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.riority to them was publicly acknowledged by
a fenfible and candid Man, who figned him-
felf, and who really was, A diffenting Minijler.
Sprety, if. is a very unwife Piece of Policy, in
thofe who profefs themfelvcs Enemies to Po-
pery, to take fo much Pains to bring .the moft
rcfpectable Names within its Pale ; and-to give
it the Merit, of having gained over thofe who
werethe brightefl Ornaments and firmeft Sup-
pcn'ts of the proteilant Caufe.

The Welfare, the Credit, the good Influ-
ence of the Clergy he had entirely at Heart,
and fuffered Nothing to efcape his Notice, that
could in any proper Way promote them. He
earneilly endeavoured to prevent unworthy Men


Life of Arcbbtfiop S E C K E R , IbC

from bringing Difgrace on the PtofefTion and
Contempt on Religion, by entering into Orders.
With this View it was that he fo ftrongly re-
commended the greateft Care and Caution in
figning Teilimonials. " They are," fays he *,
" the only ordinary Information that we have
" in a Cafe of the utmoft Importance, where
" we have a Right to be informed. For no
" one can imagine, that we are to ordain who-
" ever comes, or depend on clandefKne In-
" telligence. We mufl therefore, and do de-
" pend on regular Teilimonials, every Part
" of which ought to be confidered before it
" is given, and no Confideration paid to Neigh-
" bourhood, Acquaintance, Friendlhip, Com-
" paflion, Importunity, when they fland in
" Competition with Truth. It may be fome-
" times hard for you to refufe your Hand to im-
" proper Perfons; but it is only one of the many
." Hardships which Confcience bids Men un-
. " dergo refolutely when they are called to them.
" It would be much harder, that your Bimop
" mould be mifled, the Church of God injured,
" and the poor. Wretch himfelf affifted to in-
" vade facrilcgic-ufly an Office, at the Thought

* Firft Charge to the Diocefe of Canterbury, P. 222.


Ix Life of Archbi/hop S E c K E R.

" of which he hath Caufe to tremble J." If any
fuch however had unhappily found Means to
obtain Ordination, he did his utmoft to prevent
their further Progrefs ; or if that could not be
done, very openly fignified his Diflike of their
Conduct j nor could he ever bring himfelf to
treat them, however confiderable their Rank
might be, with any Marks of Eiteem or

Men of Worth and Eminence in the Church
he cherimed and befriended, and endeavoured
to bring forward into Stations where they might
be Angularly ufeful. Above all he diflinguilhed,
with peculiar Marks of his Favour, the con-
fcientious and diligent Parim Prieft. He was
of Opinion, that " the main Support of Piety
" and Morals coniifled in the parochial Labours
" of the Clergy; and that, if this Country could
<c be preferved from utter Profligatenefs and
4t Ruin, it muft be by their Means -f." For
their Afliftance therefore in one important
Branch of their Duty, he gave them in his
third archiepifcopal Charge Directions for
writing and fpeaking Sermons. The Thoughts
of fuch a Man, on fo nice and difficult a Subject,

J Firft Charge to the Diccefe of Canter burj> P. 226.
f Ibid, P. 239.


Life tf Archblfiop S E C K E R . Ixi

muft naturally raife fome Expectation, and that
Expectation will not be difappointed. They
are the evident Refult of a found Judgment,
matured by long Experience and a thorough
Knowledge of Mankind, and are every Way
worthy of one who was himfelf fo great a
Matter of that Species of Competition and
Elocution. It was his Purpofe, after fpeaking
of ftated Inftruclions, to have gone on to occa-
fional ones ; but he did not live, as he himfelf
foreboded he mould not, to accomplim that

The Conduct which he obferved towards the
feveral Divilions and Denominations of Chrif-
tians in this Kingdom, was fuch as fhewed his
Way of thinking to be truly liberal and catholic.
The dangerous Spirit of Popery indeed, he
thought, mould always be kept under proper
legal Reftraints, on Account of its natural
Oppofhion not only to the religious, but the
civil Rights of Mankind. He therefore obferved
its Movements with Care, and exhorted his
Clergy to do the fame, efpecially thofe who
were fituated in the Midft of Roman Catholic
Families ; againfl whofe Influence they were
charged to be upon their Guard, and were fur-
nimed with proper Books, or Inltru<tions for


