The History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war online

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even* yet they occupy the midland and northerly parts of the
island. The Phoenicians, too, formed settlements around the
whole of Sicily, taking in the promontories near the sea, and
little islands ac^acent, and that for the sake of traffic with the
Siculi. ^7.

After, however, the Greeks had come over in great num-

b very groundleds. Not to say that we nowhere read ot kings of Arcadia,
it is very unlikely that a king of Arcadia should have gone to settle a
colony in Italy. Beddes, the very name given to the new colonists
(CEnotri) seems to point at (Enotrus (one of the twenty sons of Lycaon, as
we find from Phoc^lides), and not Ilalusy as the leader and founder of the
colony. Whereas it was likely that when, in after times, the colony grew
populous and powerful, it should give name to the whole country, at least
the south part of it, and this be called CEnotria or Italia. Besides, Anti-
ochus, referred to by Goeller, calls Italus, not an Arcadian, but an (Eno-
trian. And as 'ApKddutv cannot have come from Thucydides, neither is it,
I conceive, as Goeller fancies, a gloss. It seems rather to have been a mar-
fftnal remark, not intended to supersede the textual reading, though it had
m some MSS. that effect, but to denote the Grecian origm of one of the
most antient nations of Italy.

On the origin of the name lUiUa Goeller refers to He3me'8 twenty-first
Exc. on Virg. Mn. 1. Anstot. Polit.7, 10. Paul Diacon. Hist. Langobard
2, 23. And (after Niebuhr) referring to Thucyd. 7, 33, he remarks, ** that
the name of Italy, in the time of Thucydides, only comprehended that part
of the peninsula from the river Laus and the city of Metapontum to the
Sicilian strait; all beyond belonging to Japysia, Opicia,'* &c. If so, the
antient name of Italy was indeed very limited, only comprehending Cala-
bria; naiuely, the toe of the boot. . But as Niebuhr himself admits that
CEnotria comprehended BnUtu and Lttcania, there is no reason to think
that Italia was, at the time in question, at all less extensive.

On the name Ilalus may be consult^ a learned note of Fabricius on Dio
Cass. p. 2, 32.

16 jbrove and confined toA Here I read, on the conjecture of Bekker, for
<lir4<rreiXav, dvkortSxiv. I had myself conjectured vwktmiXav,

17 The Phcenicians, too, formed settlements, ^c] It seems that these were
not meant as colonies, but only commercial stations, like the factories, or
petty settlements, formed hj the Portuguese, Dutch, English, &c. on the
coast of Hindostan in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Some of
them, however, it seems, became colonies, as serving to carry off the excess
of population fi*om Phoenicia, and, what might be called New Phoenicia, the
Carthaginian territories. Now islands and peninsular promontories are
situations in all ages chosen for such settlements.

The islands here menUoned were probably the iEgades, &c. on the west
coast off the Lilybsum.

B 4

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ber^ they abandoned the greater part of their settlements,
and drew together the rest, occupying Motya^S Soloeis'^,
and Panormus, near the Elymians, both in reliance on their
assistance, and because from this part of Sicily it is the
shortest passage to Carthage.

