Thucydides.

The History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war online

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Online LibraryThucydidesThe History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war → online text (page 10 of 59)
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hundred and forty; and Diodorus, 12, 84., at one hundred and thirty. But
I suspect that for M should there be read A, The error seems to have
arisen from the M^v following.

« Sixty were swiff sailing, ij-c] Smith ill renders, "sixty were tight
ships fit for service; the rest were transports for the soldiery." Thucydides
says nothing about their tightness, or fitness for service. No doubt all that
'went were such. And, as to transports, if the forty last mentioned were only
such, how could the one hundred be made up ? This as well as many other
blunders that translator would have avoided, simply by consulting the Scho-
liast, who briefly makes all clear by thus mentioning the different kinds of
vessels which composed the fleet : rpinptk raxitaQ, rpifjptic erparuaTidfc,
^ivTrjKOVTOpoi, 'nr-jrayorfoi, vXoto, bXKdSe^. Of these last two the irXoia
were barges attendant on the triremes ; the 6\KdStc (which Mr. Mitford
oddly calls holcads, though the word is in fact the same as our huik) were
vessels of burden, transports loaded with provisions, stores, &c.

3 Athenians of the regtdar lists,] Namely, of the census. Goeller here
refers to Kru^er on Dion^s. p. 109., Hemsterhusius on Lucian, 1. 1. p. 425,
Schneider on Aristot. PoUt 5, 2, 8., Sturz. lexic. Xenoph. t. 2. p. 688., and
Boeckh. 1. 1. t. 2. p. 35.

« Seven hundred marines."^ Such is the exact sense of l'7ri€dTai r&v vi&v.
These, as plainly appears from the passages cited by Duker and Goeller,
exactly corresponded to our marines. They were not sailors, but only
soldiers who served on board ship. To the passages cited by that com-



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CHAP. XLIII. THE HISTORY OF THUCYDIDES* 77

the rest who served were of the confederates, some of whom
were of the subject allies ^, and of the others, the Argives five



mentator, to prove the distinction, I add the following: — Xen. Hist. 7,
1,5. Polyb. 1, 51,2. 1, 160, 30. and 1, 61, 3. Arrian E. A. 2, 17, 6. and
S?2, 7., and especially Herod. 7, 184. im€aT(vov dk. iEschyl. Pers. 385.
Herod. 6, 12. oirwc roi>i iiritdTas AirXiVci*, "might keep them to the exer-
cise of their' arms.** Herodotus (who elsewhere mentions the Epibates) at
6, 15, 6., shows the place assigned to them in a trireme, and the usual num«-
ber on board.

» Same oftuhom were of the iubjed al^t.] How many Thucydides does
not say. And, indeed, his whole account is any thing but perspicuous ;
and, therefore, it is no wonder that it should have been (as it has) misun-
derstood, nay, even, 1 conceive, by Wesseling on Diod. Sic. t. 1, 543.,
who, deceived, it should seem, by Diodorus, writes, " universam gravem
levemque armaturam, tum civium tum sociorum multitudineni vii mill,
paulo ampliorem fuisse." For my own part, after close and repeated ex-
aminations of the passage, I must be of opinion that the whole number of
the infantry here merUioned was six thousand four hundred, and of horse
thirty, my view of the sense is confirmed by Plutarch Alcib. c. 20., who^
obviously following Thucvdides, certainly took the passage in the same
manner. His words are tnese : ivrix^fi (scil. Alcibiades) ftira wtrrpaTriyiftVp
(j^utv rpiTipiiQ — • OTrXiVac ^k trtvrtKiffxt^iovQ Kai iKaritv, TdKoras dk xai a^tvdo^
vf/Tac Kai i|/tXovc ^^P^ rptcLKOftiovQ Kai xtXtovc* Kai rrjv SXKrjv frapacKti^riv &K^
\oyov. As to the accusation of error brought against Plutarch by Wasse,
it is unfounded. That learned commentator seems to have read this pas-
sage of Thucydides somewhat n^ligently, and was led into error by Dio-
dorus, or rather corrupt MSS. of that historian. For he intended^ 1 con-
ceive, as usual, to follow Thucydides. But the equivocal kind of rec-
koning adopted deceived him, as, indeed, it has done almost all, with the
exception of Plutarch. To avoid error, it is proper to regard the words
KoX TovTutv — dtoKofftoi 9s parenthctical, and explanatory of the sort of forces
whereof the five thousand one hundred heavy-armed was composed. For
want of attending to which, Diodorus, with many others, falls into the error
of reckoning part of the troops twice over, namely, the Argive and Man-
tinaean quotas.

