Thomas W. (Thomas Warren) Field.

Pear culture. A manual for the propagation, planting, cultivation, and management of the pear tree. With descriptions and illustrations of the most productive of the finer varieties and selections of kinds most profitably grown for market online

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Online LibraryThomas W. (Thomas Warren) FieldPear culture. A manual for the propagation, planting, cultivation, and management of the pear tree. With descriptions and illustrations of the most productive of the finer varieties and selections of kinds most profitably grown for market → online text (page 14 of 18)
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Shapenearly round,
stem long. Ripens
in middle August,
but is not in eating
condition quite as
soon as the Bloodgood.




238 VARIETIES.



Gray Benrr6,
Golden Beurre,
Beurre tlu Koi,
Isambert,



BEURRE BROWN.

Brown Butter,
Beurre d'Amboise,
Beurre" d'or,
Eed Beurre,



SEPTEMBER.



Beurrt? Rou^e,
Beurre Doree,
B. de Treveureu,
Beurre Butter.



These are but few of the synonyms of this once popular Pear,
When in perfection it takes the first rank for melting, buttery
texture, abundance of juice and delicious sub-acid flavor, but it is
the very chameleon of Pears, and is so uncertain that but few can
reasonably hope to ever bring it to its highest excellence.

Fruit, rather large, oblong obovate, stem and flesh meeting
without shoulder or basin ; skin, a little rough and rusty, and
color " such as the gods please." Unfit for general cultivation.



DELICES D' HARDENPONT, OF BELGIUM.

NOVEMBER AND DECEMBER.

The Tree is described by BERKMANS as feeble and unhealthy in
Belgium ; but growing much better in this country, where it is
still not very vigorous. Shoots long and upright.

Fruit regularly pyramidal, tending to turbinate, sometimes
angular; stem short, thick; skin rather rough ; yellowish green
when ripe. Flesh buttery, melting, very juicy, sweet and highly
perfumed.

BEURRE HARDY.
Beurrfe Sterkman.

SEPTEMBER AND OCTOBER.

Fruit large, obovate pyriform, one-sided like the Beurre d'Anjou,
light reddish green, with brownish spots : stem stoutish, of medium
length, inclined, set in a moderate cavity with a high shoulder on the
larger side ; calyx much spread : basin broad and shallow ; buttery,
melting with great quantity of rich, sparkling, vinous, perfumed
juice. The tree grows vigorously on both pear and quince.



ADDITIONAL LIST.




DlX.

TO DECEMBEB

The Dix is a native of Boston.
It has tasked to the utmost the pa-
tience of cultivators by its tardiness
in bearing. Col. WILDER and Mr.
B. B. FRENCH have grown the jtrees
nineteen years without obtaining
the first peck of fruit.

Fruit very large, long pyriform,
rich deep yellow when
ripe strongly marked with
irregular russet spots.
Stem stout, not quite short,
set with a lip turned
against its base, in a
slight depression. Flesh
melting, suga-
ry and very
juicy, and al-
though not en-
tirely free from
a little coarse-
ness, is most
rich and delici-
ous. Does not;
succeed on the
Quince.



240



VARIETIES.



DOYENNE SIEULLE.
Sieulle, I. Beurrd Sieulle, | Bergamotte Sieulla.

Fig. 96.




This is a most excellent fruit, rather large, very juicy and but.
tery, somewhat coarse-grained, about half melting. Shape pecu-
liar roundish obovate, and rather angular. Skin, bright, dark green,
changing to a greenish yellow, much dotted with green spots.

The hardiness and vigor of the tree and remarkable produc-
tiveness entitle it to high estimation as a market pear, although
the fruit is hardly high-colored enough for the whimsical taste of
a capricious public.

Its growth indicates fitness for the Quince. Sea-son. October
and November.



ADDITIONAL LIST. 24:1



DOVENNE D'ALENOON.

Doyeimfe Gris d'Hiver Nouveau, I St. Michael .nilver.
Doyenne Gris d'Hiver d'Alencon, | New Gray Winter Vergaliea.

DBOEMBKE TO APRIL.
Fiff. 97.




