Thomas V. (Thomas Valentine) Cooper.

American politics (non-partisan) from the beginning to date. Embodying a history of all the political parties, with their views and records on all important questions. Great speeches on all great issues, the text of all existing political laws. Also a complete federal blue book online

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Online LibraryThomas V. (Thomas Valentine) CooperAmerican politics (non-partisan) from the beginning to date. Embodying a history of all the political parties, with their views and records on all important questions. Great speeches on all great issues, the text of all existing political laws. Also a complete federal blue book → online text (page 29 of 210)
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tary of War.

" CONFEDEEATE " MILITAEY LEGISLATION.

February 28, 1861, (four days before the
inauguration of Mr. Lincoln) — The "Con-
federate " Congress passed a bill provid-
ing —

1st. To enable the Government of the
Confederate States to maintain its jurisdic-
tion over all questions of peace and war,
and to provide for the public defence, the
President be, and he is hereby authorized
and directed to assume control of all mili-
tary operations in every State, having re-
ference to a connection with questions be-
tween the said States, or any of them, and
Powers foreign to themselves.

2d. The President was authorized to re-
ceive from the several States the arms and
munitions of war which have been ac-
quired from the United States.

3d. He was authorized to receive into
Government service such forces in the ser-



vice of the States, as may be tendered, in
such number as he may require, for any
time not less than twelve months, unless
sooner discharged. ^

March 6, 1861 — The President was au-
thorized to employ the militia, military and
naval forces of the Confederate States to
repel invasion, maintain rightful possession
of the territory, and secure public tran-
quillity and independence against threa*.-
ened assault, to the extent of 100,000
men, to serve for twelve months.

May 4, 1861 — One regiment of Zouaves
authorized.

Ma,y 6, 1861 — Letters of marque and re-
prisal authorized.

1861, August 8 — The Congress author-
ized the President to aAept the services of
400,000 volunteers, to serve for not less
than twelve months nor more than three
years after they shall be mustered into ser-
vice, unless sooner discharged.

TheKichmond Enquirer ot that date an-
nounced that it was ascertained from oflfi-
cial data, before the passage of the bill,
that there were not less than 210,000 men
then in the field.

August 21 — Volunteers authorized for
local defence and special service.

1862, January — ^Publishers of newspa-
pers, or other printed matter are prohibited
from giving the number, disposition, move-
ment, or destination of the land or naval
forces, or description of vessel, or battery,
fortification, engine of war, or signal, un-
less first authorized by the President or
Congress, or the Secretary of War or Navy,
or commanding officer of post, district, or
expedition. The penalty is a fine of $1,000
and imprisonment not over twelve months.

1862, February — The Committee on Na-
val Affairs were instructed to inquire into
the expediency of placing at the disposal
of the President five millions of dollars to
build gunboats.

1862 — Bill passed to " regulate the de-
struction of property under military neces-
sity," referring particularly to cotton and
tobacco. The authorities are authorized to
destroy it to keep it from the enemy ; and
owners, destroying it for the same purpose,
are to be indemnified upon proof of the
value and the circumstances of the de-
struction.

_ 1862, April 16— The first " conscription "
bill became a law.

1864, February. The second conscription
bill became a law.

The Richmond Sentinel of February 17,
1864, contains a synopsis of what is called
the military bill, heretofore forbidden to be
printed :

The first section provides that all white
men residents of the Confederate States,
between the ages of seventeen and fifty,
shall be in the military service for the war.

The second section provides that all be-



HOOK i.J MR. LINCOLN'S FIRST ADMINISTRATION.



129



tween eighteen and forty-five, now in ser-
vice, shall be continued during the war in
the same regiments, battalions, and com-
2Janies to which they belong at the passage
of this act, with the organization, officers,
&c., provided that companies from one State
organized against their consent, expressed
at the time, with regrets, &c., from another
State, shall have the privilege of being
transferred to the same arm in a regiment
from their own State, and men can be trans-
ferred to a company from their own State.

Section three gives a bounty eight months
hence of $100 in rebel bondji.