Ixii Life of Archbfoop S E c K E R .
that Purpofe. He took all fit Opportunities
of combating the Errors of the Church of
Rome in his own Writings * -, and the beft An-
fwers, which were published to fome of the
late bold Apologies for Popery, were written
at his Inftance, and under his Direction . He
had the good Fortune to preferve fome Perfons
of Confequence from embracing that Com-
munion, and to receive feveral Converts from
it, both of the Clergy and Laity, into the
Church of England. When the Earl of Radnor
moved in the Houfe of Lords for anEnquiry into
the Number of Roman Catholics in this King-
dom, his Grace was very active in forwarding
that Meafure. The Return for his own Diocefe
was no more than 271 - y that, for all the Diocefes
in England and Wales, did not exceed 68,000 ;
which, even when all due Allowances are made
for unavoidable Errors of Computation in great
Towns, more efpecially in London, fell far
fhort of what by fome well-meaning Perfons
they were fuppofed or reprefented to be -j~.

- And

* See particularly his Sermons on the. Rebellion in 1745? on
the Proteftant Working-Schools in -Ireland, on the $th of No-
<vember, and a great Number of .occasional PalTag^s to .the fame.
Purpofe, in various Parts of his "Lecture?, Sermons, and other
Works. -

f Dr. MAYHEW affirms, that in the Year 1745 the Papifts in


Life of Archblftop SECKER. Ixiii
And if we further reflect how many wealthy and
noble Families in thefe Kingdoms have lately
embraced the Proteflant Religion, each of
which would probably draw after it feveral
other Converts of inferior Rank, it will appear
perhaps the better grounded Conjecture of the
two, (for it mufi at laft be all Conjecture)
that Popery is rather in a declining than a pro-
greffive State amongfl us. Certain at leaft it is,
that fome late Events on the neighbouring Con-
tinent have fhaken this- huge Fabric of Super-
flition to its very Foundation. One of its
grand Supports, the Society of Jefuits, is, in
many Places, totally fubverted ; and the Papa!
Power itfelf is every where falling into Con-
tempt. One may therefore furely hope, that
Abfurdities which vifibly lofe Ground even in
the moft bigotted Countries, will not ftand
much Chance of retrieving their Lofs in this
enlightened one.

But though thus prudently jealous of this
corrupt Church, towards his Proteflant Bre-

London only were 100,000, and that the People there were faid
to be converted by hundreds and thoufands, if not ten thou-
fands every Ytzr. -Remarks en ari anonymous Traff, &c. P. 75.
Had the good Doftor's Account been true, and thefe Conver-
fions gone on (as fome have imagined) encreafing ever firrcc,
there would hardly have been a Proteitant left by this Time in
the Metropolis.

A thren

Life of Archbiftop S E d K E R *
thren of all Perfuafions he demeaned himfelf
with great Mildnefs and Moderation * One
very ftriking Proof of this occurs in the Di^
reclions he gives his Clergy, with Regard to
their Conduct towards thofe who are com-
monly diftinguifhed by the Name of Me^
thodifls J. It is impoflible to read that PaiTage,
without acknowledging the Juflnefs of it, and
conceiving the higheft Opinion of the Writer's
Philanthropy and good Senfe.

With the Dijfinters his Grace was fincerely
defirous of cultivating a good Understanding.
Though firmly attached to the Church of Eng-
land, and ready on all proper Occafions to
defend its Difcipline and Doctrines with be-
coming Spirit ; yet it never infpired him
with any Defire to opprefs or aggrieve thofe
of a different Way of thinking, or to depart
from the Principles of religious Liberty, by
which he constantly regulated his own Con-
duct ||, and wifhed that all others would
regulate theirs. He conlidered the Proteftant

% Second archiepifcopal Charge, P. 280.

II A ftrong Confirmation of thefe Aflertions may be feen in
one of his Grace's Letters to Dr. LARDNER, written when he
was Bilhop of Oxford, and preferved in the Memoirs of that
karned Man, which have been lately published, P. 98.


