had
he attempted to eradicate Chriftianily out of
America, and to introduce Mahometanifm in its
Room : whereas, the plain Truth is, that ali
he wifhed for, was Nothing more than what the
very beil Friends to religious Freedom ever have
wifhed for, a complete Toleration for the Church
of England in that Country. What an Idea
muft it give Mankind of his Grace's Character
to have fuch a Circumftance fingled out by his
bitterefl Revilers as the moil exceptionable Part
of it!

But though the Archbithop was a fmcereand
avowed Friend to that Meafure, yet it was by
no Means the only or the principal Object of his
Concern in Regard to the Colonies. The
Advancement of true Piety and Learning, the
Converfion of the Indians and Negroes, as far
as it was practicable, the Eflablimment of pro-
per Schools, the Distribution of ufeful Books,
the good Conduct of the Miffionaries, the
Prefervation of Peace and Harmony amongft
the different religious Communities in thofe
e 4 Parts

Ivi Life cf Archbifiop S E c K E R ,
Parts of the Eritifl Empire ; thefe Things had
a very large Share in his Thoughts, and in the
Correfpondence which he conflantly kept up
with a few of the ableft and worthieft Men in
the American Provinces. The Letters which he
wrote to them, on thefe and fuch like Subjects,
are highly expreffive of his paftoral Character j
and reprefent in a very pleafing Light his truly
benevolent Difpofition, his Condefcenfion to
Perfons of the loweft Station, his indefatigable
Application to every Affair that came before
him, his Zeal to promote the Interefts of
Religion in general, and the Church of Eng-
land in particular; not by warm and violent
Counfels, but by Methods of Tendernefs and
brotherly Kindnefs towards thofe who embraced
a different Intereft. Of thefe Things faz Ame-
ricans will ever retain a grateful Remembrance;
and have, in their Letters to this Country.,
exprefTed their Senfe of his kind Attention to
them in the ftrongeft and rrioft affectionate

Whenever any Publications - came to his
Knowledge thnt were manifeflh calculated to
corrupt good Morals, or fubvert the Founda-
tions of Chriftianity, he did his utmoft to frop
the Circulation of them : yet the wretched


Life of Archbtjhop S E c K E R . Ivii
Authors themfelves he was fo far from wim-
ing to treat with any undue Rigour, that he
has more than once extended his Bounty to
them in Diftrefs. And when their Writings
could not properly be fupprefTed (as was too
often the Cafe) by lawful Authority, he en-
gaged Men of Abilities to anfwer them, and
rewarded them for their Trouble. His Atten-
tion was every where. Even the Falfhoods
and Mifreprefentations of Writers in the News-
Papers on religious or ecclefiaflical Subjects, he
generally took Care to have contradicted $ and
when they feemed likely to injure in any mate-
rial Degree the Caufe of Virtue and Religion, or
the Reputation of eminent and worthy Men,
he would fometimes take the Trouble of
anfwering them himfelf. One Inftance of this
Kind, which does him Honour, and deferves
Mention, was his Defence of Bifhop BUTLER,
who, in a Pamphlet, publifhed in the Year
1767, was accufed of having died a Papifl.
This flrange Slander, founded on the weakeft
Pretences and mod trivial Circumitances that
can be imagined, no one was better qualified
to confute than the Archbifhop 3 as well from
his long and intimate Knowledge of Bifhop
BUTLER, as from the Information given him


Iviii Life of Arcbbijhvp S E c K E R .
at the Time by thofe who attended his Lord-
fhipin his laft Illnefs, and were with him when
he died. Accordingly, by an Article in a
News -Paper,, figned Mifopfeudes, his Grace
challenged the Author of that Pamphlet to
produce his Authority for what he had ad-
vanced 3 and in a fecond Article defended the
Bilhop againfl him ; and in a third (all with the
fame Signature) confuted another Writer, who,
under the Name of A real Proteftant, frill
.maintained that ridiculous Calumny. His Anta-
gonifts were effectually fubdued, and his Supe-

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