Section four provides that no person
shall be relieved irom the operations of this
act heretofore discharged for disability, nor
shall those who furnished substitutes be ex-
empted, where no disability now exists ; but
exempts religious persons who have paid
an exemption tax. * * «

The tenth section provides that no per-
son shall be exempt except the following :
ministers, superintendents of deaf, dumb,
and blind, or insane asylums ; one editor to
each newspaper, and such employees as he
may swear to be indispensable ; the Con-
federate and State public printers, and the
journeymen printerj necessary to perform
the public printing ; one apothecary to each
drug store, who was and has been contin-
uously doing business as such since Octo-
ber 10, 1862; physicians over 30 years of
age of seven years' practice, not including
dentists; presidents and teachers of col-
leges, academies and schools, who have not
less than thirty pupils ; superintendents
of public hospitals established by law, and
such physicians and nurses, as may be in-
dispensable for their efficient management.

One agriculturist on such farm where
there is no white male adult not liable to
duty employing fifteen able-bodied slaves,
between sixteen and fifty years of age, up-
on the following conditions :

The party exempted shall give bonds to
deliver to the Government in the next
twelve months, 100 pounds of bacon, or its
equivalent in salt pork, at Government se-
lection, and 100 pounds of beef for each such
able-bodied slave employed on said farm
at commissioner's rates.

In certain cases this may be commuted
in grain or other provisions.

The person shall further bind himself to
sell all surplus provisions now on hand, or
which he may raise, to the Government, or
the families of soldiers, at commissioner's
rates, the person to be allowed a credit of
25 per cent, im any amount he may deliver
in three months from the passage of this
act; Provided that no enrollment since Feb.
1, 1864, shall deprive the person enrolled
from the benefit of this exemption.

In addition to the above, tke Secretary
of War is authorized to make such details
as the public security requires.



The vote in the House of Eepresenta-
tives was — yeas, 41 ; nays, 31.

GUEBKILLAS.

1862, April 21— The President was au-
thorized to commission such officers as he
may deem proper, with authority to form
bands of partisan rangers, in companies,
battalions or regiments, either as infantry
or cavalry, to receive the same pay, rations,
and quarters, and be subject to the same
regulations as other soldiers. For any arms
and munitions of war captured from the
enemy by any body of partisan rangers,
and delivered to any quartermaster at des-
ignated place, the rangers shall pay their
full value.*

The following resolution, in relation to
partisan service, was adopted by the Vir-
ginia Legislature, May 17, 1862 :

Whereas, this General Assembly places
a high estimate upon the value of the ran-
ger or partisan service in prosecuting the
present war to a successful issue, and re-
gards it as perfectly legitimate; and it be-
ing understood that a Federal commander
on the northern border of Virginia has in-
timated his purpose, if such service is not
discontinuecl, to lay waste by fire the por-
tion of our territory at present under his
power.

Resolved by the General Assembly, That
in its opinion, the policy of employing such
rangers and partisans ought to be carried
out energetically, both by the authorities
of this State and of the Confederate States,
without the slightest regard to such threats.

By another act, the President was au-
thorized, in addition to the volunteer force
authorized under existing laws, to accept
the services of volunteers who may offer
them, without regard to the place of en-
listment, to serve for and during the exist-
ing war.

18G2, May 27— Major General John B.
Floyd was authorized by the Legislature of
Virginia, to raise ten thousand men, not
now in service or liable to draft, for twelve'
months.

1862, September 27 — The President was
authorized to call out and place in the mil-
itary service for three years, all white men
who are residents, between the ages of
thirty-five and forty-five, at the time the
call may be made, not legally exempt. And
such authority shall exist in the President,
during the present war, as to all persons
who now are, or hereafter may become
eighteen years of age, and all persons be-
tween eighteen and forty-five, once en-
rolled, shall serve their full time.

* 1864, Febmary 15 — Kepealed the above act, but pro-
vided for continuing organizationa of partisan rangers
acting as regular cavalry and bo to continue; and author-
iaiiig the Secretary of War to provide for uniting all
bands of partisan rangers with other organizations and
bringing them under the general discipline of the pro-
visional army.



13J



AMERICAN POLITICS.



[book I.



THE TWENTY-NEGRO EXEMPTION LAW.