Life of ArchuiffjQp S E c K E R . Ixv

Diflenters in general as a confcientious and
valuable Clafs of Men, and was far from tak-
ing the Spirit of certain Writings to be the
Spirit of the whole Body* With fome of
the moft eminent of them, WATTS, DOD-
he maintained an Intercourfe of Friendmip-
or Civility , by the moft candid and con-
fiderate Part of them he was highly reverenced
and efteemed ; and to fiich amongft them as
needed Help, {hewed no lefs Kindnefs and Li-
berality than to thofe of his own Communion.

Nor was his Concern for the Proteflant
Caufe confined to his own Country. He was
well known as the great Patron and Protector
of it in various Parts of Europe -, from whence
he had frequent Applications for Affiftance,
which never failed of being favourably received.
To leveral foreign Proteftants he allowed Pen-
fions, to others he gave occafional Relief, and
to fome of their Uuiveriities was an annual

There is therefore the utmofl: Reafon to be-
lieve that he fpoke the Language of his Heart,
in Relation to thefe Matters, in the Conclufion
of his'Anfwer to Dr. MAVHKW, which well

VOL. I. f deferves

Ixvi 'Life of Archbijhop S E c K E R .
deferves to be here laid at full Length before
the Reader.

" Our Inclination is to live in Friendfhip
" with all the Proteftant Churches. We ami*
*' and protect thofe on the Continent of Europe
ct as well as we are able. We {hew our Re-
" gard to that of Scotland as often as we have
" an Opportunity, and believe the Members
" of it are fenfible that we do. To thofe who
" differ from us in this Part of the King-
" dom, we neither attempt nor wim any In-
<f jury 3 and we mall gladly give Proofs to
" every Denomination of Chriftians in our
" Colonies, that we are Friends to a Tolera-
" tion even of the moil intolerant, as far as it
" is fafe 5 and willing that all Mankind mould
" pofTefs all the Advantages, religious and
" civil, which they can demand either in Law
" or Reafon. But with thofe who approach
'* nearer to us in Faith and brotherly Love,
" we are defirous to cultivate a freer Commu-
*' nication, paffing over all former Difgufls, as
" we beg that they would. If we give them
" any feeming Caufe of Complaint, we hope
'* they will fignify it in the moft amicable
" Manner. If they publilh it, we hope they
" will preferve Fairnefs and Temper. If they

" fail

Life of Arthbifiop S E c K E R . Ixvii
" fail in either we mufh bear it with Patience,
" but be excufed from replying. If any
" Writers on our Side have been lefs cool or
" lefs civil than they ought and deiigned to
" have been, we are forty for it, and exhort
" them to change their Style if they write
" again. For it is the Duty of all Men, how
" much foever they differ in Opinion, to agree
" in mutual Good-will and kind Behaviour *."

This PalTage Dr. M A YHEwhimfelf allows
to be written " in fuch a candid, fenfible, and
" charitable Way, as did the Author great
" Honour, (hewed the amiable Spirit of Chrif-
" tianity in an advantageous Light," and was
worthy the Pen of a Metropolitan, " whofe
" Chriftian Moderation," he acknowledges to
be " not the leaft mining Part of his refpect-
" able Character -f." And it may on the beft
Grounds be added, that Archbifhop SECKER
in this Place not only exprefTed his own real
Sentiments, but thofe of the prefent truly bene-
volent Primate, and of far the greatefl Part in
every Rank of the Englifo Clergy in general.