Such were the barbarians who settled Sicily, and this their

III. As to the Greeks^ the first who formed settlements

1' jlfo/yo.] On the situation ofthis place there is some doubt Cluve-
rius remarks that by most geographers it is placed at Portus Galli, pine
miles from Panormus. Yet from Diodor. Sic. 1. 13, 14. and 54. 14, 47-55.
it is plfun that it was not on the continent, but on an island distant from it,
as Diodor. says, six stadia. Those passages, too, prove that it was not near
Panormus, but between Lilybaeum and Eryx. Cluverius, moreover,
remarks, *' that there is at this time a low islet, about six stadia from the
continent, two miles from the promontory JSgithallus, and seven from Lily-
teum, called Isola di Santo Pantaleon, which so coincides with the historical
narrations that there can be no doubt but that it was Motya." And here
Cluverius has been followed by Arrowsmith. But the island he nientionB
as corresponding to Motya is Trinas, which is too fhr from the continent*
^oT my own part, as I find in Captain Smyth's map no less than six islets
between Lilybseum and jGgithallus, to three of which the distance mentioned
by Diodorus will appiv, it seems to me impossible to determine which of
these was the aniient Motya, on^, it may be supposed, of the htvlar settle*
ments before adverted to. Now the situation was peculiarly convenient^
from the shortness of its distance from Africa, which, accordinff to Cluve-
rius, was about 180 mUes; though, according to Arrowsmith's map, it is
but 100 miles to the nearest point, Uie Hermaea Acra. The name Mor^q is
probably of Pbcenician origin ; though there are two or three glosses in
Hcsych. which possibly have some connection with it.

»8 SoloeisA This was on the east promontory of the bay of Panormus
(Monte Gterbino), and about twelve miles from Panormus. It was called
b^ the Romans (by contraction) Solus and Soluntum, and is now (as Chive*
nus testifies) called Solunti. In the time of Fazelli there was yet a castle^
and a port for corn vessels. Its situation is thus graphically depicted bv
FateUi ap« Clover, p. 278. ** Mons Gerbinus, a Panormo passuum miilla xii
dbtans, sequitur, quem mare adlambit : et mons alius, undique predsus, el
contiguus, ad ci^us verticem Soloentum, urbs vetustissima, hodie prorsus
jacens cernitur. Cujus moenia, drcumquaque jacentia, ac templorum sedi-
lunque privatorum vestigia, columns prseterea prostrate, ac cutems, quse
hucusque visuntur, ejus prseteritam ostendunt claritatem. Erat autem am*
bitus piassuum supra mille, et naturali situ communita, unicum habois adi-
tum et adscensu perdiffidlem." Cluverius thinks that the foundation of
Soloeis must have been about the fiftieth Olympiad, since it b mentioned
by Hecatffius in his '* Europe."

It is obvious how judidousljr selected were the situations of these thred
places : Motya being on an island, Soloeis exceedhagly strong by nature,
and Panormus one of the best ports in Europe, occupying the same site as
the present Palermo.

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therein were soOie Chalcidaeans from Euboea under the direc-
tion of Thucles, who settled Naxos S and erected the altar of
Apollo Atchegetes ^, which is now standing outside of the
city, at which the Theori (or those publicly sent to consult
the oracle) offer sacrifices previous to their departure. In
the following yter, Archias '\ one of the Heraclidae, leading
a colony from Corinth ^^ founded Syracuse ; having first ex-
pelled the Siculi from the island, in which (now no longer
surrounded with water ^) is situated the inner city. In pro-
cess of time the outer city, too, was added, by a wall, and
became populous ^ Thucles also, and the Chalcidaeans, pro-

1 Naxoi.] So called, it should seem, from the island Naxos. It is sup-
posed to have been founded B. C. 735, and was destroyed by Dionysius.
With respect to its situation, Cluverius thinks *< there is no reason to doubt
but that it was near Mount Taurus, where Tauromenium was afterwards
founded; namely, on that side of the mountain which looks towards Catana
and Syracuse. He shows that from the Itinerary of Antonine we may
ascertain that it was five miles from Tauromenium ; namely, at what is now
called Fiume freddo/* or, as Poppo calls it, the Acesines, which, indeed,
seems to be what Cluverius means by the Fiume freddo, and that corre-
Bxmds best ^with the distance in the Itinerary. Arrowsmith calls it the

^ Archegetes,] Or chief leader. This title they save him as the patron
of their undertakiM. The appellation was, indeed, elsewhere applied to
Apollo ; on which Duker refers to Spanbeim on Callimachus.

9 Arckias.] To the passages cited by Cluverius and Duker may be added
the following interesting one of Pausan. 5, 7, 3. Sc (scil. etbc iv AcX^olp)

rd Inf.

