Thomas Wentworth Higginson.

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tion, might have ripened into an ability above mediocrity.

He had a strong taste for authorship ; and, after spending'
many months in preparation, he had carried one manuscript
to an advanced stage, without the knowledge of any one
save those whom he was obliged to consult, and had made
a contract for its publication, just as the war broke out.
His desire to see this launched was the strongest obstacle
to his entering the service, though it caused no hesitation
in his conduct. It was an account of printers and printing
in this country prior to the Revolution, with a catalogue of
publications, revised and extended from Isaiah Thomas's
" History of Printing." His manuscript is now in the pos-
session of the An^erican Antiquarian Society, and it is
hoped may yet be published.



196 Harvard Memorial Biographies.

How industriously he pursued his studies was never un-
derstood until an examination of his papers after his death
revealed it. Among them were found copious and careful
notes upon a variety of subjects, evincing a wonderful de-
gree of assiduity and thoroughness. That this was not
appreciated in his lifetime is due to his exceeding reticence
and to his peculiar methods of labor. It was one of his
frequent remarks, that he must work in his own way or he
could do nothing, and his own way was usually an original
method.

But overtopping his intellectual abilities and esthetic
culture was a spirit of singular simplicity, gentleness, and
heroism, associated, however, with a shyness of disposition
and fastidiousness of taste that to some extent restrained its
free action. He was almost childlike in the guilelessness
of his life and the naturalness of his emotions. Quiet and
undemonstrative ia temperament, his thorough amiability
and warm affection manifested themselves much more in
practical acts of kindness than in noisy profession or senti-
mental talk. Truthful to an extreme, in word and deed,
he could not bend himself to suit the tastes of others, nor
easily adapt himself to varying circumstances. Sensitive
in his nature, judging always by the standard of perfection,
and influenced by a noticeable aversion to all shams and in-
sincerity, he saw much in the world that shocked him, and
much in those around him with which he did not care to be-
come intimate. Yet there was nothing of the cynic in his
disposition, nor did he take upon himself the duties of public
or private censor. Whatever offended his taste or his sense
of right seemed to pain rather than anger him, and caused
him to retire sorrowfully within himself, yet with a heart
ready and anxious to forgive as soon as his judgment should
assent. With this temperament and these tastes, it is not
strange that he shrank from rough contact with the world,
and that his circle of intimate friends was not large, — nor
that in that circle he was the most warm-hearted, sympa-
thetic, and trustworthy.



Samuel Foster Haven, Jr. 197

But his conscientiousness was, perhaps, the most striking
of his moral characteristics. Witla him the appreciation of
a duty insured its performance, no matter wliat the cost or
self-sacrifice involved. United with it was a certain chiv-
alrousness of spirit, under the influence of which, shy and
gentle as he was, he was ready to do and suffer anything in
the defence and performance of what he deemed the right.

Though to a man thus constituted a military life could
present but few attractions. Dr. Haven did not hesitate
when the appeal came for troops. Duty seemed to call him,
and that was enough. Appointed Assistant Surgeon of the
Fifteenth Massachusetts Regiment, — the first regiment of
three years' troops recruited in Worcester County, — he
cheerfully departed for the seat of war in August, 1861,
never again to return to the city of his residence, until,
nearly eighteen months afterwards, he was borne through
its hushed streets, with solemn honors, to his lowly resting-
place.

Space will not permit to follow Surgeon Haven with any-
thing like minuteness through his military career. Only a
few of the many facts and incidents at hand can be used,
illustrating the character of his devotion to duty.

-Though in the service about a year and a half, he never
asked leave of absence to revisit his home, nor, it is be-
lieved, was he ever absent from his post for a single day,
except on imperative business. Much of the time while
Assistant Surgeon, owing to the illness or absence of his
superior medical officer, he had the sole charge of the
sick and woimded of his regiment ; yet his letters do not
breathe one word of complaint, nor even a suggestion that
his path of duty was a hard one.

