The History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war online

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Online LibraryThucydidesThe History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war → online text (page 18 of 59)
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those that had not come over the Athenians sent forces, and
some they brought over by compulsion ; but in respect to
others, they were frustrated, by the Syracusans sending
garrisons and reinforcements. * In the course of the winter,
also, they shifted their harbour from Naxus to Catana, and
re-erecting the camp-huts which had been burned by the
Syracusans, they stayed there the rest of the winter. They sent,
also, a trireme to Carthage, in order to form a friendly con«

< Kept aloof,] Or, held off, liamely, from alliance with the Athenians.
So 1. 7, 7. ri fit) Trpo^vfioQ ^v, ^ Travrdiraffiv in d^iKTrriKit rov TroXifiov, and
Joseph. 1315, 35, Thus it is not necessary to adopts with Duker and
others, the conjecture of Carter oif woWoi, which, though it may seem at
first sight more suitable, is inconsistent with the words following.

3 Their habitationt being, 4>c.] I know not why Duker should ha?e pro-
nounced the words aifTovofiot — oUiioiiQ '* numeris Platonicis obscuriora.'^
There is surely no obscurity at all, if the words be taken parenthetically,
and in the sense above assigned ; nor does any thing in the original seem
wanting, except that al should be inserted before oUritTtic, as Bekker con-
jectures, and, indeed, I myself did maily years ago ; though, certainly, it
micht easily be lost between the ati and the <h. This sense of oiKfitric is,
indeed, somewhat rare, but examples are not wanting. The word is used
by Sophocles Philoct. of the cave of Philoctetes. So also Pausan. 9,5,1,
ToiQ fUv ohv 'A(T(n card Kutftaq crt yaap al oiKqfnig, And, what is more appo-
site, Xen.Cyr. 2, 4, 13. al fikv oik//(T£cc aitrtf trorepoy iy IcxvpoiQ x^plocc
tiatv, and 7, 4, 1. And in nearly the same manner it is used supra, c. 1, 6.

The above mode of taking the passage is much confirmed by Diodor.
Sic, who mentions the perpetual independence of these mountaineers, and
uses the word oUffinic to designate theu* houses^ which, he says, were sub-

* But in respect to others, ^c.] I have here followed the ^njecture of
Bekker, approved by Goeller, <iir«jcwXvovro for diriKtoKvoy. The to seems
to have been absorbed by the t6v following,

K 3

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flection, or gain what other benefit they could ; and another to
Tyrsenia ^ some cities having of themselves promised to take
their part in the war. They likewise sent round messages to
the Siculi, and likewise to Egesta, requiring them to furnish
them with as many horses as possible ; they also provided
themselves with all sorts of materials for circumvallation, both
bricks and iron, and other necessaries, as intending at the
commencement of spring to apply themselves closely to the

Those who were sent as ambassadors from the Syracusans
to Corinth and LacedsBmon, endeavoured as they coasted along
to persuade the Italiots ^ not to look on as unconcerned spec-
tators of what the Athenians were doing, since those proceed-
ings were planned against them also. And when they were
arrived at Corinth, they made a speech, requesting, on the
ground of affinity, that assistance might be sent them. Upon
which, the Corinthians immediately decreed themselves to aid
them with all alacrity, and they sent off ambassadors, in
company with the others, to Lacedaemon, that they might
unite in urging them to make war on the Athenians in a more
open manner, and send some auxiliary force to Sicily. At the
same time that those ambassadors repaired to Lacedaemon,
Alcibiades also was there, who with his fellow-fugitives had
immediately, on the former occasion^, passed on board a
vessel of burden from Thuria to Cyllene in Elsea, and after-
wards to Lacedaemon ^ ; the Lacedaemonians sending for and

i Tyrsama.] Or, Tyrrhenia, otherwise Hetruria. Poppo Proleg. 2, 544.
observes that Italy, m the time of Herodotus and Thucydides, was con-
sidered as divided into four parte, Italia^ Japygid, Opicia^ and Tyrsenia. See

^ ItaHoU,] Namely, the Greek colonics settled in that part of Italy
cftHed Magna Grsecia.

T On the former occathn^] Namely, when he was sent for home, and
made his escape at Thurii.

s Jnd afterwardi to LaeediBmon.'] Not, however, directly ; for he pro*
ceeded first to Areos, where his interest was considerable, and by the aid of
which he expected to be recalled to Athens. But the Athenians having ftx^
hidcten any Grecian state to harbour him, and especially sent to demand
hk person, he s<*rupled not to form a party at LacedttDion which favoured
him. See Isocrat. pro Alcib.