'Oprvylif ric * kutcu iv ^tpoadQ ir^rr^, BpwaKliK KtMtrep^sif, V 'AX^iov
arSfta pXvUh f^^ffy^iuvov xijyaic (ifpivtirit *Ap^oij9iiQ, The oracle was, a^
hb^, consulted; and it may be observed that the spdling OpwaxiriQ in
that passage confirms what I have abore said, that this is the most antient

^ Leading a eobmyjrom CorinM.] Such is plainly the sense of Ir K(h
pMov^ and not ** of Corinth," as Smith renders, though diat Archias was
a Corintliian there is no reason to doubt.

» N<m no longer y <$'<?•] It was at first an island, land the site of the old
eity founded by AroMas. Afterwards, when the city was so far extended to
the continent that there was, as it were, a new city there, the insular city
was the inner, and the other the outer city. By the time of Thucydides,
however, the diannel which separated the two had been filled up ; as in the
case of Mantinasa.

The name of the island was Ort^gia; on which see Cluver. p. 154. seqq.
GoeUer de situ Syr. p. 44. sq. It is strange that none of the authors dted
should have adverted to the raUo appeHatumie, which undoubtedly had re-
ference to the abundance ofqwaUt. It contained the far^ftmed fountain of

6 Th€ ouier cUy^ too, wa$, 4*.] Such seems to be the true sense, and
not that assigned by Hobbcs and Smith: for Thucydides could hardly

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ceeding from Naxus (in the fifth year after the foundation of
Syracuse), settled Leontini ^, (driving out the Siculi by force
of arms,) and after that Catana. But those that settled Catana
made Euarchus the leader of the colony.^

IV. About the same time also Lamis arrived in Sicily, with
a colony from Megara, and having founded a town called
Trotilus S upon the river Pantacias, and afterwards having

mean to say that the city became populous in consequence of being walled.
npoeruxiKi^v signifies, to add and wall in a piece of ground to one already
wialled in. It is a very rare word, and, I believe, met with nowhere else,
except in Dionys. Hal. Ant. p. 137, 19. (perhaps with a view to the present
passage) trparirtixifn ry ir6\£i.

With respect to the name of the blace itself, Syracuse, there is no reason
to doubt but that it was so called from a lake or marsh, denominated Sff-
TOCO, Whether that was the same with the LMsmeliaj authors are not
aoreed. Latronne thinks they were the same ; Uluverius and Poppo, that
they were different ones : but they are so puzzled to fix the situation of
Syracuse, that probably the former opinion is the better founded, though
it is not without its difficulties. Mr. Hughes testifies that much of the fer-
tile land of Syracuse is again become a lK>g.

7 Leontifd,] Not Leontium, as Uobbes and Smith write ; for that is not
only a deviation from Thucydides, but, in fact, no euthor uses that name,
except Ptolemy ; and Cluverius there suspects the reading to be a corrup-
tion for Atovrivov. To me it appears that AtovrXvoi was the original read-
ing, corrupted first to AiovrXvov, and then to At6vru>v, As I have before
treated on this city, it may be sufficient to add, that Cluverius has, with
great probabilitjr, derived the appellation from Acwv, all the antient coins
of this city havmg the impress of a lion, I suspect, however, that it de-
rived it from its founder, as the leader of the onginal colony, whose name
Thucydides does not mention. The appellation Akiov^ it may be observed,
was a common one.

That they should have settled Leontini only six years afler their own
colonisation may, indeed, seem strange; but it may be accounted for from
the superior fertility of* the plain of Leontini, which has ever been ac-
counted the richest tract in Sicily : for the very same reason they soon
afterwards settled Catana.

< But those that settled, ^c,] By this it is meant that the new colonists
did not, as was usual, take a leader appointed by the mother country, but
appointed one of themselves. Hence it would appear that the colony was
made by a party, out of dissatisfaction.