He early arrived at the conviction, — eventually fatal to
himself, — that it was the duty of a surgeon to follow his
regiment into actual battle, so that he might be near at
hand to succor the wounded. The counter-argument, that
on a battle-field the life of a surgeon was much more val-



198 Harvard Memorial Biographies.

uable than that of any one whom he would be likely to save
by this undue exposure, and the representation that the
wounded might be readily brought to him in some place of
comparative safety, availed nothing. His opinion was in-
flexible ; and he ever acted upon it with an utter disregard
of danger, that would have won distinguished promotion
to any line officer in the service.

At Ball's Bluff, indeed, he was not with his regiment in
the conflict itself ; but, in his station on Harrison's Island
in the middle of the Potomac, he was by no means out of
danger ; for at one time, as he says in his short letter of
October 24th, " the bullets poured in upon us like hail-
stones." Another brief extract from the same letter shows
how little he regarded himself. One of the boats in which
the wounded were removed had swamped. " It seemed an
impossibility to get the wounded off before morning, and
we were sure of being shelled out by daylight. Dr. H.
[Dr. Hayward of the Twentieth Massachusetts Volunteers]
and I. decided to remain and be taken, and get off" what
men we could." This calamity was fortunately averted.

At Yorktown, the next summer, he put his principle of
conduct into literal application, in coolly taking his seat on
a log a few feet in the rear of his regiment, one day when
it was supporting a battery, equally regardless of the shells
of the enemy and the solicitations of his brother surgeons,
who besought him to fall back with them but a few rods to
a place of security.

At Pair Oaks he bore himself with distinguished intre-
pidity, attending to his surgical diities in the very midst of
the conflict, while wounded and unwounded men, with
whom he was conversing, were shot dead at his feet. His
personal experiences on that eventful day, did space permit
the detailing of them, would be highly interesting, though
in his letter to his father he says, with characteristic shy-
ness, they " concern nobody but you and me."

From Harrison's Landing, under date of July 13, 1862,
he writes : —



Samuel Foster Haven, Jr. 199

" I am surprised to hear from you, that my name has been men-
tioned in connection with the Thirty-fourth [a new regiment then
forming]. I am obliged to my friends that may have suggested it ;
but I really do not wish to leave the Fifteenth. There is already
evidence of too much desire on the part of officers to get leave of
absence for the sake of procuring higher appointments in new regi-
ments."

He was soon after rewarded for his constancy by being
promoted to the surgeonship of his own regiment, on the
resignation of Dr. Bates.

His personal adventures at Antietam cannot be made
more interesting than in his own words, under date of Sep-
tember 24, 1862 : —

"As our brigade advanced in line of battle, under fire from
the Rebel batteries, General Gorman (why I know not) ordered
me to the left of the line, thus bringing me with the Thirty-fourth
New York Regiment. This regiment became first engaged with the
enemy, and partly from the deadly fire, and partly from the break-
ing of the regiment on its left (of another brigade), the Thirty-fourth
gave way itself. With other officers, I did my best to rally the
men, and only with partial success. General Sedgwick, who was
at this part of the line, had his horse shot, and was wounded in two
places. I looked at his wounds, and advised him to go to the rear ;
but he would not, and I then oflTered him my horse, but his wrist
was broken, and he could not well ride

" During this time the rest of the brigade had become separated,
and were far to the right. I rode hither and thither all over the
field, trying in vain to find the Fifteenth. At last I stumbled upon
all that was left, — about one hundred and seventy-five men. [They
went into battle with five hundred and eighty-three men, and lost
three hundred and twenty-one killed and wounded, and twenty-four
missing.J

" . . . . The Colonel desired me to try and get the body of Cap-
tain Simonds, which had been brought part way back. Taking an
ambulance, I found it, and while putting it in was called some way

to the front to see Colonel Wristar of the California Regiment

While hastily dressing their wounds, word was brought that the



200 Harvard Memorial Biographies.

Rebel skirmishers were close upon us. Colonel "Wristar thought he
could walk, but while helping him out he fainted, and I had just
brought him to, when his own surgeon appeared.

" The fight was expected to be renewed the next morning,

but both sides rested on their arms. A lot of our killed and
wounded lay beyond our lines, and within those of the Eebels. I
made several vain efforts to get at them, and particularly to find
Tom Spurr, riding even beyond our own pickets, and within half-
gunshot distance of the Rebel pickets, who were in plain sight.
Towards night I went, with Colonel Lee of the Twentieth, and a
flag of truce, over to the Rebels to get permission to bury our dead
and carry off the wounded. We parleyed some time with several
staff officers, and finally with General Fitz-Hugh Lee himself; but
permission would not be given, unless an arrangement had been
made between the commanders of the two forces themselves.

