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Chronological history of the West Indies online

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the pillory, the master condemned to a fine
of one hundred Hvres.

^ 46. Slaves arrested at night out of the
town without tickets, to be conducted to
prison, and the araoimt paid as for a run-
away, according te the place where they
shall have been arrested ; if taken in town,
and belonging to an i n habita n t of the town,
to be pumsh^ by flogging only, and the
master fined six livres.

" 47« Forbidding slaves^ even bearers of
tickets, carrying in the streets or roads
• offensive arras, such ta guns, swords, cut-
lasses, knives, excepting knives called jam-
bettes, under pain of the pillory, during
four hours for the first offence, and flogging
by the hangman fyr the second, and ten
livres fine against the masters. Forbidding
also little diopkeepers to sell any such
arms to slaves.

" 48. Forbidding slaves belonging U>
dififerent masters from assembling on
estates, at the entrance of the towns or
the high roads, and in private places, under
pain of corporal punishment, which cannot
be less than flogging and the fleur deJis,
and even death in cases of an aggravated
nature; in which cases the master who
shall have permitted it to lose the value of
the«slaves, and the persons on whose lands
tiie disorder shall have been committed
condemned to & fine of three hundred

« 49. Masters who shall be convicted of
having permitted assemblies of slaves^ or
having lent their dwellings £or that pur-
pose, without a commission firom the conu
mandant visa^ by the procureur da Roi
(which is not to be permitted but seldom
even during carnival, fixmi the disorders
which ensue), to be condemned as foUows :
^-Masters who shall have given permission,
to a fine of one hundred livres, and those
who shall have lent or hired their houses,
to three hundred livres.

<< 50. Slaves arrested, masked or dis-
guised in the towns, dther day or night,
to be flogffedf marked with a fleur-de4is,
and placed in the pillory during an- hour ;
if found at nigbt disguised and armed, to

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I78S*] m THE WEST INDIEd.^ 547

Prince William Henry was serving as midshipman under Lord
Hood, on board his Majesty's i^p Barfleur, in March 1783, when
the news of peace reached Jamaica. His royal highness, attended
by proper officers, visited Cape Fran9ois and the Havana, and was
received at both places with every mark of distinction and politeness.

November the 28th, an act was passed at St. Christopher^Sy
which states — *< Whereas some persons have of late been guilty of
eutting off or depriving s^ves ot their ears;" be it enacted, that if
any possessor of a Negro or slave shall cut out the ton^e, put out
an eye, or slit or cut oif a nose, ear, or lip, or breiak we arm, leg,
or member of his* slave, he shaU forfeit ^500 currency, and suffer
six months' imprisonment ; and if unable to pay the fine, shall suffer
twelve months' imprisonment. The provost martial, or his deputy,
IS ordered to seize such mutilated slaves, and lodge them in gaol ;
and if the owner shall not within sixty days prove, " either by nim-
self or some credible witness," that he did not wilfully cut out the
tongue, put out the eye, &c. 8cc. the slave shall be forfeited to the
use of the island, and publicly sold. This is said by Mr. Stephen
to be the first law in the British West Indies that had proceeded so
far in the protection of slaves against their masters. But what does
k prove of their treatment ?

The return of the population of the Grenades, for this year, wa^
©96 Whites, 1126 free N^roes, and 24,620 slaves. This is a
r^narkable number of free N^oes.

The preliminary articles of peace between Great Britain and
France, and between Great Britain and Spain, were signed at
Versailles on the 28th of January; and the definitive treaties
between those powers, and between Great Britain and America,
were signed at Paris on the 3d of September.

Menunn of Lord Hood, Naval Chnmide, toL ii. p. 22.

|Lq^ortoft&e Lords of the Committee^ 1789> Supplement to Na 15.-^St.Christopher's» B«

Stephen on West Indian Slavery, p. 439. Barlow, vol. iv. p. 4.

he condemned to more severe punishment, lighted flambeaux, or passing cane fields

6ven death, according to the nature of the with lighted segars, under penalty against

ease. the Whites and free of one hundred livres,

** 51. Forbidding slaves at all times fhipi and against slaves of twenty-nine lashes^

gambling, or assembling on the bay side or and pillory during three hours,

otherwise, under pain of corporal punish- *' 54. Slaves working in their grounds,

ment — allpenons authorized in this case and setting them on fire without their

to arrest and imprison them. master's permission,^ to be flogged by the

'* 52. Forbidding slaves to gallop horses hangman, and put in the pillory during

iSurough the streets or quays of th« town,' three days.