1862, October 11 — Exempted certain
classes, described iu the repealing law of
the next session, as follows :

The dissatisfaction of the people with an
act passed by the Confederate Congress, at
its last session, by which persons owning a
certain number of slaves were exempted
from the operation of the conscriptionlaw,
has led the members at the present session
to reconsider their work, and already one
branch has passed a bill for the repeal of
the obnoxious law. This bill provides as
follows :

" The Congress of the Confederate States
do enact, That so much of the act ap-
proved October 11, 1862, as exempts from
military service ' one person, either as
agent, owner, or overseer, on each planta-
tion on which one white person is required
to be kept by the laws or ordinances of any
State, and on which there is no white male
adult not liable to military service, and in
States having no such law, one person, as
agent, owner, or overseer on such planta-
tion of twenty negroes, and on which there
is no white male adult not liable to mili-
tary service ;' and also the following clause
in said act, to wit : ' and furthermore, for
additional police of everj' twenty negroes,
on two or more plantations, within five
miles of each other, and each having less
than twenty negroes, and on which there
is no white male adult not liable to military
duty, one person, being the oldest of the
owners or overseers on such plantations,'
be and the same are hereby repealed ; and
the persons so hitherto exempted by said
clauses of said act are hereby made subject
to military duty in the same manner that
they would be had said clauses never been
embraced in said act."

THE POSITION OF DOUGLAS.

After the President had issued his first
call, Douglas saw the danger to which the
Capitol was exposed, and he promptly
called upon Lincoln to express his full
approval of the call. Knowing his politi-
cal value and that of his following Lin-
coln asked him to dictate a despatch to the
Associated Press, which he did in these
words, the original being left in the posses-
sion of Hon. George Ashmun of Massachu-
setts :

" April 18, 1861, Senator Douglas, called
on the President, and had an interesting
conversation, on the present condition of
the country. The substance of it was, on
the part of Mr. Douglas, that while he was
unalterably opposed to the administration
in all its political issue, he was prepared
to fully sustain the President, in the exercise
of all his Constitutional functions, to pre-
serve the Union, maintain the Government,
and defend the Federal Capitol. A firm po-
licy and prompt action was necessary. The



Capitol was in danger, and must be de-
fended at all hazards, and at any expense
of men and money. He spoke of the pre-
sent and future, without any reference to
tne past."

Douglas followed this with a great speech
at Chicago, in which he uttered a sentence
that was soon quoted on nearly every
Northern tongue. It was simply this,
" that there now could be but two parties,
patriots and traitors." It needed nothing
more to rally the Douglas Democrats by
the side of the Administration, and in the
general feeling of patriotism awakened not
only this class of Democrats, but many
Northern supporters of Breckinridge also
enlisted in the Union armies. The leaders
who stood aloof and gave their synapathies
to the South, were stigmatized as "Copper-
heads," and these where they were so im-
pudent as to give expression to their hos-
tility, were as odious to the mass of North-
erners as the Unionists of Tennessee and
North Carolina were to the Secessionists —
with this difference — ^that the latter were
compelled to seek refuge in their moun-
tains, while the Northern leader who
sought to give " aid and comfort to the
enemy " was either placed under arrest by
the government or proscribed politically
by his neighbors. Civil war is ever thus.
Let us now pass to

THE POLITICAL LEGISLATION INCIDENT TO
THE WAR.

The first session of the 37th Congress
began July 4, 1861, and closed Aug. 6.
The second began December 2, 1861, and
closed July V, 1862. The third began
December 1, 1862 and closed JMarch 4,
1S63.

All of these sessions of Congress were
really embarrassed by the number of vol-
unteers offering from the North, and suffi-
ciently rapid provision could not be made
for them. And as illustrative of how
political lines had been broken, it need
only be remarked that Benjamin F. Butler,
the leader of the Northern wing of Breck-
inridge's supporters, was commissioned as
the first commander of the forces which
Massachusetts sent to the field. New York,
Pennsylvania, Ohio — the great West — all
the States, more than met all early require-
ments. So rapid were enlistments that no
song was as popular as that beginning
with the lines :

" Wo are cnminfj, Father Abraham,
Six hundred thousand strong."

The first session of the 87th Congress
wns a special one, called by the President.
McPherson, in his classification of the
membership, shows the changes in a body
made historic, if such a thing can be, not
only by its membership jjrcsent, but that
which had gone or made itself subject to



BOOK I.] MR. LINCOLN'S PIEST ADMINISTRATION.