" During the night the enemy retreated, and early in the morn-
ing we went over and found our dead and wounded, — an awful
sight. The Eebels, however, had been kind to our wounded, and
got them in and around a barn with large haystacks."

Surgeon Haven's last hasty note (from Falmouth, oppo-
site Fredericksburg) bears date December 9th. At the
close of it, he thus refers to the preparatory orders for the
disastrous battle of the 13th : —

" We have this moment received orders to have to-morrow morn-
ing, right after breakfast, three days' rations issued to officers and
men, and sixty rounds of ammunition to each man. This looks like
moving, and it remains to be seen what will be done."

What was done can be read, not only in his own epitaph,
but in the broken hearts and desolate homes of, alas ! how
many. A portion of the sad story can best be told in the
words of his superior officer, Surgeon Sherman. After
speaking of his " sacrifices to duty," and " utter disregard
of danger," he says : —

" Witnessing his self-exposure at the battle of Antietam, I had,
as Medical Director of the Second Division, detailed your son, in a
written order, in the event of a battle, to repair to the Division



Samuel Foster Haven, Jr. 201

Hospital, and give his services there instead of in the field with his
regiment. "When I communicated this order to your son, he evi-
dently felt disappointed. He expressed a strong choice to go wher-
ever his regiment went ; and when the column to which the Fif-
teenth Massachusetts was attached was about to pass over the
bridge in front of Fredericksburg, he was expostulated with, and
reminded of the previous order ; but he asked as a special favor to
be allowed to go with his regiment, and said that as soon as the
fight was done, he would return to the hospital and remain there."

Only a short time after, while marching through the
streets of the city by the side of his regiment, toward the
position assigned it in that day's battle, he was struck in
the leg by a casual shell from the enemy's batteries. Taken
back to the nearest hospital, it was for a time hoped that an
amputation might save his life ; but he never rallied from
the shock. And so, cheerful in his agony, upheld by the
consciousness of duty performed, in that shattered building,
even then rent by an occasional shell, adding fresh confu-
sion and horror to the scene, — surrounded by the dying
and dead, amid the groans of those to assuage whose early
pangs he had ventured and suffered all, — the patriot passed
away ; and his gentle spirit, answering to the roll-call of the
mighty cannonade, took its place in the great army which
that night encamped in the heavenly fields.

The following verses, inscribed to the memory of Dr.
Haven, appeared in the "Worcester Spy, of December 30,
1862, and were understood to have been written by Rev. D.
A. "Wasson : —

" "With skilful touch he turned away
Death's wishful hand from wounded men ;
But when was done that doleful day,
The living laid him with the slain.

" Thy hurt to heal, native land !
"What mortal might he did and dared ;
And when all service of his hand
Seemed not enough, his heart he bared.



202 Harvard Memorial Biographies.

" And laid his life upon thy hurt,
By losing all, to make thee whole ;
But could not lose his high desert
And place on Memory's record-roll.

" And when that sacred roU she calls.
The word, perchance, will reach his ear,
And he shall from the eternal haUs,
Among God's angels, answer, ' Here ! '

" We will not deem his life was brief.
For noble death is length of days ;
The sun that ripens autumn's sheaf
Has poured a summer's wealth of rays."



William Sturgis Hooper. 203



WILLIAM STUEGIS HOOPER.

Vol. A. D. C. (rank of Captain), Major-General Banks's Staff, De-
cember 4, 1862 ; died at Boston, September 24, 1863, of disease con-
tracted in the service.

WILLIAM STURGIS HOOPER was born in Boston,
March 3, 1833. The name of his father, Samuel
Hooper, has been for many years as famiUar in the com-
mercial world as it is now in the affairs of the nation. His
mother was Anne, daughter of William Sturgis, whose early
career, as one of the pioneers of our commerce in the Pa-
cific, and whose later prominence among Boston merchants,
are well known in the community. Both by his father's
and mother's line the subject of this sketch was allied to a
race of merchants ; and the taste and faculty for business
which his manhood developed had been born in him, and
had grown with his growth.