Diodorus, then, meatU (according to the above mentioned error) to put
down the whole number at somewhat more than , seven thousand; but I
suspect besides that his text is corrupt. At 1. 62. tfiere seems to be want-
ing the article, to be put after Kai ; and then cl riSv Kvuftax^Sv seems to
stand for oi Ivfifiaxoi^ and a comma should be placed after Kvfiuax<Sv»

The real number, then, of heavy-armed and regular-armed, mentioned
by Thucydides, is as follows : —

Heavy-armed Athenian - - 2200

Ditto of the allies ... 2900
Archers, Athenian * • - - 400

Ditto, Cretan .... go

Slingers, Rhodian - - - 700

Regular licht-armed, Megarean - 120

Horse, Athenian - - - 50

6450

Now Plutarch's calculaUon comes to the same number, putting aride the
thirty horse; for he is only reckoning mfantry. It may, however, be



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76 THE HISTORY OF THUCYDIDES. BOOK TI.

that in other respects they might be in better order, and more
easy to govern, being ranged into squadrons each under a
separate commander.

They then sent forward three ships to Italy and Sicily, to
learn which of the cities would receive them ^*^, with orders to
meet them before they made the opposite coast, that they
might know where to touch.

XLIII. This done, the Athenians now weighed from Cor-
cyra with the grand armament, and proceeded to make their
passage to Sicily, with, in all, one hundred and thirty- four
triremes, and two Rhodian fifty-oared barks ^, (of which
one hundred were Athenian, whereof sixty were swift-sailing
vessels, the remainder such as conveyed the troops ^). The rest
of the navy was composed of the Chians and the other allies,
with heavy infantry, in all amounting to five thousand one
hundred (of which one thousand five hundred were Athenians
of the regular lists^, and seven hundred Thetes (or marines *) :



»o To learn which of the cUiet would receive them.] Mitford ascribes the
ignorance in this respect, which argued a deficiency in preparatorv
measures, to the rash precipitation of one party, and the opposition which
perplexed and hampered the other.

I One hundred and thirty-four triremei, and two Rhodian fifty^oared
barht.] Plutarch. Alcib. c. 20. reckons them at something short of one
hundred and forty; and Diodorus, 12, 84., at one hundred and thirty. But
I suspect that for M should there be read A. The error seems to have
arisen from the M^v following.

« Sixty were iwift tailings <Jv.] Smith ill renders, ** sixty were tight
ships fit for service; the rest were transports for the soldiery." Thucydides
says nothing about their tightness, or fitness for service. No doubt aJl that
'went were such. And, as to transports, if the forty last mentioned were only
such, how could the one hundred be made up ? This as well as many other
blunders that translator would have avoided, simply by consulting the Scho-
liast, who briefly makes all clear by thus mentioning the diflerent kinds of
vessels which composed the fleet : rpiripiiq raxi^aQ, Tpiriptic erparuanhQ,
irtvTTiKSvTopoi, iirwaytoryoi, irXoia, AXko^cc. Of these last two the trXoia
were barges attendant on the triremes; the dXxdBfg (which Mr. Mitford
oddly calls holcads, though .the word is in fact the same as our huik) were
vessels of burden, transports loaded with provisions, stores, &c.

» Athenians of the regular lists,] Namely, of the census. Goeller here
Tefers to Krueger on Dionjrs. p. 109., Hemsterhusius on Lncian, 1. 1. p. 425,
€»chneider on Aristot. Polit 5, 2, 8., Sturz. lexic. Xenoph. t. 2. p. 688., and
fioeckh. 1. 1. t. 2. p. 35.