Although not yet sufficiently tested, this pear has received the
highest praise, wherever well cultivated. I have proved speci-
mens from several localities, and all were excellent. The tree is
vigorous, of handsome shape, easily trained to a pyramid, does
exceedingly well, and is best on the Quince. Fruit, obovate. obtuse
pyriform, with rough, thick, astringent skin of russet green, with
coarse russet spots. Flesh, rather coarse-grained, yet melting
juicy, and almost buttery, with a sprightly vinous and rich flavor.

With proper treatment it keeps till April, which makes it valu-
able for a market Pear. If kept warm it ripens in December.

11



242



VARIETIES.



FREDERIC OF WIRTEMBERG.

Eol de "Wirtemberg. | King of Wirtemberp

Vemuleu d'Ete.




ADDITIONAL LIST.



248



I cannot bring myself to slight this gorgeous fruit, or rate it
as low as some pomologists. It is certainly the most beautiiul
object that has been colored by the pencil of nature. It hangs*
upon the tree like a drop of gold and crimson, its tints deepening
day after day. The flesh is white, melting, and delicious ; and
when in perfection, sweet and buttery leaving little to be desired
by the taste of the eater. Its growth is singular; the leading shoot
is tall, stout, stocky, with few or no radial branches. Does not
easily take the pyramidal form.



FULTON .
OCTOBER AND NOVEMBER.



The Fulton is a beauti-
ful Bergamot-shaped Pear,
of a dark, russet brown;
rich, sprightly flavor,
often ; and although not
juicy, is not by any means
dry.



Fig. 99.



The tree is said to be
hardy, but a poor grower.
It has admirers who claim
for it the best qualities;
but in my experience it is
too small for a market
Pear.




244



VARIETIES.



GOLDEN BEURRE OF BILDOA



SEPTEMBER.



One of the most
clear, golden-skin-
ned, and beautiful
of fruits. It is usu-
ally capped with a
rich russet around
the stem, which is
quite long and
slender, set in a
very slight basin.
It is quite small,
and not unfre-
quently much re-
sembles the DEAR-
BORN'S Seedling. It
is often far from
buttery, occasion-
ally a little acid,
with an abundance
of sprightly juice.
When perfect, it is
buttery, melting,
of a rich, pleasant
sub-acid flavor.

Good on Pear 01
Quince.



Fig. 100.




ADDITIONAL LIST.



245



Doyenne Grfc,

14 Roux,
" Galouge,



GRAY DOYENNE.

Gray Doyenne,
Ked

Gay



Gray St. Michael,
Doyenne rTAutonme,
St. "Michael Dore.



OCTOBEB TO D B C E M B B K .

Fig. 101.




When in perfection, this fruit cannot be too highly praised, but
unfortunately, like the White Doyenne, i;- subject to cracking and
spotting, until it loses the very semblance of a Pear. It much re-
sembles the White Doyenne. It is a little rounder than the Verga-
lieu, with flesh of the same delicious, melting, buttery, fine-grained
texture, and like the latter, is in every respect the very type of
excellence.

It will not come to perfection on the Atlantic Coast.



246



VARIETIES.




I know of no reason why this should not be ranked first-rate,
except that it lias not been extensively proved. It was raised from
the seed by a gentleman in New Haven, whose name it bears. It
is classed by the American Pomological Society for general cul-
tivation.



ADDITIOXAL LIST.



247



The fruit is large, obtuse pyriform. obovate ; stem rather more
than an inch long, curved, and set within a cavity : skin a clear,
rather pale yellow when ripe, with small russet dots, and occasion-
ally a faint blush. Flesh very melting, with a rich, sparkling,
slightly acid juice, faintly perfumed. The tree is vigorous, but
not very productive when young, has not been much proved on
the Quince.



Citron des Cannes,



MADELEINE.
I



Magdalen.



A favorite from its early ripening.
in perfection, melting and
juicy, of small size, some-
what obovate, tending to py-
riform ; stem long and curved,
skin smooth, light, yellow
green.

The fruit is very often far
from first-rate: the tree is
very liable to blight.

It is surprisingly vigorous
in its growth, in favorable
locations, and is so regular in
the formation of its branches
as to readily form a hand-
some pyramid.