In his early school-days there was little of interest, and
of those days he afterwards had no cheerful recollection.
Not of robust constitution, possessing little rude childish
energy, never " a boy among boys," he shrank from all the
roughness of school life with the same sensitiveness which
later, as a man in contact with men, he strove faithfully
and successfully to conquer. StiU he was never effemi-
nate, and he very early manifested the fondness for field
sports and all sorts of out-of-door life which he always re-
tained. His summers in the country, or on the sea-shore,
where he was his father's companion in walking and fish-
ing, and his mother's pupil in books, and in many things
not taught from books, were the pleasantest portions of this
period of his life. As a child, he was ardent in whatever he
undertook, but with an underlying sweetness and patience,
and had an older and more serious air than his years would
warrant.



204 Sarvard Memorial Biographies.

Afterwards he attended the school of Mr. Francis Phelps,
a well-known teacher of Boston, who bears testimony to his
excellent character and mind, and to his fidelity as a stu-
dent. He entered the Boston Latin School in September,
1844, at the age of eleven, and remained there until the
spring of 1848, and continued his preparatory studies for
the University for a few months with Mr. John B. Felton,
of the Class of 1847, and finished them with his cousin, Mr.
Nathaniel L. Hooper, of the Class of 1846. He entered
Harvard in the autumn of 1849, at the age of sixteen, join-
ing the Class of 1852, then commencing its Sophomore
year.

His unboyish temperament had at this time developed
into a rather premature manhood. He already had the air
of a man of the world ; and it was a common remark among
his classmates that he entered college thirty years old, and
grew younger every year. He remained in Cambridge
until the end of the first Senior term. As a scholar he
took a less prominent position than many men of far duller
intellect and smaller attainments, and he perhaps felt less
interest in the regular classical and mathematical curricu-
lum, by which rank is usually obtained, than he would
have taken in a more immediately practical course. Still
he was faithful in his attention to the college exercises, and
his standing, if not high, was respectable. Of the modern
languages, and especially of German, he was very fond, and
he laid up in his memory at this time a stock of German
ballads which he never lost.

One rarely sees a more quiet college career than Sturgis
Hooper's. Refined in his manners and tastes, singularly
exempt from youthful vices, having the utmost dislike for
the dissipations which Sophomores often consider manly
and the vulgarities which they often think gentlemanly,
joining no convivial clubs, but having his door always open
to those classmates whose tastes were congenial with his
own, and freely accepting their hospitalities, he went on



William Sturgis nooper. 205

his way, a little apart from the stir and hum around him,
but never repellent or exclusive. The resolutions which
the Class adopted upon his death speak of him thus : —

" Less familiarly known to most of us than almost any other of
the Class, he yet commanded the esteem of all ; and though, partly
from the shortness of his connection with us and partly from his
natural reserve, he acquired few intimacies, he was remarkably
happy in never attracting a single enmity. Respected by all fcr
his purity of life, his aversion to whatever was ignoble or degrad-
ing, his proud contempt of all evasion and indirection, his scorn of
hypocrisies and shams, he at the same time won the cordial affec-
tion and friendship of those who were beist enabled to know
and feel the warmth of his heart, the gentleness of his courtesy,
and his earnest enthusiasm for whatever was good or beautiful or
true."

In social life he had the cultivation and breeding of a
much older man, and his conversation was rarely trivial
or uninteresting. In the society of women he was espe-
cially at ease. Faith in their purity and delicacy was one
of the cardinal points of his creed. He never thought or
spoke of them but with respect, and he was always impa-
tient of any indecorous or derogatory allusion to them by
others.

His favorite indoor recreation, while in college and af-
terwards, was chess, in which he became proficient. He
was especially skilful in exercises requiring accuracy of
eye and dexterity of hand, — a capital draughtsman, an ex-
pert driver, an excellent helmsman of a boat, and rarely
equalled in billiard-playing or in shooting with pistol or
rifle. His fondness for out-of-door pursuits — driving, rid-
ing, hunting, fishing, and boating — had now supplied the
place of the athletic energy in which he was naturally de-
ficient.

