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made of what was done. From such reports it is estimated
that by the end of the century there were sixty or seventy
schools established "according to direction" given by the
yearly meeting. Many others are reported in various meet-
ings, which did not measure up in any great degree to the
standards set.

These standards 1 (stated elsewhere in this work) demanded
a high moral quality in masters and mistresses, as well as
training in the subjects to be taught. From a study of the
manuscript records and newspapers it appears that the moral
standards, met by Quaker masters, were as high, and, in
Philadelphia, perhaps higher than those of the other private



Quaker
antipathy to
education
appears un-
founded



Education
of Negroes
and Indians
urged and
effected

Schools
established



School
affairs in
care of com-
mittees



Number of
schools in
Pennsyl-
vania



The Master



!The digest of the standards to be attained may be seen on pages I72f.



270 Early Quaker Education in Pennsylvania



Curriculum
similar to
that in
private
schools

No free

public

schools



Number of
schools
about 1750



school masters. The cases of open lawlessness are at least
more numerous in the latter case. The degree of preparation
for teaching ranged from the highest, the best college trained
men of the day, to the lowest, those who possessed a most
elementary education.

The opportunities offered for study, both in the lower and
in the Classical School, were at all times equal at least to those
of the other schools of the day.

The Quakers established no system of public schools,
though they were called such quite frequently. As public
school sentiment grew, and the Quaker schools correspondingly
declined in many places, they often were taken over as public
schools. In that sense they were, truly enough, the founda-
tion of public schools. Education was free to the poor; in a
few cases the funds might be applied to lower the rates paid
by the regular pay scholars, but such were exceptional.

In 1750 there were about fifty particular meetings in the
territory covered by this study; those were under the direc-
tion of seventeen monthly meetings. 2 With the exception of
nine of them we know from their reports that they had
schools then, or established them in the period following 1750,
in which the increased activity and interest of the yearly
meeting brought the subject more fully to their notice. From
the nature of the reports, it is often impossible to determine
the date of establishing such a school, and because of the
irregularity of reports it is not known how long a school may
have been in operation before reported. For these reasons
any estimate such as made above is very unsatisfactory.

It is not to be understood that at the time above mentioned
the schools were in all cases "according to the plan" of the
yearly meeting. Many reports have been quoted wherein
schools were mentioned which did not measure up to the
standards. 3 Some lacked buildings, grounds, Friends as mas-
ters, masters' accommodations, and so forth.

Assuming the nine meetings, for which no schools were
reported in the minutes, did not have them, there were



2 Bowden, II, 247 ff. (tables showing the particular monthly, and
quarterly meetings, etc.).

3 See in index: Merion and Valley, for example.



Conclusion



271



about forty schools under control of the Quakers, who at that
date constituted one-third of the entire population. 4 The
population estimated by Oldmixon was about 100,000 in
1 741 . 5 Though the colony increased rapidly by immigration, 6
the Quaker increase was not proportionate to their numbers
stated above. 7 In 1795 it is stated that the Episcopalians
and Quakers together constituted but one-third of the whole
population, which then numbered about 43 4, 3 7 3. 8 The
number of regularly established Quaker schools at that date
was between sixty and seventy.

If in 1741 we estimate the number of school age children of
Quaker parentage between six and seven thousand, which is
probably a less number than there actually were, it is appar-
ent that the schools regularly established were in no way
adequate to the school population. The remainder were
doubtless cared for in the frequently mentioned mixed
schools and neighborhood schools, which are known to have
been common. These were sometimes under partial control
of the Quaker meetings. What proportion the number of
Quaker schools bears to those established by other agencies is
not known. No studies made up to the present time have
attempted to estimate the number of schools established by
all or particular agencies. Any comparison is impossible
until such a study is made.



4 Bowden, II, 157.

*Ibid., 156; quoted from Oldmixon, I, 304.

6,200 new settlers came in 1729 (Bowden, II, 156).

Ubid., 157.

"Winterbotham, II, 438-439; also, census report, 1790.



Quaker
population
one-third
of total



Proportion-
ate number
of Quakers
decreases



Number of

regularly

established

schools

inadequate

for their

population



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274 Early Quaker Education in Pennsylvania

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