* Seven hundred marines.] Such is the exact sense of inCarm rHv vi&v.
These, as plainly appears U'om the passases cited by Duker and Goeller,
exactly corresponded to our marines. They were not saHors, but only
soldiers who served on board ship. To the passages dted by that com-



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CHAP. XLIII. THE HISTORY OF THUCYDIDES. 77

the rest who served were of the confederates, some of whom
were of the subject allies ^ and of the others, the Argives five



mentator, to prove the distinction, I add the following: — Xen. Hist. 7,
1,3. Polyb. 1, 51,2. 1, 160, 30. and 1, 61, 3. Arrian E. A. 2, 17, 6. and
S?2, 7., and especially Herod. 7, 184. ifri^dnvov ik, iEschyl. Pers. 385.
Herod. 6, 12. o-jnag roi>c iirttoiTag 6irXia<«, " might keep them to the exer-
cise of their' arms.*' Herodotus (who eUewhere mentions the Epibates) at
6, 15, 6., shows the place assigned to them in a trireme, and the usual num<*
ber on board.

» Some of whom were of the iutject alUet.] How many Thucydides does
not sav. And, indeed, his whole account is any thing but perspicuous ;
and, therefore, it is no wonder that it should have been (as it has) misun-
derstood, nay, even, I conceive, by Wesseiing on Diod. Sic. t. 1, 543.,
who, deceived, it should seem, by Diodorus, writes, " universam gravem
levemque armaturam, tum civium turn sociorum multitudinem vii mill,
paulo ampliorem fuisse." For my own part, after close and repeated ex-^
aminations of the passage, I must be of opinion that the whole number of
the infantry here mentioned was six thousand four hundred, and of horse
thirty, my view of the sense is confirmed by Plutarch Alcib. c. 20., who,
obviously following Thucvdides, certainly took the passage in the same
manner. His words are these : dvrix^ri (scil. Alcibiades) fitra irvtrrparriyifw,
l^wv TpiripiiQ — orrkiTaQ 6k frtvrsKurx^iovQ xai Uarbv, rdtorag dk xai a^ev^o-
vriTCLC JcaJ tf/tXovc ^Cf>^ TpuiKOoiovg Kai x^Xcovc* ^ai ttjv dfXXiyv napa<rKi^yv i^tS^
\oyov. As to the accusation of error brought against Plutarch by Wasse,
it is unfounded. That learned commentator seems to have read this pas-
sage of Thucydides somewhat negligently, and was led into error by Dio-
dorus, or rather corrupt MSS. of that historian. For he intended^ I con-
ceive, as usual, to follow Thucydides. But the equivocal kind of rec-
koning adopted deceived him, as, indeed, it has done almost all, with die
exception of Plutarch. To avoid error, it is proper to regard the words
Koi TovTiav — haK69wi as parenthetical, and explanatory of the sort of forces
whereof the five thousand one hundred heavy-armed was composed. For
want of attending to which, Diodorus, with many others, falls into the error
of reckoning part of the troops twice over, namely, the Argive and Man-
tinsean quotas.

Diodorus, then, meant (according to the above mentioned error) to put
down the whole number at somewhat more than, seven thousand; but I
suspect besides that his text is corrupt. At 1. 62. tliere seems to be want-
ing the article, to be put after xal ; and then cl rdv ivfifmx<Sv seems to
stand for oi lufAfuixoiy and a comma should be placed after ^vftuax^Sv,

The real number, then, of heavy-armed and regular-armed, mentioned
by Thucydides, is as follows : —

Heavy-armed Athenian • - 2200

Ditto of the allies ... S900
Archers, Athenian - • - - 400

Ditto, Cretan - - - - go

Slingers, Rhodian - • - 700

Regular lifflit-armed, Megarean - 120

Horse, Athenian . . - so

6450

Now Plutarch's calculation comes to the same number, putting aside the
thirty horse; for he u only reckoning infantry. It may, however, be



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^d THE HISTORY OF THUCYDIDES. BOOK VI^

hundred, and the Mantinasans and mercenaries two hundred
and fifty)) with archers, in all four hundred and eighty (whereof
eighty were Rhodian), and slingers of the Rhodians seven
hundred, and Megarsean light-armed (exiles) one hundred and
twenty, and one horse-boat carrying thirty cavalry.

