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A Satchel guide for the vacation tourist in Europe online

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some parts) and never freezes. At the Pier of Foyers
the steamer makes a stop to allow a view of the cele-
brated Fall of Foyers, or the " Fall of Smoke," as it
has been called. There are two falls, the lower one
making a leap of 90 feet into a wild linn shut in by
gigantic rocks ; the upper one about 30 feet high, witn
an aerial bridge spanning the chasm.

[From this point there is a delightful j-oad to Inver-
ness (18 miles), and the pedestrian may prefer to spend
the remainder of the day here, and walk to Inverness
the next day.]

A few miles beyond Foyers, the ruins of Urquhart
Castle are seen on the opposite shore, and 8 miles
from here a narrow channel, only a quarter of a mile
long, leads from Loch Ness into Loch Defour^ the last
and least of these lakes. From this another piece of
canal, about 4 miles long, brings the steamer to her
pier at Muirtcwn, where omnibus and cabs are in
waiting to take us to Inverness, less than a mile off.

Inverness, " the capital of the Highlands," is not
particularly interesting in itself, but the vicinity has
many attractions for the tourist who can make a stay
here ; as, Culloden Moor^ with its battle-field (6 miles),
Cawdor Castle^ made memorable by Shakespeare
(about 20 miles), etc.

Inyemess to Edinburgh.
From Inverness the vacation tourist will probably
wish to %o at once by rail to Edinburgh (loo miles via
Fife ; 213 via Stirling: 34r. 6^., 25 j. loa.^ i8j.).

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42 SCOTLAND,

In the famous Pass of KilliecrankU^ which b^ns
not far beyond Blair- A thole station (no miles from
InveraessX secure a seat on the right side of the rail-
way carriage, in order to see the remarkable river
scenery ; or you may leave the train at Rlair-AthoU
and walk through the Pass to Pitlochrie (6} miles),
taking the next train from that station.

["Should you intend to take the trip through the
Caledonian Canal, it will be best on the excursion to
Loch Lomondy the Trosachs^ etc, to return to Glasgow
direct by mXfrom Stirling {about 30 miles) instead of
proceedmg to Edinburgh. Ifvou prefer it, you can
let that excursion end at Callander , returning from
there to Glasgow bv the route you have come. You
can then visit Stirling on the way from Inverness to
Edinburgh ; remembering to take tickets at Inverness
for the Stirling route, not via Fife,

If pressed for time, go by rail from Callander to
Oban (70 miles ; \\s, loSl, 8j. io//., 5^. 10^.) by a most
picturesque route, and then over the Canal, as above.]

Edinboi^h and its Ticinitj.

Edinburgh may be " done " in a single day ; but
it would be better to give it at least double that time,
even at the sacrifice of some of the minor excursions
mentioned above.

One's first walk in Edinburgh should be to the Cal-
ton Hilly whence you have a good view of the city
and its suburbs. If you would get a broader pros-
pect, ascend Nelson^s Monument (3d,), the top of
which is 450 feet above the sea. The other notice-
able things on the Hill are the unfinished National
Monument^ the monument to Dugald Stewar^ the
High School and Burns' s Monument, opposite the
High School.

The Castle is another point from which a fine view
is obtained, and within its walls are exhibited (free)
the ancient Regalia of Scotland ; also Queen Mary^s
Room, in which James VI. was born; Queen Mar-
garefs Chapel, one of the oldest chapels in Scotland
(built about 1 100), recently restored ; Mon^ Meg, a
gigantic cannon used at the siege of Norham Castle
m 1497, etc., etc

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SCOTLAND. 43

The walk from the Castle down the High Street to
Holy rood \% very interesting. St. Giles's Churchy seen
on the way, is the ancient parish church of Edinburgh
(i2th century). It has suffered much from ** restora-
tions," but the spire retains its mediaeval beauty. The
Parliament House should be visited for the ** Great
Hall," with carved oaken roof, statues, and portraits.
John Knox's House i)cm\X. in 1490), Moray House^ the
ol I mansion of the Earls of Moray, and the Canon-
j^ate Tolbooth (1591) are curious relics of the olden
time. In the churchyard of the Canongate Church
are the graves of Dugald Stewart, Adam Smith, the
poet Ferguson (whose gravestone was erected by
Robert Burns), and others.