We shall look in vain,
however, for high flavor, or
great excellence, in pears
ripening so early, but as the
taste has not become criti-
cal by comparison with au-
tumn pears, we are more
easily satisfied.



It is very delicious when
Fig. 103.




248



VARIETIES.



MARIE LOUISE.

Farim Maria Louise. } Marie chrea.na*

Fig. 104.




This is a most excellent and beautiful pear, but the tree is a
feeble straggling grower, forming numerous shoots: easily shaped



ADDITIONAL LIST. 249

to a pyramid, but continually escaping from it with its sweeping,
curling growth. Fruit large and beautiful, oblong, curved pyri-
form ; stem long, curving to the smaller side, set in a slight de-
pression with a shoulder on the larger side a rich, clear yellow
when ripe; cheek marked with russet spots; flesh a little irregular
in quality, but usually buttery, melting to a remarkable degree
with a delicious sugary, sparkling flavor. Does not succeed on
Quince. Season, first to middle of October.



NAPOLEON.

Medaille, I Eoi de Eome,

Sucree Douce, Poire Liard.

8EPTEMBEB AND OCTOBER.

This beautiful and delicious pear has only in few instances
sustained its European reputation in this country. It has not
generally succeeeded on the Quince : on the Pear it is a beautiful
and vigorous grower. From observation, I conclude that strong,
rich clay soils are best suited to it, and that it does only moderately
well on light or porous ones. Its foliage is peculiarly beautiful,
having large glossy leaves like the lemon tree.

Fruit, medium to large size, with very smooth, clear, green skin,
ripening to a pale clouded yellow. Stem, stoutish and rather
short, set in a slight depression ; calyx in a broad shallow basin.
Flesh white, melting, being but little more than so much sprightly
vinous juice when perfect. Many cultivators are confident that
the older trees will quite uniformly bring the fruit to perfection,
with proper care in ripening.

It is certainly, when in perfection, one of the highest flavored
pears, containing, as has been said, so great an abundance of de-
licious juice. Its most serious defects are, the small size it attains
in unfavorable soils, and the occasional spotting and cankering
characteristic of the White Doyenne.

It has the same thin smooth skin, as the latter pear a peculiar-
ity of those pears which canker.



11*



250



VARIETIES.



NOUVEAU POITF.AU,
K O V EM B E B.

Fig. 105.




A vigorous, handsome tree, the fruit of which. Colonel WILDER'*
description, in 1850, has not too highly colored. In size, the fruit
often nearly equals the Bartlett: obtuse pyriform. somewhat
sunken near the neck; stem short, stoutish, set without any
depression; calyx very open, with the parts turned back. The



ADDITIONAL LIST.



251



fruit is not attractive, being of an opaque green, with an occa-
sional blush on the cheek; but its melting, juicy character, and
rich, sugary flavor, delights every palate. To insure perfection, it
should be grown on the Quince.



ONONDAGA.
Swan's Orange. | Orange.

SEPTEMBER TO NOVEMBER.

Fig. 106.




252



VARIETIES.



In a rich, strong, clay soil, this is a noble, beautiful, and deli
cious fruit, but it is liable to great variation. The tree is quite
distinguishable by its vigorous and naturally pyramidal form of
light grayish shoots. It is very productive, and grows equally
well on Pear or Quince. The fruit, when perfect, is melting, but-
tery, and juicy, but always a little granular, and sometimes acid.
It is of a rich, deep yellow, relieved by russet dots ; and from its
color and obovate shape, was named Orange. It is more often an
obtuse pyriform, thickest in the centre, divided into five lobes,
between the centre and calyx. It is a splendid market fruit, not
always first-rate, and only adapted to certain localities. Its
average is equal to that of the Duchesse ; but the largest never
equals in size the best specimens of the Duchesse.

OSWEGO BEURRE.

OCTOBER TO DEOZMBEB.
Fig. 107.




ADDITIONAL LIST.



253



Originated in Oswego, New York, by Mr. W. READ. Its great
hardiness, long-keeping, and excellence, make it worthy of general
cultivation. It is vigorous and productive. Fruit medium size,
oblate roundish, a beautiful cinnamon russet, becoming yellowish
when ripe. Stem short, set deep in a very regularly rounded
basin. Flesh buttery, melting, juicy, high-flavored, and aromatic.