1 TroOlusJ] From the resemblance of this name to Trogilus, Pinedo
and Duker would here read TpwyiXov : but we cannot here suppose the
Trogilus near Syracuse ; and that there should have been any other place
of the same name within so short a distance, is extremely improbable; and
though Trotilus may not, as Duker says, be mentioned elsewhere *, yet that

• I can, however, I think, point out another place where it is mentioned.
Polyaenus, 5, 5, 2. writes thus— Mc7af>crt r&p Atovrivmv iiarw6pr9s TpdtXop
iMT^Kifaw iiMXpi kvck x^H»Awos uMXpi yap roao^rov awtiptiffaM ol XaA#n5c7f ; where
Masric rightly conjectures TprfriXer. This account of Polyamus is, bowev^, at

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gone from thence, and for a short time lived under the same
government with the Leontines, being expelled by them, and
having founded Thapsus ^, he himself is slain. As to the rest,
they, after being dislodged ^ from Thapsus, went and founded
what is called the Hyblaean Megara, under the auspices of
Hyblon, a Sicilian king, who assigned them that situation.^

is no reason why it may not be the true reading ; for the manner in which
ThucydicJes sp^ks of it {Tptitrtkov, n ovofia ytiipiov), shows that it was a
very obscure place. Indeed, it should seem to have been soon, in a manner,
abandoned ; the colonists being attracted by the superior advantages of the
neighbouring Leontini.

1 he name (by what allusion is uncertain) seems a derivative adjective
from rputrbe (which occurs in Homer), as djrriXoc from 67rr6c> Indeed,
almost all the few polysyllables in — tXoc are derivatives from simpler forms
in OQ or ij.

With respect to the situation of the place, the Pantacias (not Pantacius ;
for all authorities defend the ac) is proved by Cluverius (with a reference
to Virg. Mn, J, 689.) to be what is now called the Porcari ; and Trotilus is
thought by Cluverius to have been on the right bank, and at the mouth of
the river, where there is now a sort of port or dock called Bnica. I agree
with Cluverius that it was probably on the right bank. And this the vvkp,
taken with a reference to the last-mentioned place Catana, seems to prove.
So the Scholiast explains it vvip avut. That it was at the river is, indeed,
most probable, though far from being certain.

B Thapsus,] Situated in a peninsula which was sometimes called an
island, and now bears the name Macronesi. See Cluver. The place is sel-
dom mentioned ; and it would not be certain that there was any town, but
that Steph. Byz. calls it ttSXic, The place, probably, obtained its name
from the peninsula producing the Odj^oc, a sort of plant or shrub used for
dyeing yellow. See Hesych. in e^ivov, and the commentators there.

9 Dislodged.] Namely, as I suspect, by the Syracusans, to whom the
occupation of the place would be of importance.

** Under the auspices of, 4^c,] Such is clearly the sense; though the
versions of Portus and Smith represent that the place was betrayed to them
by Hyblon. But Trpo^idiofii often signifies to put into the hands of; as Polyb#
1.36, 1, 1. 32, 13, 5., where see Schweighausen. The true sense has been
seen by Goeller, who renders Ka^riyri<raftkvov, « eodemque duce," as if they
took the king for the leader of the colony ; which may be the sense in-
tended ; but I prefer the figurative one above adopted.

It may seem strange that a Sicilian king should patronise and settle
Greek colonists ; but, in truth, these Megara?ans had been so tossed about
and miserably handled by the Greeks, that they were doubtless ready to
take the side of the Siculi against them. And, probably, Hyblon regarded
them as an accession of strength ; and in that view he planted them rery
skilfully, since their territory was interposed between the two powerful
Greek colonies at Syracuse and Leontini.

It appears, Goeller remarks, from Ephorus as. Strabo, that the city was
at first called Hybla. And, on this mode of colonisation, he refers to

variance with Thucydidcs. I should be inclined to tWnk that what he says of
Trotilus might be true of Thapsus, but that that place must have been in the
territory of Syracuse.