Hooper obtained from the Faculty leave of absence for
the last term of the Senior year, for the purpose of making
a voyage in a new ship which his father was about to de-



206 Sarvard Memorial Biographies.

spatch to California and China, and sailed from Boston in
January, 1852. He had invited one of his classmates to
accompany him. Seldom has the world been circumnavi-
gated under pleasanter circumstances. It was as if college
rooms had been carried on shipboard. College pursuits
were intermingled with the ordinary sea-life of a passenger,
— half sailor play and half the dolce far niente. The
young men took their books with them, and perhaps did as
much hard study and reading under the fresh trade-winds
as they had ever done within the walls of Alma Mater.
History, navigation, mercantile law, and book-keeping took
their turns with modern languages, poetry, light literature,
and chess. Hooper kept up his rifle and pistol practice and
his drawing, and also spent a good deal of time in studying
and devising models for boats and ships. He applied him- ■
self, moreover, to practical seamanship, and, as usual with
him, was not satisfied until he had proved to himself that
he could do with his own hands the work of which he un-
derstood the theory. So, after spending a month very pleas-
antly in California, partly at San Francisco and partly in
the mining regions, he shipped regularly as third mate of
the Courser for her voyage across the Pacific. The ex-
periment was successful ; and after satisfying himself that
he could hold on to the yard-arm in a typhoon, he was
willing to return to his passenger-life for the homeward
trip from China. He reached home by the end of 1852,
spent the rest of the winter in Boston, took a trip in the
spring to the Southern States and Cuba (a journey which
he had taken once before, while in college), attended the
Law School in Cambridge during May and June, and went
to Europe with his family in July, 1853. He made the
tour of Great Britain and the Continent, saw everything and
admired what he saw, but found nothing to overturn his
love for America. " Those fellows," he writes, " who come
home full of Europe, and abusing America, are entirely
wrong. I am getting more certain of it every day." And



William Sturgis Hooper. 207

again, to a friend who had rallied him on his ebullitions
of patriotism, " What do you suppose there is here to cool
one's patriotism ? I am ten times more proud of my coun-
try than I ever was before."

His studies abroad were principally in the modern lan-
guages and in drawing. The winter of 1853 - 54, spent in
Eome, was especially valuable in developing the artistic
taste which he had always shown. His skill in drawing
was something better than a mere mechanical accomplish-
ment ; and his love and talent for art were in later years a
source of miich pleasure and recreation amid the graver
cares of business.

In the autumn of 1854 his family returned home, while
he remained in Paris. Here he was attacked by a severe
disease of the intestines, which rendered a surgical opera-
tion necessary. Prom the effects of this disease he never
recovered. It left him with a chronic weakness, and
implanted in his system the seeds of the consumption
which finally caused his death. But this severe experi-
ence, which so enfeebled his body, left him in all else
ripened and strengthened. He had passed from boyhood
into manhood.

Hooper came home in the spring of 1855, and employed
the following eighteen months in a partially successful at-
tempt to restore his health by hunting, yachting, and like
recreations. In the autumn of 1856 he found himself
well enough to go into business, and formed, with his cousin,
John H. Reed, the firm of Reed and Hooper, for the manage-
ment and agency of the Bay State Iron Company, a con-
nection which lasted until his death. For mercantile life
he was admirably adapted by character, by habit, and by
inherited taste and ability. He soon became most favor-
ably known among business men, and was on the high road
to success. In October, 1857, he married Alice, the young-
est daughter of Jonathan Mason, Esq. Their only child,
Isabella Weyman, was born in January, 1859. A happier



208 Harvard Memorial Biographies.

domestic life would be hard to find. Had it not been for
the bodily disease which was constantly throwing its cloud
over him, it would seem as if fortune had now left him
nothing to desire.

From the very commencement of the Eebellion, he had
been anxious to bear his part in the war, but his feeble
health and urgent business were obstacles hard to sur-
mount. The responsibilities of this business were rendered
more pressing than ever before, by the fact that the time
and thoughts of his senior partner were now much en-
grossed by the duties of the office of Quartermaster-Gen-
eral of Massachusetts, to which he had been appointed.
The possibility of deserting his counting-room being thus
for the time out of the question, Hooper accepted the situ-



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