Holyrood Palace and Abbey are open at 11 a. m.
daily (6</.). You are conducted by a guide through the
Picture Gallery, Lord Darnley's Rooms, the Tapestry
Room (portion of the palace built by Charles II.),
Queen Mary^s Apartments (where Rizzio was mur-
dered and his blood still stains the oaken floor — if
you have faith to believe that part of the story), and
the Chapel Royals which is a beautiful fragment of
the ancient Abbey founded in 1128. Here Charles I.
was crowned in 1633. and here, in the royal vault, re-
pose David II., James II., James V. and his queen,
and Henry Lord Darnley.

Arthurs Seat., beyond Holyrood, is 822 feet high,
and the view well repays the walk to its top. There
is a good carriage road round the hill. The ruined
St. Anthony^s Chapel, on the way up, is associated
with incidents in Scott's ** Heart of Midlothian."

The ancient University^ the Royal Institution (an-
tiquities, sculpture, etc.), the National Gallery, Grey-
friars^ Churchyard {where Allan Ramsay, Robertson
the historian. Black the chemist. Dr. Blair, and other
eminent Scotsmen are buried), Heriofs Hospital
(founded by the "Jingling Geordie" of **The For-
tunes of Nigel "), St Mary's Cathedral (the master-
piece of Sir G. G. Scott), Scott's House in Castle
Street, and the Waverley Monument on Princes
Street, will also attract the stranger. From the Bo-
tanic Garden there is a fine view of the city.

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44 SCO TLA AD.

A delightful excursion may be made from Edin-
burgh to Haivthornden and Rosslyn (or Roslin)
Chapel. Take ihe train for Hawihornden station (a
circuitous route of ii miles; u., lo^., 8^.), which is
very near the entrance to Hawthornden House, This
charming place (admission, \s.) was the residence of
the poet Drummond, and hither Ben Jonson walked
all the way from London to visit his friend and see
Scotland. Roslin Chapel (i j.) is reached by a foot-
path along the bank of the lovely Esk. It was
founded in 1446, and is one of the most elegant re-
mains of the Gothic architecture of Scotland. Near
by are the mouldering walls of Roslin Castle over-
hanging the river. Return to Edinburgh (7 miles) on
foot, by coach, or by rail, as you please. The walk
will take you through some of the pleasantest of the
suburbs ; and if you choose the road by Momingside
(also reached by tramway), you can see the Bore
Stone, to which the royal standard was fixed when
James IV. arrayed his army there before his depart-
ure for Floddenfield. You may also ascend Black-
ford Hill {^oy^ a public park), which affords a beauti-
ful prospect of the city and the surrounding country
and waters. If you are tempted to linger here, you
may recollect that —

" Still on the spot Lord Marmion stayed,
For fairer scene he ne'er surveyed."

The quaint fishing village of Newhaven (2 miles by
tram or rail) is also worth seeing, if time permits.

Edinbiirgli to Helrose, Abbotsford, and Dryburgb
This excursion may be taken en route for England.
Take your ticket for Melrose (37^ miles), where car-
ria<^es may be hired at the station for the ride to Ab-
botsford. The distance is 3 miles (carriage, dr. 6^.).
It is well to ride there and back; then to see Melrose
Abbey, and, after a lunch at the hotel, to walk (4 miles)
to Dry burgh Abbey and back. The best route is by
way of the Eildon Hills and St. Boswells, returning
by Bemerside (carriage for the round, 9 or loj.).
At A bbotsford {itQ, u.) visitors are shown through

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SCOTLAND. 45

the Entrance Hall, Armor)', Drawing- Room, Library,
and Study, by a guide, who describes everything.