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And having inhabited the place two hundred and forty-five
years, they were expelled fix)m the city and territory by Gelo,
tyrant of Syracuse. But before their expulsion they had, an
hundred years after their own foundation, settled Selinus ^
sending Pammilus as the leader of the colony ; who had come
to them from the parent city, and co-operated in the establish-
ment of the colony.

Gela ^ was colonised by Antiphemus from . Rhodes, and
Eutimus from Crete, who brought settlers in common, and
founded it in the forty-fifth year after the colonisation of Sy-
racuse. The name of the city was given it from the river
Gela ; but the place where the city now is, and which ^ was first

Heyne*8 Opusc. Acad. t. S. p. 952. Now, there were three H^rblas in Sicily,
the Megara Hyblsea, the Hyola Galeads, or Geleatis, also called Major, near
iEtna, and the Hybla Heraea, near Pachyna.

6 Selmta.'j Situated at the mouth of the river Hypsa, on the south-west
part of the island, and about 28 miles S. E. from Lilybaeum. The place is
supposed to have derived its name from the wild panley which grew in its
neighbourhood, on the banks of the river Selinus, and which is still found
there. Thus its coins had a leaf of the ffiKivov represented. Many other
rivers and lakes, too, had this name.

Its ruins (now called Polieri del Cattel veirano, or Torre delU Pulci^ see
Hoare 2. p. 78. seqq.) attest its antient magnificence. The best account of
them has been given by Hoare (whom see% and recently by Duppa. ** The
ruins (he sa}^) are on the coas^ occupying the tops of two opposite hills
not very high, but rising rather abruptly from the sea, and divided by a
narrow valley, conjectured to have been the antient port, where a few ves-
tiges are still discoverable among the heaps of accumulated sand. The
western hill b supposed to have ^en the Acropo&t, and the spot where the
colony was first esteblished ; and there are still the remains or a wall nearly
a mile in drcuit. On the opposite hill are the ruins, which first attract the
attention, and origmally consuted of three temples ; the lai^ger 967 feet
6 inches long, and 160 feet 11 mches broad : the columns were 56 feet high,
and their diameter lo feet 6 inches : which dimensions may serve to sive an
idea of the colossal nze of the lai^gest temple. This temple was not &ished
at the time of its destruction; for some columns are fluted, others are pre-
pared for fluting, and some are quite plain. The whole now presents a pile
of ruins not surpassed in mndeur by any other remains of antiquity."

Gela.] Situated on the south part of the island, at the mouth of the
nght bank of the river of the same name, and now called Terra nova, as
alto is the place itself (though, according to Hoare, Alicata). The former,
kowever, b found in the recent map of Captain Smyth.

Our author's derivation of the name of tne place, from that of the river,
might have prevented the trifling of those who derive it from y€\fv. Ai
to the name of the river, it seemd derived from some old Greek word cog-
nate with the Latin gelu ; by which it will signify Cold River, a not un-
common appellation.

7 Where the cit^ now is, and which, ^c] Such seems lo be the sense,
which has been missed by Hobbes and others. By the city is meant the city
proper, as at Athens the Acropolis was so called ; and the same manner of

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enclosed by a wall, is called Lindii. The institutions estap-
blished by them were Doric ®

About an hundred and eight years after their own colo-
nisation, the Geloans settled Acragas ^ (naming the city from

speaking is now used with respect to London and Paris. The place, it
seems, was originally called lAndU; a name, doubtless, given in compliment
to Antiphemus, the leader of the Rhodian colonists, who came, it should
seem, mostly from Lindus in Rhodes. The old town, in the time of Thu-
cydides, yet bore the name of Lindii.
On the name Antiphemus see Athen. p. 297. r.