<ir even to mouqt them, on pain of receiving « 55. Forbidding owners firom allotting

at the jail twenty-nine kshes, and severer to their slaves grounds fi>r gardens bor*

punishment in case of accidental da fP^g P", dering on their neighbours*, unless parti-

tt> be recovered from'the masters, reserved cular care be taken to keep in proper order

tg> the parties aggrieved. an open space of .twenty paces* distance,

V ** 53. Forbidding Whites, firee persons under pain of being responsible for all in<-

or slaves, to travel on the high roads, more juries sustained.** — ParUamenUay ** Fur-

particularly on the private roads, with ther Pajfers,** ^^^,55, &e*

N N 2 ' ^'

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Hie fdilowing articles relate to the West Indies, in the treaty
between Great Britain and France : —

" Art, 7. The King of Great Britain restorer to France the
island of St. Luda, in the condition it was in when it was conquered
by the British arms : And His Britannic Majesty cedes and gua-
rantees to His most Christian Majesty the island of Tobago. The
Protestant inhabitants of the said island, as well as those of the same
religion who shall have settled at St. Lucia, whilst that island was
occupied by the British arms, shall not be molested in the exercise
of their worship. And the British inhabitants, or others, who may
have been subjects of the King of Great Britain in the aforesaid
islands, shall retain their possessions upon the same tides and con-
ditions by which they have acquired them ; or else they may retire
in full security and liberty, where they shall think fit, and shall have
the power of selling their estates, provided it be to subjects of His
most Christian Majesty, and of removing their effects, as well as
their persons, without being restrained in their emigration, under
any pretence whatsoever, except on account of debts, or of criminal
prosecutions. The term limited for this emigration is fixed to-the
space of eighteen months, to be computed firom the day of the
exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty. And for the
better securing the possessions of the inhabitants of the aforesaid
island of Tobago, the most Christian King shall issue letters
patent, containing an abolition of the droit d'aubaine in the said

<< 8. The most Christian King restores to Great Britain, the
islands of Grenada, and the Grenadines, St. Vincent's, Dominica,
St. Christopher's, Nevis, and Montserrat ; and the fortresses of
these islands shall be delivered up in the condition they were in
when the conquest of them was made. The same stipulations
inserted in the preceding article shall take place in &vour of the
French subjects, with respect to the islands enumerated in the pre-
sent article.

" 20. As it is necessary to appoint a certain period for the
restitutions and evacuations to be made by each of the high contract-
ing parties, it is agreed that the King of Great Britain shall cause
to be evacuated the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon, three
months after the ratification of the present treaty, or sooner, if it
can be done — St. Lucia, (one of the Caribee Islands), and
Goree, in Africa, three months after the ratification of the present
treaty, or sooner, if it can be done. The King of Great Britain
shall in like manner, at the end of three months after the ratification
of the present treaty, or sooner, if it can be done, enter again into
tlie possession of tiie islands of Grenada, the Grenadines, St. Vin^
cent's, Dominica, St. Christopher's, Nevis, and Montserrat.
* ♦ # # # . # *

Barlow, vol* iv, pp. 380. 389.

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1733.] OF THE WKST IN0IE8. ^549

The qeoeeary orders shall be sent by each of the hig^ contracting
parties^ with reciprocal passports for the ships which shall carry
them, immediately after the ratification of the present treaty.

" 22. For preventing the revival of the lawnsuits which have
beoi ended in the islands conquered by either of the high contract-
ing parties, it is agreed that the judgments pronounced in the last
resort, and which have acquired the force of matters determined,
^idl be confirmed and executed according to their form and
tenour." ,

The following articles are those that relate to the West Indies,
in the treaty between Great Britain and Spain : —

<< Art. 2. Dedares that former treaties shall serve as a basis and
foundation to the pei^^e.