, XLIV. Such was the amount of the armament which at
first passed over to the war. But besides these there were
thirty corn hulks, as transports, laden with necessaries, having
on board the bread-makers, and also stone-cutters * and arti-
sans \ with such tools as were necessary for walling ; also one
hundred barges, which had been impressed, and sailed with
the hulks.^

There were, too, many other barges and hulks which accom^
panied the armament voluntarily, for trading purposes.^

All these, then, crossed together the Ionic gulf, and the
whole armament having made the coast at the promontory of
Japygia and Taras, as each was able ^, coasted aJong the shore



asked, was then 6430 the whole amount of the land forces tak^n out in
die first expedition to Sicily ? Thucydides, describiuff the state of the
Athenians when about to leave Syracuse afler their last mtal defeat, speaks
of the total number as about 40,000. That, howerer, included both
soldiers and sailors, and supernumeraries of every kind, sutlers, camp-fol-
lowers, and perhaps women. I am therefore of opinion that the above was
the whole number ; for, though targeteers, and other irregular light-armed,
were sometimes taken out for expeditions near at home, yet as thb was so
distant, and the means of conveyance not very easy, none, it seems, were
employed. It was, perhaps, that their place might be supplied by Italian
auxiliaries or barbarian mercenaries enlisted by the way.

1 Stone-cutters,] Literally, stone- layers (as we say brick-lasers).

9 Artisans] I am induced to adopt this general name, because I suspect
that rkxTwv was often used in that manner ; just as our word wrigfU signi-
fied formerly an artisan, but afterwards a carpenter. Our translators here,
as on a former occasion, render the word " carpenters ; " but (as I have
before observed) it is difficult to conceive what carpenters could have to
do with building walls. Smiths, we know, were used for such a purpose.
Yet carpenters, too, might be taken ; for walls of circumvallation were
sometimes partly formed of wooden framework.

9 Hulks.] These (just before called corn-hulks) were of a very lai^e
burthen, and of a square or roundish form, something like Chinese junks,
or Dutch Indiamen.

4 For trading purposes,! Mitford well paraphrases this, ** for the sake of
profit from the market ot so larce an armament.*' Probably, too, several
would go for n trading voyage to Italy or Sicily, under so powerful a convoy.

ft As each was able.] At tifwopiioav subaud rov liirXotip. See note on
Acts 11,89.



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CHAP. XLV. THE HISTORY OP THUCYDIDE8. 79

of Italy, the cities not^ receiving them either into port,
or granting them supplies ^, but only anchorage and water,
and Taras and Locri not even that, until they arrived at
Rhegium, a promontory of Italy. And here they were now
collected together, and formed a camp outside of the city (for
the townsmen would not admit them within), in the temple of
Diana (where a market was granted them), and having drawn
their ships on shore, they lay quiet. And now they entered
into conferences with the Rhegines, requesting them, as Chal-
cidaeans, to aid the Leontines, who were also Chalcidaeans.
But they declared that they would be of neither party ; how*
ever, what should seem good to the rest of the Italians, that
they would do. So the Athenians took consideration on the state
of Sicily, and deliberated in what manner they should best
manage affairs. They also waited for the return of the three
ships sent before ^ to ^gesta, wishing to have some intelli-
gence respecting the money, whether there were what the am-
bassadors at Athens reported.

XLV. Meanwhile the Syracusans had from various quar-
ters and from their spies received intelligence that " the fleet
is now at Rhegium." Under these circumstances ^ then, they



6 The cities not, ^c] Diodorus is here more circumstantial. His only
variation from the account of Thucydides is, that ** they were received very
kindly by the Thracians ; " which, from what we know of the place and its
after history, seems very probable.

7 Granting them tuppliet.] Literallyj a market for supplies.

^ The three ships sent be/ore.] It seems that the three ships before sent
forward to procure intelligence on the Italian coast, were, after its arrival^
sent off to Egesta. I cannot think with Goeller that these were lembi, for
such would have had no force to be depended on ; but rather three of the
swiftest-sailing triremes of the fleet, which might thus escape the Syracusan
fleet, should it be at sea.

The word irpdnXovc, it may be observed, occurs in Dio Cass. 610, 55.
Appian 2, 824, 75. and 827, 27. It is strange that the most recent editors
on Xen. Hist should, on the conjecture of Brodaeus, have altered irpdnXov^
(the reading of the old editions and MSS.) to irpiordirXovc. Sometimes the
word irpdfrXovc is used substantively, as in Appian 2, 858, 48. iiri rov xpo-
irXov, where Schneider ill renders '* ad navigationem parata." Rather
** parata ut praeraitteretur."