131



expulsion by siding with the Confederacy.
We quote the list so concisely and correct-
ly presented :

MEMBEES OF THE 37TH CONGRESS.
March i, 1801, lo March 4, 1863.

Hannibal Hamlin, of Maine, Presi-
dent of the Senate.

SENATORS.

Maine— Lot M. Morrill, Wm. Pitt Fes-
senden.

New Hampshire — John P. Hale, Daniel
Clark.

Vermont — Solomon Foot, Jacob Colla-
mer.

Massachusetts — Charles Sumner, Henry
Wilson.

Rhode Island — James F. Simmons,*
Henry B. Anthony.

Connecticut — James Dixon, Lafayette S.
Foster.

New York — Preston King, Ira Harris.

New Jersey — John B. Thomson,* John
C. Ten Eyck.

Pennsylvania — David Wilmot, Edgar
Cowan.

Delaware — James A. Bayard, Willard
Saulsbury.

Maryland — Anthony Kennedy, James A.
Pearce.*

Virginia*

Ohio — Benjamin F. Wade, John Sher-
man.

Kentucky — Lazarus W. Powell, John C.
Breckinridge.*

Tennessee — Andrew Johnson.

Indiana — Jesse D. Bright,* Henry S.
Lane.

Illinois — 0. H. Browning,* Lyman
Trumbull.

Missouri — Trusten Polk,* Waldo P.
Johnson.*

Michigan — Z. Chandler, K. S. Bing-
ham.*

Iowa — James W. Grimes, James Harlan.

Wisconsin — James E. Doolittle, Timothy
O. Howe.

California — Milton S. Latham, James
A. McDougall.

Minnesota — Henry M. Rice, Morton S.
Wilkinson.

Oregon — Edward D. Baker,* James W.
Nesmith.

Kansas — James H. Lane, S. C. Pomeroy.

REPRESENTATIVES.

Galusha a. Grow, of Pennsylvania,
Speaker of the House.

Maine — John N. Goodwin, Charles W.
Walton,* Samuel C. Fessenden, Anson P.
Morrill, John H. Rice, Frederick A. Pike.

New Hampshire — Gilman Marston, Ed-
ward H. Rollins, Thomas M. Edwards.

Vermont — E. P. Walton, Jr., Justin S.
Morrill, Portus Baxter.

* Set memorandum at the end of list.



Massachusetts — Thomas D. Eliot, James
Buffinton, Benjamin F. Thomas, Alexan-
der H. Rice, William Appleton,* John B.
Alley, Daniel W. Gooch, Charles E. Train,
Goldsmith F. Bailey,* Charles Delano,
Henry L. Dawes.

Rhode Island — William P. Sheffield,
George H. Browne.

Connecticut — Dwight Loomis, James E.
English, Alfred A. Burnham,* George C.
Woodruff.

New York — Edward H. Smith, Moses F.
Odell, Benjamin Wood, James E. Kerri-
gan, William Wall, Frederick A. Conk-
ling, Elijah Ward, Isaac C. Delaplaine,
Edward Haight, Charles H. Van Wyck,
John B. Steele, Stephen Baker, Abraham
B. Olin, Erastus Corning, James B. Mc-
Kean, William A. Wheeler, Socrates N.
Sherman, Chauncey Vibbard, Richard
Franchot, Eoscoe Conkling, R. Holland
Duell, William E. Lansing, Ambrose W.
Clark, Charles B. Sedgwick, Theodore M.
Pomeroy, Jacob P. Chamberlain, Alexan-
der S. Diven, Eobert B. Van Valkenburgh,
Alfred Ely, Augustus Frank, Burt van
Horn, Elbridge G. Spalding, Reuben E.
Fenton.

New Jersey — John T. Nixon, John L. N.
Stratton, William G. Steele, George T.
Cobb, Nehemiah Perry.

Pennsylvania — William E. Lehman,
Charles J. Biddle,* John P. Verree, Wil-
liam D. Kelley, William Morris Davis,
John Hickman, Thomas B. Cooper,* Syd-
enham E. Ancona, Thaddeus Stevens, John
W. Killinger, James H. Campbell, Hen-
drick B. Wright, Philip Johnson, Galusha
A. Grow, James T. Hale, Joseph Baily,
Edward McPherson, Samuel S. Blair, .John
Covode, Jesse Lazear, James K. Moorhead,
Eobert McKnight, John W. Wallace, John
Patton, Elijah Babbitt.