PARSONAGE.

SEPTEMBER.

Fig. 108.




254: VARIETIES.

01 the same origin as the Church, and nearly equal excellence.
Fruit from the medium size to large, obtuse pyriform. and obovate;
skin nearly orange yellow, with a dull red blush, and somewhat
russety ; stem short, thick, fleshy at its insertion ; flesh melting,
sugary, with rich sparkling juice : high flavored, but a little coarse
and granular.

PARADISE D'AUTOMNE.

Calebasse Bosc. j Princesse Marianne.

Maria Nouvelle.

Generally mistaken at first sight, for the Beurre Bosc, which it
closely resembles. But the tree of the Bosc is comparatively
feeble, while that of the Paradise is strong and vigorous. Fruit
large, pyriform, tapering up upon the stem, which is often nearly
two inches long and curved ; skin, a rich, yellowish brown russet.
Flesh white, buttery, of very rich delicious flavor.



Colmar Gris.

Passe Colmar Epinceaux.
Colmar Souveraine.
Colmar Proule.



PASSE COLMAR.

Ananas d'lliver.
Colmar Hardenpont.
Souveraine d'l liver.
Fondante de Mons.



Passe Colmar Gris.

" Nouveatu
Co! mar Doree.
Fondante de PaniseL



NOVEMBER TO JAKTTAEY.

There are many other besides these more common synonyms.
It is such an abundant bearer, that the fruit, especially on young
trees, must be thinned to one-third or one-half, to come to perfec-
tion. The growth is often so luxuriant as to absorb too much the
energies of the tree in one direction, unless pinched back.

This variety affords a fine comparison with the Duchesse, show-
ing the cause of more or less abundant fruiting after abundant
blossoming. In the Passe Colmar the pistils and stamens of every
flower are strongly and perfectly developed. While in the Duch-
esse many are imperfect, and but a comparatively small number
of pears are produced.

The fruit grows in clusters, fair size, and first-rate quality when
thinned; flesh yellowish white, buttery, melting, juicy: rich aro-
matic flavor. It needs care and shelter in ripening. It is obtuse
pyriform ; sides suddenly depressed above the centre, giving the



ADDITIONAL LIST.



255



appearance of a lorg pyriform whose base had been pressed up and
swollen at the centre. Skin becomes whitish-yellow long before
maturity, ripening to a bright yellow, with russet brown spots.
Stem long, inserted without depression ; calyx open ; basin shallow



ROSTIEZER.



A fine little summer pear, from Germany, and though not long
in this country, has gained



hosts of friends. And al-
though we must not expect
large size and high flavor
in summer pears, this vari-
ety usually approaches near-
est to the fine rich flavor of
our best autumn pears. It
is very juicy and sweet, with
a pleasant aromatic taste.
Pyriform, with a long slen-
der, curved stem. Skin a
yellowish-green, often with
a sunny-brown cheek. Tree
vigorous, growing well on
the Quince. .

It is like all the summer
pears, very greatly improved
by gathering before becom-
ing quite ripe : and the
terms of quality bestowed
upon them will never be
found appropriate or truth-
ful, except under this con-
dition.



Fig. 10.




256



VARIETIES.




Native. Fruit, medium to large size; beautiful yellowish
brown ; the cheek a rich, deep, reddish brown; remarkably smooth
skin ; almost bergamot-shaped, remarkably regular ; stem inserted
without depression ; rich, juicy, melting, high-flavored, when first-
rate ; quite often insipid, tending to mealiness and rot at the core,
when over-ripe. Tree handsome, vigorous, productive, not suffi-
ciently proved on the Quince. During October.



ADDITIONAL LIST.

SOLDAT LABOUREUR.

OCTOBKB AND NOVEMBER.

. Fig. 111.