Melrose Abbey {(id.) '^'^Si founded in 1136, but was
destroyed in 1322. A few years later the present edi-
fice was built, one of the most admirable works of the
best period oif ecclesiastical architecture. The mate-
rial is a very hard stone, and much of the carving is
as perfect as when fresh from the sculptor's hand.
No description, not even the famous one in the " Lay
of the Last Minstrel," can give any adequate, idea of
its beauty. Within its walls are the graves of kings,
and nobles, and priests of the olden time; among
them Alexander II. of Scotland, and more than one
of the renowned Earls of Douglas. Before the high
altar the heart of King Robert Bruce is said to have
been deposited. Sir David Brewster's grave is in the
churchyard.

l)ryburgh Abbey {6d,) was founded about the same
time as Melrose, and, like that, was destroyed in 1322
by Edward II. Robert I. restored it, at least in part;
but it was again destroyed in 1544. St. Mary's aisle,
the most beautiful part of the ruins, contains the tomb
of Scott, buried here Sept. 26, 1832; also the graves
of his wife and his eldest son, and of his son-in-law
Lockhart.

[This excursion may also be made in one day, by
taking return ticket from Edinburgh, leaving luggage
at hotel there. In going south one can then take the
picturesque " east-coast route " via Berwick. Other-
wise take the train at Melrose for Durham via Neuu-
castle-on-Tyne, If you leave Melrose in the P. M.,
you can go no farther than Newcastle that evening.]

SThe great Forth Bridge may be visited by rail (13
es from Edinburgh) ; and the ancient town of Dun-
fermline (see the old ballad of " Sir Patrick Spens,"
etc.), with its ruined Abbey ^ is only 8 miles further on
the same railway.]



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46 ENGLAND.

ENGLAND (continued).

Hewcastle to Dturham.

Newcastle ori^nated in the Roman Pons jEHi^
and in the Saxon time was called Monkchester, from
its many monasteries. It derived its present name
from a castle built by Robert, eldest son of William
the Conqueror. It figured prominently in the wars
between England and Scotland. Its modern impor-
tance, on account of its enormous coal trade, is well
known. It is also the seat of extensive manufactures
of iron, steel, woollen goods, glass, pottery, chemicals,
etc.

The donjon-keep of the Castle still remains {6d,).
The fine old church of St, Nicholas (14th century) be-
came a cathedral in 1882. Stephenson's High Level
Bridire across the Tyne, carrying the railway above
the ordinaiy roadway, is a remarkable piece of engi-
neering.

Durham, about 13 miles from Newcastle, stands
on an eminence nearly encircled by the River Wear.
Crowning the height are the Castle^ built in 1072 (now
the seat of the University), and the Cathedral^ form-
ing a striking picture from whatever point they are
viewed.

The Cathedral^ begun in 1093, and mostly built
during the succeeding half century, is a grand speci-
men of Norman work ; while the eastern transept (or
" Nine Altars ''), added in the 13th century, is an ex-
quisite piece of Early English. The dormitory, clois-
ters, and the upper part of the central tower are Per-
pendicular (1400-1480). The Norman nave differs
from those of Peterboro' and Ely in that the piers
are shorter and more massive, and their zigzag and
latticed ornamentation is also peculiar.

The view of the cathedral from the railway station,
and that from the Framwell^ate Bridge, are unsur-
passed in all England. " Independently of the his-

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ENGLAND, 47

torical associations that belong to 'time-honored'
Durham, —

" ^ Half house of God, half castle 'gainst the Scot,* —

the scene alone, with the castle walls and the towers
of the enormous church rising close beside it and
sheer with the face of the clin ; the rich masses of
true greenwood that cluster below, and that line on
either side the steep banks of the river; and the
Wear itself winding in a broad stream around the
promontory; — the scene is one that can never be
forgotten, and that (at all events when under its im-
mediate spell) inclines us to give the first position
among English cathedrals to Durham. There are in-
deed only two that can fairly be compared with it :
Lincoln, on its * sovereign hill * crowning the city ;
and Ely, rising like some natural landmark, rock, or
mountain, in the midst of the great level of the fens." ^

The beautiful walks on the banks of the Wear af-
ford many charming views of the cathedral, which is
also seen to good advantage from St. Giles's Church-
yard; from the " Prior's path," on the way to Beaure-
paire ; and from a point known as " Nine Trees," in a
field at the end of the old Elvete, especially at sunset.