Delaware — George P. Fisher.
Maryland — John W. Crisfield, Edwin H.
Webster, Cornelius L. L. Leary, Henry
May, Francis Thomas, Charles B. Calvert.
Virginia — Charles H. Upton,* William
G. Brown, John S. Carlile,* Kellian V.
Whaley.

O^io— George H. Pendleton, John A.
Gurley, ClementL. Vallandigham, William
Allen, James M. Ashley, Chilton A. White,
Eichard A. Harrisofl, Samuel Shella-
barger, WaiTen P. Noble, Carey A. Trim-
ble, Valentine B. Horton, Samuel S. Cox,
Samuel T. Worcester, Harrison G. Blake,
Eobert H. Nugen, William P. Cutler,
James E. Morris, Sidney Edgerton, Albert
G. Eiddle, John Hutchins, John A. Bing-
ham.

Kentucky — Henry C. Burnett,* James S.
Jackson,* Henry Grider, Aaron Harding,
Charles A. Wickliffe, George W. Dunlap,
Eobert Mallory, John J. Crittenden, Wil-
liam H. Wadsworth, John W. Menzies.

See memorandum at end of list.



132



AMERICAN POLITICS.



[booe I.



Tennessee — Horace Maynard,* Andrew
J. Clements,* George W. Bridges.*

Indiana — John Law, James A. Cravens,
W. McKee Dunn, William S. Holman,
George W. Julian, Albert G. Porter, Dan-
iel W. Voorhees, Albert 8. White, Schuyler
Colfax, William Mitchell, John P. C.
Shanks. •

Illinois — Elihu B. Washburne, Isaac N.
Arnold, Owen Lovejoy, William Kellogg,
William A. Richardson,* John A. Mc-
Clernand,* James C. Robinson, Philip B.
Fouke, John A. Logan.*

Missouri — Francis P. Blair, Jr., James
S. Rollins, John B. Clark,* Elijah H. Nor-
ton, John W. Reid,* John S. Phelps,*
John W. Noell.

Michigan — Bradley F. Granger, Fer-
nando O. Beaman, Francis W. Kellogg,
Rowland E. Trowbridge.

ibtoo— Samuel R. Curtis,* William Van-
dever.

Wisconsin — John F. Potter, Luther Han-
chett,* A. Scott Sloan.

Minnesota — Cyrus Aldrich, William Win-
dom.

Oregon — Andrew J. Thayer.*

Kansas — Martin F. Conway.

MEMORANDUM OP CHANGES.

The following changes took place during
the Congress :

IN SENATE.

Rhode Island — 1862, Dec. 1, Samuel G.
Arnold succeeded James F. Simmons, re-
signed.

New Jersey — 1862, Dec. 1, Richard S.
Field succeeded, by appointment, John R.
Thompson, deceased Sept. 12, 1862. 1863,
Jan. 21, James, W. Wall, succeeded, by
election, Richard S. Field.

Maryland — 1863, Jan. 14, Thomas H.
Hicks, first by appointment and then by
election succeeded James A. Pearce, de-
ceased Dec. 20, 1862. .

Virginia — 1861, July 13, John S. Carlile
and Waitman T. Willey, sworn in place of
Robert M. T. Hunter and James M. Mason,
withdrawn and abdicated.

Kentucky — 1861, Dec. 23, Garrett Davis
succeeded John C. Breckinridge, expelled
December 4.

Indiana — 1862, March 3, Joseph A.
Wright succeeded Jesse D. Bright, expelled
Feb. 5, 1863, Jan. 22, David Turpie, super-
seded, by election, Joseph A.Wright.

iZZmots— 1863, Jan. 30, William A.Rich-
ardson superseded, by election, O. H.
Browning.

Missouri— \SiQl, Jan. 24, R. Wilson suc-
ceeded Waldo P. Johnson, expelled Jan.
10. 1862, Jan. 29, John B. Henderson suc-
ceeded Trusten Polk, expelled Jan. 10.

Michigan — 1862, Jan. 17, Jacob M. How-
ard succeeded K. S. Bingham, deceased
October 5, 1861.

* See memorandum at end of list.