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granting him saFe conduct For he feared them ^9 on account
of the afl&ir with the Mantinasans. '°

And it happened in the assembly of Lacedaemonians that
the Corinthians and Syracusans swayed the Lacedaemonians
by entreating to the same measures as did Alcibiades. And
as the Ephori and those in the offices of state were meditating
to send ambassadors to Syracuse, to hinder them from treating
with the Athenians, but were backward to send there any
succours, Alcibiades advancing forward, exasperated and
stimulated the Lacedaemonians by the following address :

LXXXIX. ^^ It is necessary that I should first address you
on the subject of the injurious prepossessions ' entertained re-
specting me, in order that you may not, by any prejudice against
me, lend a worse ear to the counsels which affect the welfare
of the state.

^* My ancestors having, on a certain ground of dispute, re-
nounced the office of public host to your state, I myself again
taking it up, showed attentions to you, as well on other occasions
as on the occurrence of the calamity at Pylus. But while I
continued thus well affected towards you, you^ on making a
treaty with the Athenians, n^otiated the matter through the
medium of my adversaries, thus investing them with power,
and covering me with dishonour. * And on this account ye
justly suffered hurt by the measures I resorted to with the

9 For he feared Mew, 4^.] Mitford paraphrases : " he feared the body
of the people, who might be apt to recollect, with no friendly mind, the
evils wnich bad been suffered, and the greater evils apprehended and risked,
from the war excited in Peloponnesus by his ambition^ his talents, and his

«o The affair wUh the Maniirupans.] Namely, that narrated at 1. 5, 46.

' Injurious prepossestions,] Not, accusation, or calumny^ as Hobbes and
Smith render. For Bm^oXt) sometimes signifies prepossession or prejudice.
So Hesych. explains it vTr6wTtvaiQ or vTr6\ti'<\fic. " This prejudice (says Mit-
ford) could scarcely fail to be entertained against him, on account o? his
constant connection with the democratical, and opposition to the oligarchi-
cal interest, in his own country."

It may be observed, that the whole of this oration has been closely hni-
tated by Dionys. Hal. Ant. 1, 484. scqq. in the oration of Coriolanus to the

< Investing them with, Sfci] A metaphor taken from honouring or dis-
gracing, by putting on any one rich robes, or mean vestments. So Psal.?!,
15. (Sept. 70, 13.) «pi€aXXi<y^u»<rav aloxbvnv ol ?nrovvr«c rA kokA fiot.

K 4

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Mantinaeans and Argives, and in whatever other respects I
acted to your prejudice. And now if any of you was then,
when you suffered unjustly, incensed against me, let him, after
considering the matter in the true light be appeased ; or if any
one should think worse of me because I espoused the cause of
democracy, let him learn that neither on that account has he
any reason for displeasure. ^ For to tyrants we have ever
borne aversion — (now whatever is opposed to a single ruler is
termed democracy ^^ and hence has all along continued our
support of democracy.^) Besides, as the state had a demo-
cratical constitution, it was necessary in most things to follow
the present system. But we endeavoured to make the frame
of polity more moderate than suits the present headstrong
humours of the populace. There, however, were others^ both
in former times and now, who have hurried the people into the
worst measures ^, and who also brought about my banishment
We have been the patrons of democracy % conceiving that in
that form of polity whereby the state had attained to its height
of power and freedom, and which we received from our
ancestors, in that we should preserve it®; since other-

9 Let km learn, 4*'^.] Hobbes has here strangely mistaken the sense ;
which is the less excusable, as it had been correctly expressed in the Latin

UpoffKfifiuu in this sense is Attic. So Plato Apolog. p. 71. oi pa^iuQ
^EXXov €ipff(r€r€ ArtxySii vpoffKtlfUvov ry irSKti,

* Now whatever is opposed, 4^c.] Such is, I conceive, the sense of the
clause irav dk — utv6fjia<rrai. Democracy is affirmed to be the principle of
any constitution which is opposed to the rule (i. e. sole, and without ac-
countableness) of any single person. See more in the notes on 1. 2, 57
and 65.

Here perspicuity seems to be prombted by throwing the words into a

* Hence has continued our support of democracy,] Alcibiades here, as
just before, is speaking of his family, who had, indeed, expelled the Pisis-

The worst measures.] UovtipSrtpa. It may be considered as put either
for the positive (evil) or the superlative. The sense is much the same eiUier
way, and classical examples might be adduced in favour of both.