257




It is quite surprising that this pear has not made more progress in
public esteem. Tree remarkably vigorous, rampant grower, diffi-
cult to restrain, but, with care, forming good pyramids. The fruit
I consider of the nighest excellence. It is medium to large size,
nearly obtuse pyriforrn, with quite sunken sides, which recede
suddenly near the centre, giving the lower half a swollen appear-
ance. Skin quite yellow while hard and unripe, ripening to a
very bright yellow with small russet dots. Stem long, quite thick,



258



VAKIETIES.



curved, basin small and shallow. It has often, even when quite
melting, coarse particles in the flesh : but it is so rich, juicy, and
sweet, high-flavored, or occasionally perfumed, that it must rank
best. The flavor is best on the Quince.



ST. MICHAEL ARCHANGE.

OCTOBEE.



The tree of this variety is of unsurpassed elegance. Fruit, long



pyriform, large,
greenish yellow,
dotted with rus-
set. Stem not
long, quite fleshy
at base, set with-
out cavity. Flesh
melting, some-
what granular,
full of rich, aro-
matic juice, and
when in perfec-
tion, excelled by
few. Excellent
on quince or pear,
and very produc-
tive.

This pear has
had the fortune
of many other
fruits, to acquire
a reputation for
mediocrity, be-
cause it was
judged from fruit
taken from young
trees.



Fig. 112.




ADDITIONAL LIST.



259



Fig. 118.



TYSON.

LATE IN AUGUST.

A native of the vicinity of Philadelphia, known before the pre-
sent century. It has
never come into gene-
al cultivation, though
recommended by the
American Pomologi-
cal Society. A vigor-
ous and upright grow-
er, young shoots red-
dish brown: a very
tardy, but abundant
bearer. Fruit, small
to medium, pyriform,
tapering to the stem,
which is long, curved,
and set with a fleshy
junction,usuallyswol-
len on one side ; dull
yellow, with russet
red blush on thecheek,
often with dark, al-
most black, spots.
Flesh white, melting,
and juicy, with rich,
sugary, aromatic fla-
vor. For most local-
ities, perhaps, fully
equal to the Blood-
good. Should be
grown on the Quince
on account of its lar-
dinesa




260



VARIETIES.



WATERLOO.



Fondante Charmeuse,
Desiree Van Mons,
Exccllentissima,
Beurre Charmeuse,



Belle Excellent,
Delices des Charmeusea,
Beurre de Waterlo,
Due de Brabant.



OCTOBBB AND NOVEMBKB.



A beautiful, ex-
cellent Belgian
Pear, more com-
monly known as
Fondante Char-
meuse. It is vig-
orous and produc-
tive, and promises
well for general
cultivation. Fruit
large, pyriform,
with uneven sides;
calyx large; basin
rather deep and
irregular; stem
long and curved,
set in flesh rising
to meet it; flesh
verybuttery. melt-
ing with abund-
ant rich, vinous
juice ; s-kin green-
ish, with deep
crimson blush.



Fig. 114




PAET IX. GATHEKING, MABKETIXG,
FKUIT-KOOMS.

SOILS AS AFFECTING- QUALITY OF PEAKS.

THERE is nothing more striking in the cultivation of this fruit
than the variation of flavor and texture in the same varieties, on
different soils. This causes the vexatious contradictions respect-
ing the value of any and every variety. To one, the Louise Bonne
de Jersey seems to deserve all the execration, and to another all
the adulation, which words can express.

The color of any variety also varies on different soils, so that
the fruit almost defies identification. But this change is as often
the result of cultivation. The Louise Bonne de Jersey and the
Beurre Diel are particularly noted for their superiority on sandy
loams, while the Onondaga and Virgalieu are best on strong clay
soils.

The adaptation of soils to different varieties can only be ascer
tained by individual experiment.

THINNING FKTJIT.

Good soils, fine cultivation, healthy and vigorous trees, and all
the other requisites of pear-growing, will often fail of producing
fine fruit, if all that sets is allowed to remain on the tree. The
fruit of the Bartlett, Dearborn's Seedling, the Louise Bonne de
Jersey, and many other varieties, will set in such quantities, that
if thinning is neglected, not one half will reach full size, or acquire
their true" flavor. Besides, these varieties yield fruit so early, that
the trees would be ruined by this precocious fruitfulness. Two
years after planting, these varieties will commence bearing, and
not more than from two to a dozen specimens should be allowed
to ripen annually on each tree, until the fifth year. The period
( 261 )



262 GATHERING, MARKETING, AND FRUIT-ROOMS.

for thinning is, when the pears are from a half to three quarters
of an inch in diameter ; for, as many fall soon after forming, it is
not until then the healthy and perfect ones can be distinguished.
Not more than one-half of the thinning should be done at once,
and the others may be allowed to remain until we can ascertain
the imperfect fruit to be removed.