" 6. The intention of the two high contracting parties being to
prevent, as much as possible, all the causes of complaint and mis-
understanding heretofore occasioned by the cutting of wood for
dying or logwood, and several English setdements having been
formed and extended, under that pretence, upon the Spanish conti-
nent ; it is expressly agreed, that His Britannic Majesty's subjects
shall have the right of cutting, loading, and carrying away logwood,
in the district lying between die rivers Wallis or BeUize, and Rio
Hondo, taking the course of the said two rivers for unalterable
boundaries, so as that the navigation of them be common to both
nations: to wit, by the river Wallis or Bellize, firom the sea,
ascending as far as opposite to a lake or inlet which runs into the
land, and forms an isthm^, or neck, with another similar inlet,
which comes firom the side of Rio Nuevo or New River; so that
the line of separation shall pass across the said isthmus, and meet
another lake formed by the water cJf Rio Nuevo or New River, at
its current* The said line shall continue with the course of the
Rio Nuevo, descending as far as opposite to a river, the course of
which is marked in the map between Rio Nuevo and Rio Hondo,
and which empties itself into Rio Hondo, which river shall also
sare as a common boundary, as far as its junction with Rio Hondo ;
and from thence descending by Rio Hondo to the sea, as the whole
is marked on the map, which the plenipotentiaries of the two crowns
have thought proper to make use of, for ascertaining the points
agreed upon, to the end that a good correspondence may reign
between tne two nations, and that the English workmen, cutters,
and labourers may not trespass, from an uncertainty of the boun-
daries. The respective commissaries shall fix upon convenient
places in the territory above marked out, in order that His Britan-
nic Majesty's subjects employed in the felling of logwood, may,
without interruption, build therein houses and magazines necessary
£>r themselves, their families, and their efiects : and His Catholic
Majesty assures to them the enjoyment of all that is expressed in

barlow, voL iv. pp. 392. 395. 398,

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the preflent arddb^. pumdMl that these' stlpulatioiis shall not be
considered as deroffatin^ in any wise fitmi his rights of sorereigfity:.
Therefore^ all the English who may be dispersed in any dther parts^
whether on the Spanish continent, or in any of the islands whafiso-
eyer dependaht on the aforesaid Spanish continent, and for what^
ever reason it mi^t be, without exception shaU retire within the
dbtrict which has been above described, in the space of ei^teen
months, to be computed from the exchange of the ratifications ; and
for this purpose onlers shall be issued on the part of His Britanme
Majesty: and cm that of His Catholic Majes^, his governors shall
be ordered to grant to the Ei^lish iUspersed, every convenience
possible for their removinff to the settlement agreed upon by the
present article, or for meir retiring wherever they shall think
proper. It is likewise stipulated, that if any fortifications i^uld
actually have been heretofore erected within the limits marked out,
His Britannic Majesty shall cause them all to be demolished, and
he will order his subjects not to build any new ones. The English
inhabitants who shall settle there for the cutting of logwood, shall
be permitted to enjoy a free fishery for their subsistence, on the
coasts of their district above agreed (Hi, or of the islands situated
o{q)osite thereto, without b^ng in anywise disturbed on that
account, provided they do not establish themselves, in any manner,
on the said islands.

<< 7. His Catholic Mmsty shall restore to Great Britain the
islands of Provictenoe aha the Bahamas, without exception, in the
same condition they were in wh^i they were conquered by the arms
of the King of Spain.

<< 10. As it is necessary to appoint a certain period for the
restitutions and evacuations to%e made by each of the high con-
tracting parties,, it is agreed, that the King of Great Kteaiti shall
cause East Florida to be evacuated three mcmths after the ratifica-
tion of the present treaty, or somier, if it can be done« The King
of Great Britain shall in like manner enter again into possession m
the islands of Providaice and the Bahamas, witibout exception, in
the space of three months after the ratification of the present treaty,
or sooner,, if it can be done. In consequence whereof, the neces^
sary orders diall be sent by each of the contracting parties^ with
reciprocal passports for the ships which shall carry memj imme-
diatdy after the ratification of the present treaty .'^
. The preliminary articles of peace between His Britannic Majesty
and the states-g^ieral of the united ^ovinees, was signed at Paris
(« the 2d of September, 178^. By article eight, all the eomitries
aid territories which may have been, or which may be conquerfed^
in any part of the world whatsoever, by the arms of His Britannic
Majesty^ as. well m by those of the states-geiieral, which cure not

Barlow, vol. iv. pp,399, 400. Amml Register, 1783, p. 319.