7 We have been the patrons ojf democracy,] Hobbes and Smith have here
alike mistaken the sense, though it had been well expressed by Portus. Toy
KvfirravTog must denote democrat^, or government in the hands of the pubm
lie; for that is the literal sense of the phrase. By toe is here again meant^
not Alcibiades alone, but hn family,

' Conceiving that in, ^c,] This is not a ^neral gnome ; but a general
gnome seems almost implied in it, and which well deserves to be borne in
mind by the statesmen of our own country.

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wise^ forsooth, we know (and such of us as have any sense
must know) what democracy is ; and myself should know it*° as
well as any (so much, however, that I might justly speak evil
of it ; though of confessed and manifest madness '^ and folly
nothing new could be said) ; yet to change it seemed to us
unsafe, when you, as enemies, were arrayed against us.

XC. ^^ And thus stands the matter concerning your suspicions
and criminations of me. As to the afiairs whereon you are
to consult, and I am (if I know any thing) to advise^ now
bear and learn.

" We undertook, then, this expedition to Sicily, in order, if
we could, to subdue first all the Siceliots, after them the Italiots,
and then to make attempts on the dependencies of Carthage,
nay, even Carthage itself. ^ Finally, if these, or most of these,
enterprises had succeeded, we should then have made an
attack on Peloponnesus, bringing hither the whole force of
Greeks supplied by those countries, and taking into pay
numerous Bi^rbarians, both Iberians and others acknowledged
to be most warlike of all Barbarians now there existing. We
should also have built numerous triremes, in addition to those
we already have, by means of wood so abundantly supplied by
Italy, with which blockading Peloponnesus around, and with
our infantry attacking it by land, and taking the cities, some
by assault, and others by siege, we expected we should e&sily
subdue it, and after that rule over the whole of the Grecian
nation. As to money and provisions, for the more easy ac-
complishment of these enterprises, the very acquisitions^ them-

9 Since otherwise^ Such is the sense of Ittcj, as often in the New Tes-
tament ; e. g. Rom. 3, 6. 1 Cor. 5, 10. and 14, 16. 15, 29. Hebr. 10,8.

>o ShotUd know UJ] Such is the sense of Ay,

> • Of confttied and manifest madness,] I here read, with all the recent
editions, ivoiag. On the distinction between the two words dyvoia and
(ivouz, and the confusion of them by scribes, in various classical passages, I
shall have much to adduce in my edition.

1 Dependencies of Carthase^ S^c] Literally, ** the dependencies of the Car-i
thaginians and the Carthagmians tliemselves." This sense of tipv'^t ^ con-
sidered separate from a country itself, is very rare, and would not be
applicable to any powers but such whose dominions lay widely scattered.

« The very acquisUions, ^c,\ Mitford well paryhrases thus: "The
conquered countries, each as it was reduced, would furnish supplies for
farther conquest, without burdening Athens.*'

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selves there would have abandantly supplied them, without
drawing on the revenue here.

XCI. " Thus, then, ye have heard the real intent of
the expedition now gone, from one who possesses the most
accurate knowledge. And these projects the remaining com-
manders will, if they be able, execute. *

*^ Furthermore, learn next that unless ye render assistance,
the states there will not successfully stand their ground. For
the Siceliots are indeed very deficient in military skill or
experience; yet if they rally in united force, they may even
yet save themselves. But the Syracusans alone^ being now in
battle with their whole force, and, moreover, hemmed in by a
fleet, will be unable to withstand the forces of the Athenians
now there. And if that city be taken, the whole of Sicily
goes with it S and presently Italy also. And thus the danger
of which I forewarned you from thence must fall upon you
at no long interval (for let no one suppose ® that he is con-
sulting for Sicily only, but also for Peloponnesus), unless you
speedily take these measures, and send thither on board
ship such forces as, working their passage thither, shall im-
mediately act as heavy-armed, and (what I deem yet more
serviceable than an army) a Spartan as commander in chief,
who may direct and discipline those already present, and use
compulsion with those who are unwilling to join the cause. ^

» T^e$e projects the^ S^c,"] The orator hints that these projects are not
impracticable, and then proceeds to show how they may be accomplbhed.

Mitford here well paraphrases thus : *' And, however wild and visionary
these vast projects may on first view appear, I, who have long meditated
upon them, who know the resources of Athens, who have seen the defi-
ciencies of the ill-constituted and unconnected commonwealths against
which its arms are now directed, am confident that success is not iip-

« Goes wUh it,] i. e. hangs by it, depends upon it, and must fall with it.
Sach is, I conceive, the sense or cxcr-at, and not that assigned by the trans-
lators. The same view, I perceive, was taken by Bauer.