• Under these circumstances,] Or the sense may be, ^* made all prepar-
ation that circumstances would permit."



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80 THE HISTORY OF THUCYOIDES. BOOK VI;f

with united counsels ^ made preparations, and were no longer
incredulous. They also sent round to^the Siculi — to some,
guards to hold them in fidelity ^, to others ambassadors. To
the Peripolia * [or militia forts] in their territory they intro-
duced garrisons, examining also into the state of things in the
city, by a review of arms ^ and horses, to see whether they
were effective, and making all other dispositions as for speedy
and all but present war.

XLVI. And now the three ships sent forwai*d to Egesta
arrived from thence to the Athenians at Rhegium with the in-
telligence that the rest of the money which they promised was
not forthcoming, but only thirty talents were to be found. At



^^ With united counsels.] Such seems to be the sense, which has been
mistaken by the translators.

5 Guards to hold them m fideUty.] These were the tributary Siculi
before mentioned.

^ PeripoUa,] The common reading and that of many MSS. is ntpiirXout,
which Duker professes he does not understand, and the Scholiast has in
vain attempted to explain. Other MSS. have irt^iroKia, which is ap-
proved by Duker, and received bv all the recent editors. And in support
of this, Duker refers to the words of Pollux, which are as follows : iv Sk
roic frpoatrrfioiQ cot.rd trtpiwoXia ctij dv, ci /i^ x^P^^^ ovofia ahro vooifiov wapA
OovKviiSy 8rav ^y, Iv irtpinoklotc ruriv IX^f^ij. But the words iv'trtpiiroXioic
Tujiv ijXit^ti there mentioned do not occur in Thucvdides. Thb, indeed,
Duker imputes to negligence in the lexicographer. I am, however, rather
inclined to consider the passage corrupt. I conjecture that Pollux wrote
vapd OovKvSt8y. Kai irapd*^ TTipiSy orav ^y, &C. The xai vapd 'Ympi^y
misht very easily be omitted per homoeoteleuton.^

It is evident that the lexicographer had reference to this passage of
Thucydides ; but it seems that his mind was divided between two opinions.
1. That itioiicoXui might signify 'u^ur^oita loca; 2. that it might hen proper
name (in wnich case, perhaps, he would read UipiTrXoia). But, in fact, the
word signifies a guara-fort garrisoned by tripiiroXot or patroles; and so it is
explained by the Schol. Cassel. This, too, is confirmed by a kindred pas-
sage of Dionys. Hal. 1,612, 2. Kai fur oif 7roXi> rwv TrcpciroXiW rb rdv 'Pw-
paUav KaraXri^kv iKaUro. for SO the passage is to be understood, as appears
from the words following, ol ik, ^iopiraaavTfQ cot KaraxavaavriQ rb ^povpiov
itinjioav.

» Review of arms.] Or, perhaps, heavy-armed, ^nXiav for bTrXiriav. So
Xen. Anab. 5, 3, 3. Vikraoi^ iv toXq oirXocc.



* So in a passage of Suidas, in ahr6b*P9 I would read hnX rw wapaxfnitui,
SovKvdi9iis, [koi *Trtpfhis\ x<(f<^>'- The patsage of Thucydides referred to by
Suidat if 1. 1 , 1 4 1. init. tdiri^w 9^ >t ai >oi> 3 yr€ ^ ^woKoUty ^, k, r. A. Also in a pas-
sage of the Etyxnol. ifiwoH^ SovmMhis, &rrl rov wpoxftp^Sf I suspect ought to
be read, ifivoihf BoviaMl^Sf irrl rev [fMbnof icol Tv^plhis] irrl rov wpoxiip^Sf
f^iydp.