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1783.3 OF THE W£8T INDIES. 551

mduded in the {M-esent Uealy, shall be restored without difficulty,
and without requiring any compensation*

Colonel Deveaux's report to Sir Guy Carletony qfhis retaking
New Providence.

<< I have the pleasure to inform your excellency, that on the 1st
of April last, not having heard that peace was concluded, I formed,
fix>m Su Augustine, an expedition against New Proyidence, to
restore its inhabitants, with those of uie adjacent islands, to the
blessings of a free government. I undertook this eiqpedition
at my own expence, and embarked my moi, which did not
exceed sixty-five, and sailed for Harbour Island, where I recruited
for four or five days: fix>m thence I set sail for my object,
which was the eastern fort on the island of Providence, and which
I carried about daylight, with three of their formidable gallies, on
the 14th ; I immediately summoned the grand fortress to surrender,
which was about a mile from the fort I had taken. His excellency
evaded the purport of my flag, by giving me some trifling informa-
tions, which I took in their true light. On the 16ui, I took
possession of two commanding hills, and erected a battery on each
of them, of twelve pounders. At daylight on the 18th, my batteries
being complete, the English colours were hoisted on eadi of them,
which were within musket shot of their grand fortress. His excel-
lency finding his shot and shells of no efiect, thought proper to
capitulate, as you will see by the inclosed articles.*

<< My force never at any time consisted of more than 220 men,
and not above 150 of them had muskets, not having it in my power
to procure them at St. Augustine.

^^ I took on this occasion one fort, consisting of thirteen pi^es
of cannon, three gallies carrying twenty-four pounders, and about
fifty men.

Annual Register, 17S3| p. 156.

1 Articles between Don Antonio Claraco y << 3. All the officers and troops of the

• Sanny Governor of the Btthama IdandSf garrison belonging to His Catholic Ma-

and Cohnd Andrew Deveaux, . Com- jesty are to remain in possession of their

mander-in-Chief of the expedition, bag^^age and other effects.

<< 1. The government-house and public " 4. All the vessels in the harbour be-

stores to be delivered to His Britannic longing to His Catholic Majesty are to be

Majesty. given up, with every thing on board the

<< 2. The governor, and garrison under said vessels, to His Britannic M^esty.

his command, to march to the eastern fort << 5. All effects appertaining to £fpaniards

with all the honours of war ; remaining^ to remain their property, and the Spanish

with a piece of cannon and two shots per merchants to have two months to setUe

day, in order to hoist His Catholic Ma- their accounts.

jesty*8 flag. Provisions for the troops, (Signed) « Antokio Claraco t SaKx.

sailors, and sick in the hospital, to be ** A. DsTaAur.

made at His Britannic Migesty's expence, ** New Providence, April 18, 1783.**
as also vessels prepared to carry them to

the Havana, particularly a vessel to carry JnnwU RegiUer, 1783, p. 156.
the governor to Europe.

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5A2 CHB0N6L00ICA1 HISTORY [|17831

<< His exoeIIen<7 surrendered four batterieS) with about seventy
pieces of camion and four large gallies (brigs and snows), which I
have sent to the Havana, with the troops as flags ; I therefore stand
in need of your excellencjr's advice and direction in my present
situation, and shall be exceedingly happy to receive them as soon
as possible.

<< I had letters written for your excellency on this occasion, since
the middle of last month; but the vessel by which they were to
have been conveyed went off and left them ; therefore hope your
excellency wiU not think it my neglect, in not having the accounts
before this : &c &c. >

<« A. Deveaux,
<^ Colonel, and commanding
" June 6tfa, 1783," « Royal Foresters, New Providence,"

A proclamation was issued at St. James's, the 26th of December,
1783, allowing the produce of the United States of America to be
imported " by British subjects in British-built ships, owned by his
Majesty's subjects, and navigated according to law, from any port
of die said United States of America, to any of his Majesty's West
India islands, the Bahama islands, and the Bermuda or Someik
-islands;" and the produce of the islands to be exported to the
United States in the same manner.

Annual Register, 178S, Publie Papers, p. 158.

1 Colquhoun, British Empire, p. S73, states, that Colonel Deveaux was said to have
known of tiie peace.


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Online LibraryThomas SoutheyChronological history of the West Indies → online text (page 63 of 63)