^ So let no one suppose^ S^c,"] I have here adopted a punctuation very
dtfibrent from that of the editors and translators, but whicn seems to be the
true one, and that by which alone the sense or coherence of the whole pas-
tage can be adjusted.

♦ Direct and discipline those, 4^.] Mitford veiy well paraphrases thus :
^ who mav establish discipline among the Sicilians already firm in the
cause, and whose authority may bring over, and hold united under one
command, those not disposed to obey the t^rftcustins. Thus, more than

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For thus those vfho are already your friends will be more'
courageous, and such as are in doubt will more fearlessly come
over. Also you must more openly carry on the war here,
that the Syracusans, supposing that you have some regard to
their safety, may hold out, and that the Athenians may be less
disposed to send reinforcements to their army. You ought,
further^ to fortify Decelea hi Attica ; a measure of which the
Athenians have been ever especially apprehensive, and which,
of all the inflictions of war, they reckon they have alone not
experienced. For thus may we most surely injure our enemies,
if what we, on certain information, learn that they fear, that
we bring upon them. For it is reasonable to suppose that
they each feel fear with the exactest knowledge of what is most
formidable to them.

** As to the points wherein you will yourselves be benefited^
and your foes be annoyed, by this fortifying, I will, among
many, sum up the principal. Know, then, that of those by
whom the country is cultivated ^, the greater part will fall into
your hands, partly by capture, and partly by voluntary de-
sertion. And as to the revenues of the mines at Laurium,
and the profits which they derive from the land % and those
from the courts ^, of such they will be now deprived ; but they

by any other measure, your decided friends will be encouraged, and those
dubiously affected \\n\\ be confirmed in your interest."

^ 0/ those bi/ whom the country it ctdkvatedy 4^.] Such is, I conceire, the
seiMe of the passage ; though I have deviated from all former translators,
since the sense they assign to KaTteKevafrrai cannot be admitted, whereas
the above is undoubtedly inherent in the words. The use of the neuter
plural (at which the translators seem to have stumbled) has a reference to
the common name given to slaves, ^fiara. Besides, among the other in-
inries calculated on by the erection of this fort, it is impossible that AId«
btades could omit, that of its afR>rding a retreat for the runaway slaves.
Pylus, in Laconia, had served the very same purposes against the Lacedac-
monians, by the capture and the harbouring of slaves.

^ Prints which they derive from the kmd,] By these are not to be un-
derstood the regular profits of the cultiyator, but those of the government;
for that is alone the sufc^t of these and the following words. There seems
to be reference to that sort of iand-ttur, which consisted in a certain pro-
portion of the produce, or a pecaniary commutation. Now, in propor-
tion as the cultivator ao£lerea, so must the government taxes be oimi^

7 fhm the eowis.'] Namely, from fees and fines. The Scholiast tells ns
that many of the punishments of the Athenian law consisted in pecuniary
fides. Of these, then, they would be in a great ni««ure deprived ; for the
country courts would scarcely be held, and such would be the agitation

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will especially be injured by the revenues being less regularly
rendered ® by the allies, who, thinking that the war is carried
on vigorously on your parts, will set lightly by them.®

XCII. *' Now that each of these measures should be carried
into effect quickly and promptly rests, Lacedaemonians, with
you S since that they are possible I am quite confident, and I
think I shall not be found mistaken. '/ And let me crave that I
may not be thought the worse of * by any of you, because,
though once esteemed a true patriot, I now strenuously assail *
my country in conjunction with its bitterest foes ; nor that my
words may be misconstrued as proceeding from the busy zeal of
a fugitive.* For I am, indeed, a fugitive from the malice of
those that drove me out, but not (if ye hearken to my counsels)
from your benefit ^ Nor are those so much enemies who (like

throughout Atticti, that the course of justice would be interrupted, or much
impeded. See the Scbol. and the note of Goeller, who, however, has
failed to perceive that we are not boiind to justify the fact, since this
is plainly an oratorical exoneration,

8 Less regularly rendered,] The Scholiast rightly explains ^icupopovfjiBvtiQ
by difivfK&c ^cpofuvr}^. Nearly the same sense occurs inira, c. 100. In other
authors but Thucydides, however, ha^pkia always signifies diripio, plun-
der ; except that Dio Cass. 629, 41. uses it in the Thucydidean sense.

• Set lightly by them.'\ Or, the expression may signify, " neglect the pay-
ment o^ the tribute."

I RestSy LacedcemomanSt ^ffith vou.] On this sense of iv vfity dvai see
Dr. Blomfield on iEschyl. Pers. Gloss. 177.