There are many attractive excursions in the neigh-
borhood of Durham : the site of Maiden CastUy three
quarters of a mile distant ; Neville's Cross (one mile),
erected by Ralph Lord Neville in memory of the cap-
ture of David IL; Chester-le- Street (6 miles), with its
famous old church, etc.

Durham to York.
Instead of going direct to York (63 miles), make a
ddtour by way of Ripon^ in order to visit Fountains
Abbey. This famous ruin, the most interesting of the
kind in all Great Britain, is three miles from Ripon,
in the pleasure grounds of Studley Royal^ the seat of
the Marquis of Kipon. The monastery buildings (is.)
originally covered ten or twelve acres, and the ruins
occupy two acres. The grounds are beautifully laid
out.

1 King's Handbook of English Cathedrals.



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48 ENGLAND.

At Ripon the Cathedral is one of the smaller struc-
tures of its class, but the nave (171 feet long, 88 high),
is very beautiful, and other parts of the church are
interesting in their way.

[The fashionable ** spa " of Harrogate is on the road
between Ripon and York, and may tempt you to stop
over a train, if no longer.]

York, the Roman Eboracum^ was an old town
when Agricola (a. d. 78) made it one of his principal
stations. Here Severus died and was buried ; and
here Constantine the Great was proclaimed emperor.
Here the first English parliament was held, in 11 60,
and for five centuries parliaments were occasionally
summoned to the ancient city. Here are remains of
Roman towers and of the earliest British churches.
The walls, built long before the time of Henry III.,
after being battered in many a siege, were breached
in our day to admit the railway train. They still en-
circle a large part of the citj', and serve as a public
promenade.

The Cathedral or Minster stands on the site of a
Saxon church in which King Edwin of Northumbria
was baptized on Easter day, A. D. 627. This was re-
placed by a larger edifice, burnt in 741. Another,
built by Archbishop Albert (who came to the see in
767), was burnt in 1060, when William the Conqueror
was devastating Yorkshire. Thomas of Baveux, the
first Norman Bishop, built a new church before iioo.
Abp. Roger (it 54-1 181) pulled down the choir and re-
built it on a larger scale. Abp. Gray (i 215-1255) ap-
pears to have rebuilt the south transept in its present
(Early English) form. John le Romeyn, treasurer of
York (1228-1256), built the north transept and a cen-
tral tower. In 1291 Abp. le Romeyn (son of the treas-
urer) began to rebuild the nave, which was finished in
1355. The chapter-house belongs to the same (Deco-
rated) period. In 1361 Abp. Thoresby began the lady
chapel and presbytery (early Perpendicular) which
were probably completed by 1373; and between that
date and 1400, the old Norman choir was entirely re-
placed by the present (Perpendicular) one. During ths
next 70 years the centnd tower was recased and brought

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ENGLAND, 49

into its present shape, and the two western towers
were built (late Perpendicular). The church, thus re-
built throughout, was re-consecrated on the 3d of July,
1472.

The extreme length of the cathedral is 524^ feet ;
breadth across the transepts, 250 ; height of central
tower, 213; of western towers, 202; within the height
of the nave is 99J feet ; height of choir, 102 ; height
of lantern (inside), 188. The great east window is
76 feet high, 32 wide ; the west window, 54 high, 30
wide.