GATHERING.

There are but few of the finer varieties that are not improved
by gathering before . they are fully ripe. Not a few have been
discarded as unworthy of cultivation, which, by early picking, im-
prove so as to rank among the first in excellence. Several varie-
ties rot at the core when left upon the tree till fully ripe, which
will keep for weeks when picked earlier. Among these are, the
Flemish Beauty, Beurre Diel, and sometimes the Louise Bonne de
Jersey.

The true test of the proper condition for gathering is, the cleav-
ing of the stem from the spur, without breaking, when slightly
raised. Some varieties, indeed, should not be left so long even as
this ; the fruit should not be picked in a wet and cloudy day, or in
early morning when the dew is upon it, as its flavor is much
affected by the moisture, and its keeping properties much injured.
When it is necessary to gather it under such circumstances, it
should be exposed to the light and air until completely dry. Pears
picked in the middle of a sunny day are much superior in flavor,
and keep better; early gathering is only necessary for the summer
and autumn varieties. On the other hand, the late-keeping and
winter kinds should be picked as late in the season as the frost
will allow. Some of them, such as the Easter Beurre, require a
long season to mature.

A dry and moderately cool apartment should be appropriated to
the storage and ripening of summer fruits, and to no other pur-
pose at the same time,

There is no doubt, that under certain conditions of heat and
moisture, absorption as well as evaporation goes on through
the skin of the pear. If vegetables are stored in one part of the
room, harnesses and lumber in another, and decaying apples and



MARKETING PEAKS. 263

peaches, and perhaps the rubbish and debris of last year's opera-
tions remain in a third, feculent exhalations are absorbed by the
skin of the fruit in sufficient quantities to change its flavor.

Mr. WM. REED, of Elizabeth, whose nursery is almost the per-
fection of taste and skill, after having expressed strong disapproval
of the quality of the Vicar, at the meeting of the Pomological
Society, writes, with characteristic frankness, to the President : u I
must withdraw my observations against the Vicar, for since our
meeting I have ripened mine in a new fruit-rcom. and found the
fruit perfectly melting more than good nearly first-rate."

MARKETING PEARS.

A number of pear cultivators have experienced great disappoint-
ment in the marketing of fine fruit, from the indifferent prices
offered. This has always been entirely due to improper gathering
and ripening. Marketmen will not buy fruit already ripe, to be
kept for several days for sale to the retailers, who, in turn, must
keep it as long for sale to the consumers ; nor will the retailers buy
pears entirely green, as few of them are sufficiently acquainted
with the varieties, to be certain how they will ripen up in color
and in flavor.

Some of the fruits should ripen in the hands of the large dealers,
that they may be exhibited as samples, being put in their hands
when green and hard. The great mistake usually made by pear-
growers is, to send the fruit to market after ripening, in such a
condition that it will not bear transportation, and often reaches
its destination badly jammed, if not a mass of rottenness.

The second error is, for the grower to endeavor to market his
own fruit. Few retailers will, in such cases, offer more than one-
third or one-half of the price they expect to pay when their trade
demands an immediate supply.

Bruising in the gathering is not unfrequently the cause of a low
price. Bruised fruit will not bring one quarter of the current
rate. The rules which should guide a fruit-grower in marketing
his fruit are these :

1 . Summer and autumn varieties must be picked, and sent to
market when green and hard, must be packed tight in barrels or



264 GATHERING, MARKETING, AND FKU IT-ROOMS.

cases, with coarse matting around the sides, top, and bottom, so
that they cannot shake about.

2. They must be directed plainly to some reputable commission


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Online LibraryThomas W. (Thomas Warren) FieldPear culture. A manual for the propagation, planting, cultivation, and management of the pear tree. With descriptions and illustrations of the most productive of the finer varieties and selections of kinds most profitably grown for market → online text (page 14 of 18)