« That I may not be thought the worse of.] This is imitated by Andocid.
p. 39, fttiU Ttfi xiipovQ BoKitfuv ilvai.

3 Strenuously assail.] So Appian, t. 1, 59, 1. r^c i><€v^epiac iyKparioQ
iKSfii^a. See note on 1. 1, 76.

* Nor thai my words may be misconstrued, as proceeding, 4rc.] The con-
struction of viroTTTtvea^ai with ei'e and an accusative is very rare. The only
examples I know of are Dio Cass, 22, lOO. Ic i«i vovc ra^rov tfinafrrevev, and
269, 8. 274, 94. 509, 58. 322, 41. 429, 80. 690, 96.

It is always observed, that deserters and new converts (especially when
turncoats) ever evince peculiar alacrity in their new cause, and the keenest
animosity to their former friends.

4 / am, indeed, a fuptive from, Spc] Here I have closely followed the
antithetical paronomasia of the ori^nal, though somewhat at the expense
of perspicuity. The sense is explained by the Schol. oh ^€vyut rd w^tktiv
vfAOQi but it should rather seem to mean, "I am not removed from the
power of doing you service." The paronomasia is, indeed, somewhat
fingid, but probably well represents the character of oratory peculiar to
Alcibiades, w hich (as I have before remarked) is said to have been full of
daring and even harsh metaphors, and now and then somewhat frigid

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you) have at any time annoyed their foes^ as who have
compelled their friends to become enemies. And my love of
my country I hold not inasmuch as I have been wronged, but
in so far as I have lived in security therein. ^ Nor do I
reckon that I am now going against what is any longer a
country of mine, but much rather to recover what is not my -
country. ® And he is a true lover of his country, not who
having wrongfully lost his country ^ scruples to invade it,
but he who, from his desire for it, endeavours by every
method to recover it. Thus I entreat you, Lacedaemonians^
to confidently employ my services in all perils or hardships
whatever, knowing, forsooth, the argument advanced by all ^^^
that ^ if, while an enemy, I did you much injury, so when a
friend I can render you eminent service,' inasmuch as I well
know the state of things with the Athenians, and yours I
can conjecture.

^^ And now I entreat you, considering that ye are consulting
on matters of the weightest importance, not to shrink from

6 Nor are those so much enemes who, <J-c.] Literally, " and those arc
rather enemies, not who," &c, A harsh construction, not unfirequent in our
author. It must be remarked, that the comparative b here for the
positive with ftaXXov.

^ My love of my country I hold, 4rcA Smith renders (or rather parw
phrases) thus : " My patriotism is far from thriving under the injustice I
nave suffered ; it was merely an effect of gratitude for that protection I
once enjoyed from my country." But it may be doubted whether that be
a correct view of the sense. In what light the antients considered the pas-
sase, will appear from the following imitations which I have noted : — >
Dionys. Hal. Ant. p. 486, 10. varpiia dk rfyovfiat oh rrjv Awapvr}eafi6vriv fu
irdXiy, dXk' tjg iW&rptoQ wv, wokirric yiy ova, y^v « oifx iv j i^diKr}ftai ^tXf}Vy
dXX Iv j t6 da^dkkg l^w^ Appian, t. 1, 35, 74. {tlwe) oitK ilvai irarpl^a rriv
ijc€aXov(Tai/, itWA. rfjv vTTodexofifVtiv.

• Nor do I reckon that, <$t7.] Mitford well paraphrases thus : ** I hold
that no longer my country, which is governed by a set of men who have so
injuriously driven me from it. Nor ought I to be considered as persuading
war against my country ; but rather as endeavouring to restore myself to
the country which was once mine." Indeed, one who has been punished
and cast off from a country may well esteem it as no longer his.

9 Lost his country^] Hence may be defended the common reading
in Justin, 6, 1, 6. Ut eligat Conona, qui amissa belle patria, Cypri ex-

'0 Knowing tltat argument advanced by all.] Namely, bv all ftigitives.
For wpo^aWSfuvov cannot mean, as Portus renders, ** quod jactatur," or
the hackneyed maxhn^ as the versions of Hobbes and Smith represent. There
is somethmg very similar in Dionys. Hal. Ant. 487, 29. ical ti t<rre ttrt 8c
voXtftdv iffjuv fjity6iXa /3Xtt7rwv dwarbg fiv, Kal <rijv vfiiv dyiovtZofuvog, fii y
dXa 9vvfieofuu if^tXtip^

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the expediticm to Sicily and Attica, in order that by proceed-
ing thither, you may, with a moderate force, secure the great

Online LibraryThucydidesThe History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war → online text (page 18 of 59)