8 T%e instituiions ettabUthed bi/ them were Doric.'\ As might be expected ;
for the Rhodians were of Doric orisin, and the institutions here meant were
nearlv the same with those of the Cretans. It is here remarked by
Goeller : '* Patrium nimirum fiiit Doribus inde a prima ^entis sdrpe et ab
Hyllo Heraclidammcjue, ut libertatem populus, magistratuum honore
pnncipibus viris relicto, coleret aristocratiamoue adeo amplecteretur.
Heyn. Opusc. Academ. t. 2. p. 217. et ad Pindar. Pyth. 1, 118. Add. Odofr.
Mucdler d. Dorer. t. 1, p. ill. t.2. p. 163. ante omnia antem Boeckh. ex-
plicat. Pind. p. 254."

9 Acragtt*.] Afterwards called Ajs;rigeDtum» now Gir^^d ; also on the
south coast, and about forty-five nules west of Gela. This was at one time
(after Syracuse) the largest and wealthiest city of Sicily, and, perhaps, of
greater magnificence than Syracuse, if at least we may judge by the ruins,
which are the noblest and most perfect of the whole island. Its antient
state is well described by Polyb. 9, 27. and Diodor. 15, 81. seqq., its modern
by Swinburne, Bartels, Munter, Hove, and Duppa. The temples, of
wnich there are yet remains, are nine in number, namely, of Juno Lucina,
of Concord, Jupiter Olympus, Ceres and Proserpine, Venus, Hercules.
Of these the most antient is that of Ceres and Proserpine ; that of Con-
cord is the most perfect; of that of Venus about half remains; that of
Hercules was much larger than the preceding, and had the famous statue
of Hercules by Zeuxis, moitioned by Cicero. That of Juno was famous
for the statue of the goddess, the chef-d'oeuvre of Zeuxis. The temple of
Jupiter Olympus was the lai^gest The length, Duppa says, was three hun-
dred and fifty-nine feet, the width one hundred and seventy-four; the di-
ameter of the fluted semicolumns twelve feet nine inches, height sixty-
three feet nine. ' The side was composed of fourteen semi-columns, the
ends of seven.

The situation was excellently selected, both for strength and commerce ;
the place having an abrupt rock as a wall, out of which, indeed, most part
of the walls were cut. The whole is one thousand three hundred feet above
die sea, and therefore well answers to Virgil's words, **sese ostentat
maxime longe." Indeed, had not Thucvdides informed us that it was called
from the river, we might have supposed the name had reference to its rocky
site. The word may, however, apply to the rwer; for Hesychius explains
&Kpaykc by 9K\fip6v,

When It is said that Acragas was founded by the Geloans, we are only,
I conceive, to understand repeopled ; for the site of the acropolis is, iii ith
reason,- supposed to have been the citadel and residence of Cocalus, king
of the Sicani. The old city of Cocalus I suspect to be what Herodotus,
7, 170., calls Camcuty which he says the Agrigentines, in his dme, in-
habited. Indeed, that Camicus was old Agrigentum, is plain fi*om Duris
ap. Steph. Byz. 'lftcp<S.

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the river Acragas), and sent as leaders of the colony Aristonus
and Pustohis, appointing them the same form of polity as that
at Gela.

Zancle ^^ was at first colonised by some pirates from
Cyme, the Chalcidic city in Opicia ; but afterwards, a con-
siderable body coming from Chalcis and the rest of Euboea,
participated in the distribution of the lands. Its founders
were Perieres and Crataemenes, one fi*om Cyme, the other
from Chalcis. The name at first given it was Zancle, as it
had been called by the Siculi ; for the place in form is like a
hook or sickle, which the Siculi express by Zanclos. After-
wards, however, they were expelled by some Samians ", and
other lonians, who, fleeing before the Medes, attempted to
settle in Sicily*

V. The Samians, however, were not long after driven out
by Anaxilas, tyrant of the Rhegini, who also himself founded
the city out of a mixed race, calling it Messena ^, from the
country whence he was antiently descended.

Himera ^ was colonised from Zancle by Euclidas, Simus,
and Saco; and most of those who went on the colony were
ChalcidsBans, with whom took part in the settlement certain
Syracusans, a beaten party from that city, who were called

Online LibraryThucydidesThe History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war → online text (page 2 of 59)