Oregon — 1862, Dec. 1, Benjamin F, Hard-
ing succeeded Edward D. Baker, deceased
Oct. 21, 1862.

IN HOUSE or EEPEESENTATIVES

Maine — 1862, December 1, Thomas A.
D. Fessenden succeeded Charles W. Wal-
ton, resigned May 26, 1862.

Massachusetts — 1861, December 1, Amasa
Walker succeeded Goldsmith F. Bailey,
deceased May 8, 1862 ; 1861, December 2,
Samuel Hooper succeeded William Apple-
ton, resigned.

Connecticut — 1861, December 2, Alfred
A. Burnham qualified.

Pennsylvania — 1861, December 2,Charles
J. Biddle qualified ; 1862, June 3, John D.
Stiles succeeded Thomas B. Cooper, de-
ceased April 4, 1862.

Virginia,— 18Q1, July 13, John S. Carlile
resigned to take a seat in the Senate ; 1861,
December 2, Jacob B. Blair, succeeded John
S. Carlile, resigned; 1862, Febmary 28,
Charles H. Upton unseated by a vote of
the House; 1862, May 6, Joseph Segar
qualified.

Kentucky — 1862, December, 1, George H.
Yeaman succeeded James S. Jackson, de-
ceased ; 1862, March 10, Samuel L. Casey
succeeded Henry C. Burnett, expelled De-
cember 3, 1861.

Tennessee — 1861, December 2, Horace
Maynard qualified ; 1862, January 13, An-
drew J. Clements qualified ; 1863, Febru-
ary 25, George W. Bridges qualified.

Illinois— 1861, December 12, A. L. Knapp
qualified, in place of J. A. McClernand, re-
signed; 1862, June 2, William J. Allen
qualified, in place of John A. Logan, re-
signed ; 1863, January 30, William A. Rich-
ardson withdrew to take a seat in the
Senate.

Missouri — 1862, January 21, Thomas L.
Price succeeded John W. Reid, expelled
December 2, 1861 ; 1862, January 20, Wil-
liam A. Hall succeeded John B. Clark, ex-
pelled July 13, 1861 ; 1862, May 9, John S.
Phelps qualified.

Iowa — 1861, December 2, James F. Wil-
son succeeded Samuel R. Curtis, resigned
August 4, 1861.

Wisconsin — 1863, January 26, Walter D.
Mclndoe succeeded Luther Hanchett, de-
ceased November 24, 1862.

Oregon— imi, July 30, George K. Shiel
succeeded Andrew J. Thayer, unseated.

Louisiana — 1863, February 17, Jlichael
Hahn qualified ; 1863, February 23, Ben-
jamin F. Flanders qualified.

Lincoln, in his message, recited the
events which had transpired since his
inaug\iration, and asked Congress to con-
fer upon him the power to make the conflict
short and decisive. He wanted 400,000
men, and four hundred millions of money,
remarking that " the people will save theii



BOOK ij



MR. LINCOLN'S FIRST ADMINISTRATION.



las



government if the government itself will
do its part only indifferently well." Con-
gress responded by adding an hundred
thousand to each request.

There were exciting debates and scenes
during this session, for many of the South-
ern leaders remained, either through hesi-
tancy or with a view to check legislation
and ai(i their section by adverse criticism
on the measures proposed. Most promi-
nent in the latter list was John C. Breckin-
ridge, late Vice President and now Senator
from Kentucky. With singular boldness
and eloquence he opposed every war mea-
sure, and spoke with the undisguised pur-
pose of aiding the South. He continued
this course until the close of the extra
session, when he accepted a General's
commission in the Confederate army. But
before its close, Senator Baker of Oregon,
angered at his general course, said in reply
to one of Breckinridge's speeches,' Aug. 1st :
" Wliat would the Senator from Ken-
tucky, have ? These speeches of his, sown
broadcast over the land, what clear distinct
meaning have they? Are they not intend-
ed for disorganization in our very midst?
Are they not intended to destroy our zeal ?
Are they not intended to animate our



Online LibraryThomas V. (Thomas Valentine) CooperAmerican politics (non-partisan) from the beginning to date. Embodying a history of all the political parties, with their views and records on all important questions. Great speeches on all great issues, the text of all existing political laws. Also a complete federal blue book → online text (page 29 of 210)