The minster is rich in old stained glass. In the
north transept the five lofty and narrow lancet win-
dows (54 feet high, 54 wide), known as the ** Five Sis-
ters," are filled with Early English glass. The great
west window, with its exquisite flowing tracery, also
contains the original glass, as do most of the other
windows of the nave. Nowhere in England can one
see a larger or more perfect display of the painted
glass of the early part of the 14th century. The great
east window is the largest in the kingdom that retains
its original glazing (1405-1408). [This and one in
Gloucester Cathedral, 72 feet by 38, are the largest
Gothic windows in the world.] Most of the glass in
the choir belongs to the same period. That in the
chapter-house belongs to the early part of the 14th
century, and is remarkably fine.

In. the vestry, some venerable curiosities are ex-
hibited ; among them the horn of Uiphus^ laid on the
altar more than 800 years ago by Ulph, lord of great
part of eastern Yorkshire, in token that he bestowed
certain lands on the church. In the Library (8000
volumes) are many rare and curious books, manu-
scripts of Cicero of the nth and 12th centuries, bre-
viaries and psalters of the 13th century, works printed
by Caxton, Wynkyn de Worde, etc., a manuscript vol-
ume by the poet Gray, etc.

One of the best views of the exterior of the cathe-
dral is from the walls of the city.

The Gardens of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society
(i^.) contain interesting Roman, Saxon, and Norman
remains, and the ruins of the beautiful Early English



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so ENGLAND.

Abbey of SU Mary, Of York Castle^ now a prison,
the oldest portion is Clifford's Tower^ which was the
keep or donjon. In 1190 it was the scene of the self-
immolation of 500 Jews, who in order to disappoint
a bloodthirsty mob destroyed themselves and their
property by setting fire to the interior.

The Guildhall^ built in 1446, contains a hall, 96 feet
by 43, and about 30 high, with rich oak carving. Many
of the old churches are interesting for their architec-
ture and their ancient glass.

Ezoursion to Leeds and its Vicinity.

Leeds, the capital of the " Clothing District," can
be most conveniently reached from York (32 miles by
rail). Its manufactures of woolen, linen, worstec^
silk» machinery, tools, leather, glass, tobacco, etc^
with its many other important industries, make it one
of the busiest towns in Great Britain. The Town
Hall and the New Infirmary are large and elegant
buildings, and th^ new Parish Church (St. Peter's) is
a fine example of modern Gothic. The Cloth Halls
and the principal factories (introduction necessary)
are well worth a visit.

Bradford, 10 miles from Leeds, is the chief seat
of the worsted trade, and has grown from about 13,000
inhabitants in 1801 to more than 200.600 at the pres-
ent time. It has a fine old church {St. Peter^s\ and
St. George's Hall is an elegant modern edifice.

Saltaire (4 miles from Bradford) is a unique and
interesting place. It is a model manufacturing town
(woollen and worsted), built by one man, the late Titus
Salt, Esq. The houses for the workmen are well
built, and the chapel, schools, news-room, library,
etc., arc handsome and well equipped.

Haworth (21^ miles from Leeds, via Keighley ;
3J. 4/^, IS. 6d.^ IS. yd.), the home and the burial-place
of the Bront^ sisters, has become one of the literary
** shrines of England." The old Church has been re-
cently demolished. The Parsohage, with its dreary
outlook upon the graveyard and the brown moors, is
familiar from the description given by Mrs. Gaskell
and many tourists ; but the most vivid pictures of the

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ENGLAND. SX

surrounding scenery are to be found in the Bronte
novels. Walk to tne moor on the heights above the
village, the favorite haunt of the sisters.

Leeds to Lincoln, via ShefiSeld.

Sheffield, " the metropolis of steel," may be vis-
ited on the way to Lincoln. It is 33 miles from Leeds,
and 43 from Lincoln. The chief interest of the place
is the vast manufactories of cutlery in all its branches.
Silver plate and plated goods are also largely made
here, with optical instruments, brushes, buttons,
combs, etc. St, Peter's Church is as old as the reign
of Edward IIL, and contains some elegant monu-
ments, ancient and modern. The Town Hally Corn
Exchange y and other public buildings are likewise
noteworthy.