In public Affairs his Grace acted the Part
of an honeft Citizen, and a worthy Member

* Anfwer toMAYHEw, P. 68. 1

$ MAYHEW'S Remarks on an anonymous Pamphlet, P. 83.

t Ibid. P. 86. v

f 2 Of

Ixviii Life of Archbifoop S E c K E R .
of the Eritijh Legiilature. From his very firil
Entrance into the Houfe of Peers, his par-
liamentary Conduct was uniformly upright
and noble. He kept equally clear from the
two Extremes of factious Petulance and fervile
Dependance j never wantonly thwarting Admi-
niftration, from Motives of Party-Zeal, or
private Pique, or perfonal Attachment, or a
Pamon for Popularity - y nor yet going every
Length with every Minifter, from Views of
Intereft or Ambition. He admired and loved
the Conftitution of his Country, and wimed
to preferve it unaltered and unimpaired. So
long as a due Regard to this was maintained,
he thought it his Duty to fupport the Meafures
of Government. But whenever they were
evidently inconiiilent with the public Welfare,
he oppofed them with Freedom and Firmnefs.
Yet his Oppofition was always tempered with
the utmoft Fidelity, Refpecl:, and Decency, to
the excellent Prince upon the Throne ; and the
moll: candid Allowances for the unavoidable
Errors and Infirmities even of the very beft Mi-
nifters, and the peculiarly difficult Situation of
thofe who govern a free and high-ipiri ted People.
He feldom fpoke in Parliament, except where
thelnterefts of Religion and Virtue feemed to re-

Life of Archbljhop S E c K E R . Ixix
quire it; but wheneverhe did,he fpokewithPro-
priety and Strength, and was heard with Atten-
tion and Deference. Though he never attached
himfelf blindly to any one Set of Men, yet his
chief political Connections were with the late
Duke of NEWCASTLE, and Lord Chancellor
HARDWICKE. To thejfe he principally owed
his Advancement, and he had the good For-
tune to live long enough to mew his Gratitude
to them or their Defcendants, particularly to
the former of them : with whofe Solicitations
though he did not always think it neceffary to
comply, when that Nobleman was at the Head
of Affairs ; yet when he was out of Power, the
Archbifhop readily embraced every Opportunity
of obliging him; and gave him fo many folid and
undeniable Proofs of Friendfhip, that the Duke
always fpoke of his Grace's Behaviour to him in
the ftrongeft Terms of Approbation, and made
particular Mention of it to fome of his Friends
but a very mort Time before his own Death.

During more than ten Years that Dr.
SECKER enjoyed the See of Canterbury, he
relldcd conflantly at his archiepifcopal Houfe
at Lambeth ; as being not only moil commo-
dioufly fituated for his own Studies and Em-
ployments, but for all thofe who on various
f 3 Occafion?

Ixx Life of Archbijhop S E c K E R .
Occafions were continually obliged to have
Recourfe to him. Thefe Reafons weighed with
him fo much, that no Confideration, not even
that of Health itfelf, could ever prevail upon
him to quit that Place for any Length of Time.
A few Months before his Death indeed, the
dreadful Pains he felt had compelled him to
think of trying the Bath Waters j but that
Defign was ftopt by the fatal Accident which
put an End to his Life.

His Grace had been for many Years fubject to
the Gout, which in the latter Part of his Life
returned with more Frequency and Violence, and
did not go off in a regular Manner, but left the
Parts affected for a long Time very weak, and was
fucceeded by Pains in different Parts of the Body.
About a Year and a half before he died, after
a Fit of the Gout, he was attacked with a Pain
in the Arm near the Shoulder, which having
continued about a Twelvemonth, a iimilar Pain
feized .the upper and outer Part of the oppolite
Thigh, and the Arm foon became ealier. This
was much more grievous than the former, as
it quickly difabled him from walking, and
kept him in almoft continual Torment, except
when he was in a reclined Pofition. During this
Time he had two or three Fits of the Gbut ;


Life of Archbijhop S E c K E R . Ixxi

but neither the Gout nor Medicines alleviated
thefe Pains, which, with the Want of Exercife,
brought him into x a general bad Habit of Body.

On Saturday the 3Oth of July, 1768, he was
feized, as he fat at Dinner, with a Sicknefs at
his Stomach. He recovered himfelf before
Night, but the next Evening, whiht his Phy-
ficians were attending, and his Servants railing
him on his Couch, he fuddenly cried out that
his Thigh-bone was broken. The Shock was
fo violent, that the Servants perceived the
Couch to {hake under him, and the Pain fo
acute and unexpected, that it overcame the
Firmnefs he fo remarkably pofleifed. He lay
for fome Time in great Agonies, but when the
Surgeons arrived, and difcovered with Certainty
that the Bone was broken, he was perfectly
religned, and never afterwards afked a Quef-
tion about the Event. A Fever foon enfued.
On T'uefday he became lethargic, and con-
tinued fo till about Five o'Clock on Wednefday
Afternoon, when he expired with great Calm-
nefs, in the 75th Year of his Age.