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CHAP. XLYI. THE HISTORY OF THUCTDIDES. 81

this the commanders were presently much dispirited, since
this first circumstance had crossed their hopes ^, and the
Rhegines, whom they had before begun to prevail upon (as
it was likely they would, being connected by blood with the
Leontines, and even attached to the Athenian cause), now
were unwilling to join the armament^^As to Nicias, the di&-
appointment at Egesta was by him expected ; to the rest it was
less looked for.^ The Egestseans, indeed, had, when the first
ambassadors of the Athenians went to them to examine the
state of their funds, devised the following trick.^ They took
diem into the temple of Venus at Eryx, and showed the offer-
ings, as goblets and flagons, censers, and other Airnituire
in no small quantity, which, being of silver, afforded a very
great show with but little comparative value. And on giving
hospitable entertainments to those of the trireme ^ they
collected cups, both gold and silver, from Egesta itself, and
borrowed ^ others from the neighbouring cities, both Phceni*
cian and Grecian ^, and each brought them to the entertain-

1 TM» first ctrcunuUtnce had crossed their hopes.] So Appian 1, 4J8, 19.
Tovro aitroig trpwrov AvriKiKpovKit, and 2, 543, 3. Kai rovro roTf dfi^l rdv K.
Trp&Tov iiVTiKiKpoijKiu Demosth. 9r* ^rtp, &vrkKpovvk ri Kcd ykyOvey ola oitK
idti,

« Less looked for.] Literally, " more contrary to their reckoning.'*
Smith has not well rendered it, " they were quite amazed and confounded
at it." Mitford has better seen the truth by paraphrasing : '* Probably,
none of the generals had relied much upon the wealth of Esesta; yet as it
had been seriously proposed as the fund which was to afibrd means for the
first conquests, they were distressed by its deficiency."

s Devised the following trick.] This is (with little judgment) recorded
among military stratagems by Polysenus 6, 21.

* Those of the trireme,] The rpiripirwv is usually interpreted of the
trierarchs. But it must be extended, also, to the officers generally ; for to
those alone can there here be reference, though otherwise the Scholiast^s
interpretation r&v Iv toIq rpinptaiv i^ucouiviav does not ill explain the mean-
ing : and in that sense the word is usea by Herodotus 5, 85, 9. the word
(wtiich is rare) also occurs in Xen. Anab. 6, 6, 6. Dio Cass. 570, 53, 61 1,
25. 1533, 15. Lucian 3, 515.

* Borrotaed.] The Scholiast well explains airticdfuvoi by xpn^^V^^vou
And so Polyan. ubi supra, whose words are these : xptio&fiivoi U r&v irXj|-
ciiav irSXeaw Apyvpov kcu xpv<r6v. where Masv. ought to have edited ipyvpa Kcd

SwaSu It is strange that the commentators should not have adduced a
ndred passage at Exod. 3, 22. alrfi<Tti ywr) vapd ytirovoc tricevfi dpyvpa Kai
•xpvaa. In the same sense the Latin peto is used in Eutrop. 1. 10, 1. adeo
autem cultus modici, ut feriatis diebus, si cum amicis numerosioribus esset
epulandum, privatorum eis argento ostiatim petito triclinia stemerentur.

6 Phcsmcian and Grecian,] The former may be supposed to have been
Motya, &c.| and the latter Hyccara, Soloeis^ and Panormu8»

VOL. in. ^



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M THE HISTORY OF THUCYDJOES. BOOK VI. •

ments as their own. Thus all using mostly the same utensils,
and every where a great show appearing, threw the Athenians
that came on board the trireme into astonishment, so that, on
their arrival at Athens, they published about what great wealth
they had seen. And they being themselves deceived, and
swaying the minds of others, when the account went forth that
the wealth they spoke of was not in Egesta, bore much of the
blame ^ from ihe soldiery.

XLVII. And now the commanders took counsel on the
present posture of affairs.® The opinion of Nicias was ^, that
they should sail against Selinus (whereunto they were espe-
cially sent) with all the forces, and if, indeed, the Egestssans
should supply money for the whole armament, to consult
thereupon ; but if not, to demand support for the sixty ships
which they had required, and that remaining there, they should,
either by force or by negotiation, bring about a peace with
the Selinuntians ; and then coasting to the other cities, and
displaying the power of the Athenian state, and having shown
their zeal and alacrity for their friends and allies, should de-

7 Bore much of the blame.] The ambassadort, however, must have de-
served the most. These had, doubtless, been appointed by the party of
Alcibiades, whether for their ability or their folly, M itford thinks, it is hard



Online LibraryThucydidesThe History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war → online text (page 10 of 59)