At RoTHERHAM, 6 miles from Sheffield, there is a
very beautiful Perpendicular Church, which attracts
many visitors. In the neighborhood are remains of
the famous Sherwood Forest, Wharncliffe Lodge
(about 6 miles from Sheffield by rail) was for some
years the resilience of Mary Wortley Montagu. Here
also may be seen portions of Sherwood Forest.

JVewsteadj4ddeyjiormer\ythe mansion of the Byron
family, is about 25 miles from Sheffield (considerably
farther by rail), and may be visited by making a de-
tour by Nottingham (famed for its manufactures of
lace, hosiery, etc.) on your way to Lincoln. From
Nottingham go by branch road to Hucknall (about
8 miles), where Byron is buried, and walk from there
to Newstead. Return to Nottingham and take train
for Lincoln.

York to Lincoln,
If you do not make the above excursion to Leeds
and Sheffield, take the train for Lincoln (72 miles) via
Doncaster, If the train does not go directly through,
improve the opportunity at Doncaster of visiting the
Parish Church (St, George^s\ not far from the sta-
tion. It has been called " the most stately ecclesias-
tical structure erected in England during the present
century." It is in the early Decorated style, and the

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52 ENGLAND,

work of Sir G. G. Scott. The Race Course^ where
the celebrated St. Leger races take place, is about a
mile from the town, by a very pleasant road.

Lincoln, the Linai Colonia of the Romans, con-
tains much of interest for the antiquarian. The New^
port Gate is one of the finest remnants of Roman
architecture in Great Britain ; and in the cloisters of
the cathedral a Roman pavement is to be seen. Here
John of Gaunt had a palace, portions of which still
remain. The Guildhall dates from the time of Henry
VIII.

The Cathedral stands on a hill overlooking the
country for miles around. A cathedral was first
erected here by Remigius, the first Norman bishop
(1073-1092), and portions of that building remain in
the west front 01 the present one. The latter was
begun by "St. Hugh of Lincoln" (i 186-1200), and
the choir, the eastern transept, and the eastern side
of the great transept appear to have been built by
him. His successor (i 203-1 209) probably completed
the great transept and the "Galilee porch." The
nave and the upper portion of the west front are as-
scribed to 1 209- 1 23 5; the west transept and part of
the central tower to 1 235-1 253. The presbytery, or
"Angel Choir" was finished before 1282; the clois-
ters and the upper part of the central tower between
that time and 1300. The upper part of the western
towers is Perpendicular work of about 1450. By far
the greater part of the church is Early English, and
is scarcely surpassed by an^ other example of that
period. The Norman portion of the west front is
readily distinguished from the Early English, and af-
fords a good opportunity for comparing the two styles.
The Perpendicular windows above the principal doors
were inserted about 1380.

The large " rose " window in the north transept is
one of the most splendid works of the 13th century.
The exterior ornamentation is exquisite in all its de-
tails ; and the ancient glass is of matchless beauty.
In the south transept there is another rose window,
equally remarkable as an example of the Decorated
period. The tracery has been compared to the fibres

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ENGLAND. 53

of a leaf, and is as beautiful as that of the famous
Carlisle window. It is filled with fragments of Early
English glass collected from various parts of the ca-
thedral.

The presbytery or ** Angel Choir " takes its name
from the thirty sculptured angels in the spandrils of
the triforium arches. These are reckoned among the
best examples of Early English art. The Galilee
porchy the southeastern porcn, the chapterhouse^ the
east endj and many other portions of^ the cathedral
are also worthy of special study.

In the lofty and beautiful central tower hangs
"Great Tom of Lincoln," the famous bell first cast
in 1610 and recast in 1834, weighing 5 tons 8 cwt.
(i 1,096 lbs.)y just one ton more than its original
weight.

Lincoln to Feterborotigh, via Boston.



Online LibraryThomas WilsonA Satchel guide for the vacation tourist in Europe → online text (page 5 of 27)