On Examination, the Thigh-bone was found

to be carious about four Inches in Length,

and at nearly the fame Diftance from its

Head. The Difeafe took its Rife from the

f 4. internal

Ixxii Life of-Archbifivp SECKER.
internal Part of the Bone, and had fo intirely
deftroyed its Subftance, that Nothing remained
at the Part where it was broken but a Portion
of its outward Integument. And even this
had many Perforations, one of which was large
enough to admit two Fingers, and was filled
with a fungous Subilance arifmg from within
the Bone. There was no Appearance of Matter
about the Caries, and the furrounding Parts
were in a found State. It was apparent, that
the Torture which his Grace underwent dur-
ing the gradual Corrofion of this Bone, mufl
have been inexprembly great. Out of Tender?
nefs to his Family he feldom made any Com-
plaints to them, but to his Phylicians he fre-
quently declared his Pains w r ere fo excruciating,
that unlefs fome Relief could be procured, he
thought it would be impoffible for human Na T
ture to fupport them long. Yet he bore them
for upwards of fix Months with afloniih-
ing Patience and Fortitude ; fat up generally
the greater Part of the Day, admitted his par-
ticular Friends to fee him, mixed with his
Family at the ufual Hours, fometimes with his
ufual Chearfulnefs; and, except fome very flight
Defe&s of Memory, retained all his Faculties
and Senfes in their full Vigour till within a, few
Days of his Death.

Life of Archbifiop S E c K E R , txxiii
He was buried, purfuant to his own Direc-
tions, in a covered PafTage, leading from a pri-
vate Door of the Palace to the North Door of
Lambeth Church ; and he forbade any Monu-
ment or Epitaph to be placed over him.

By his Will he appointed the Reverend Dr.
DANIEL BURTON, Canon of Chrift Churchy
and Mrs. CATHERINE TALBOT above-men-
tioned, his Executors ; and left thirteen thou-
fand Pounds, in the three per Cent. Annuities,
tp Dr. PORTEUS and Dr. STINTON, his
Chaplains, in Truft; to pay the Intereft thereof
to Mrs. TALBOT and hqr Daughter, during
their joint Lives, or the Life of the Survivor;
and after the Deceafe of both thofe Ladies, then
eleven thoufand of the faid thirteen thoufand
are to be transferred to the following charitable
Purpofes ; viz,

To the Society for the Propaga-T
tion of the Gofpel in Foreign I
Parts, for the general Ufes off
the Society J

To the fame Society, towards the
Eftabljfhment: of a Bifliop or
Bifhops in the King's Domi-
nions in Anierica


Ixxiv Life of Archbiftwp S E c K E R .

To the Society for promoting?

Chriftian Knowledge - -J ^
To the Irijh Proteftant Working >

O 1 1 f $ O

Schools - - ~ ~ 3
To the Corporation for relieving!

the Widows and Children of j r OO o o

the poor Clergy - j

To the Society of the Stewards 1

of the faid Charity - -J 2O
To Bromley College in Kent - 500 o o
To the Hofpitals of the Arch-1

bifhop of Canterbury, at Croy- \

don, St. John at Canterbury, \ 1 500 o Q

and St. Nicholas Harbledown,

.$oo each -J

To St. Georges and the London

Hofpitals, and the Lying-in

Hofpital in Brownlow-jlreet,

-5 each
To the Afylum in the Parifh of

1500 o o


7 7 I 4

To the Magdalen Hofpital, the"!
Lock Hojpital, the Small -Pox j
and Inoculation Hojpital, to ^ 9
each of which his Grace was ;

Subfcriber, >C-3


Life of Archbijhop S E c K E R . Ixxv

. ' d.

To the Incurables at Sf. Lukes]

Hofpital -\ 5 o o

Towards repairing or rebuilding
the Houfes belonging to poor
Livings in the Diocefe of Can-

.11000 o o

Befides thefe Benefactions, he left . 1000 to
be diftributed amongft his Servants; -200 to
fuch indigent Perfons as he had affifted in his
Life-time ; JT. 5000 to the two Daughters of
his Nephew Mr. FROST; .500 to Mrs.
SECKRR, Widow of his Nephew Dr. GEORGE
SECKER ; and . 200 to Dr. DANIEL BUR-
TON. After the Payment of thefe and fome
other fmaller Legacies, he left his real, and the
Refidue of his perfonal, Eftate to his Nephew
Mr. THOMAS FROST, of Nottingham.

Out of his private Library, he left to the
archiepifcopal one at Lambeth all fuch Books
as were not there before, which comprehended
much the largeft and moil valuable Part of his
own Collection ; and a great Number of very
learned MSS. written by himfelf on various


Ixxvi Life of Archbifoop S E c K E R .
Subjects, he bequeathed to the Manufcript Li-
brary in the fame Palace. His Lectures on
the Catechiim, his Manufcript Sermons, &c.
he left to be revifed and -publimed by his two
Chaplains, Dr. STINTON and Dr. PORTEUS.
His Options he gave to the Archbiihop of
Canterbury, the Bimop of London, and the
Bimop of Winchefter, for the Time being, in
Truft ; to be difpofed of by them (as they be-
come vacant) to fuch Perfons as they mall in
their Confciences think it would have been moft
reafona.ble and proper for him to have given
them, had he been living.

Such were the laft Bequefts of Archbimop
SECKER ; of which it is enough to fay, that they
kept up the noble Uniformity of his Character
t6 the End, and formed a very proper Con-
clufion to the Life of a truly great and good

His Grace was in his .Perfon tall and come-
ly; in the early Part of Life (lender,- and
rather confumptive, but as he advanced in
Years, his ConiUtution gained Strength, and
his Si^e encreafed, yet never to a Degree
of Corpulency that was difproportionate or

The Dignity of his Form correfponded well


Life of Archbifiop S E c K E R . Ixxvii
with the Greatneis of his Mind, and in-
fpired at all Times Refpect and Awe, but
peculiarly ib when he was engaged -in any
of the more folemn Functions of Religion ;
into which he entered with fuch devout Ear-
neftnefs and Warmth, with fo juft a Con-
fcioufnefs of the Place he was in, and the
' Bufinefs he was about, as feemed to raife him
above himfelf, and added new Life and Spi-
rit to the natural Gracefulnefs of his Appear-

His Countenance was open, ingenuous, and
expreffive of every Thing right. It varied
eafily with his Spirits and his Feelings; fo
as to be a faithful Interpreter of his Mind,
which was incapable of the leaft Dimmu-
lation. It could fpeak Dejection, and on Oc-
cafion, Anger, very ftrongly. But when it
meant to fhew Pleafure or Approbation, it
foftened into the moft gracious Smile, and dif-
fufed over all his Features the moft benevolent
and reviving Complacency that can be ima-

His intellectual Abilities were of a much

higher Clafs than they who never had any

Opportunities of converfing intimately with

him, and who form their Opinion of his

4 Talents

Ixxviii Life of Archbijhop S E c K E R .
Talents from the general Plainnefs of his
Language only, will perhaps be willing to
allow. He had a quick Apprehenfion, a
clear Difcernment, a found Judgment, a re-
tentive Memory. He poffefled that native
good Senfe, which is the grand Mailer-key
to every Art and Science, and makes a Man
ikilful in Things he has never learnt, as foon
.as ever it becomes ufeful or necefTary for him
to know them. He compofed with great Eafe
and Readinefs ; and in the early Part of his
Life, the Letters which he wrote to fome
of his moft intimate Friends, were full of
Imagination, Vivacity, and Elegance. But
when he became a Parim-Prieft, he found
.the Graces of Style inconfiiient with the
Purpofes of pailoral Inflruclion > and willingly
facrificed the Reputation he might eafily have
acquired as a fine Writer, to the lefs fhowy
Qualifications of a ufeful one. From that

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