Thucydides.

The History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war online

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Online LibraryThucydidesThe History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war → online text (page 30 of 59)
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the battle was yet equal, by reason of the continual undecided-
ness of the contest, anxiously bending forward^ and moving
with their bodies, according to the opinion they formed,^
passed the interval in the most miserable torment of suspense^
For the combatants were continually within a little either of
escaping, or perishing. And so long as the battle was yet
undecided, one might hear in the same army of the Athenians
all sounds at once, lamentations — shouts — " they conquer !"
— " they are beaten !" ^° and such other multifarious exclam-
ations as a great army situated in extreme peril may be found
^^,^-to utter. As to those on board the ships, they were affected
in nearly the same manner ' ^, until at length, after the battle
had lasted a considerable time, the Syracusans and their al-
lies decidedly routed ^^ the Athenians, and pressing upon them

7 A shout of lamentation.] Literally, *^ lamoDtation mingled with
shouting."

6 Nay, at the very tight, 4rc.] This, and most of the remaining part of
this description, is imitated by Dionys. Hal. Ant. p. 155. Had Sylbuig been
aware of this, be would not have proposed to alter npb^ rd Bptafikva into
irpbQ rd v^poffikva. Possibly, Thucvcudes had in mind the fine description
of the combat between Eteodes and Polynices in Eurip. Phoen. 1405.

9 Anxioudy bending forward, ^-c] With this graphic description
Goeller compares Sallust,B. J. 6, 60. and Livy, 1. l, S5. To which passages
may be added the following far closer imitations : Appian, 1. 1. 497, 1. koX
2c r<kc ipavraeiag rwv Xtyofdvutv ry <Txt}fnari rov cwfxaroQ wvk^epov. Liban.
Epist. 584. hirsp oi roi>c iv xe(/ia»vi irXwvrac avb yifQ bp&VTiQ wd(rxov(n, icai
rd KVfiara toXq ai/r&v ijyovvrac irpoffvivTiiv (TiitfJUKn. Philostr. Icon. p. 864.
1? KOfiti — 6pjifiaavT0Q de draKTrjiftuv ovvawovevovoa rdiQ rov ^fiov Kivri<noiv,
Max. Tyr. Diss. 11, 1, 198* 17 tifiapfuvri filq, <rna Kai vpoffavayKd^ti vvvano^
vtbiiv Tai£ airriic dyuyaig. The word vvvajrovdia (which b a very rare one)
also occurs in Max. Tyr. Diss. 10. t. 1, 181. and in Pollux, 4, 95.

10 One might hear, S^c] This passage has been deservedly admired. It
18 strange that the commentators shoiud have failed to remark how much
it was Uie object of bnitation by the later writers, ex. gr. Charit. p. 66, 10.
ir&vTa fiv 6fMVt ddiepva, x&pa, hafjitoQ, JXcoc, k. r. X. Perhaps our historian
had in mind that sublime passage of iEschyl. Agam. 312. oXfULi porjv dfiuerov
kp ir6\ii vpkxdv, — Kot riHv akSvrutv koI KpaTtiadvTuw lixa ^^oyyds dKovav
Un-l, <n}ft^pac iiirXijc, where Dr. Blomfield compares Hom. II. A. 450. So
also ^chyl. Pers. 407* kuI vapijv 6/mv kXveiv iroXXi)v fidrfv. See also Pers.
433. Eur. Phoen. 1208. Diod. Sic. t. 7, S62, 6. Dip. Arrian E. A. 5. 14,5.

11 Affected in much the tame manner,] i. e. suffered the same tortures of
suspense.

19 Decidedly routed.] The Xanirp&Q, by the usual transposition, belongs
to irp^tv, not (as the translators take it) to linKtlfiivoi. Thus it is hinted
that there was no longer the agony ofsutpente, for the rout was manifest.



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CHAP. LKXII. THE HISTORY OF THUCYDIDES. 241

with much shouting and mutual hurraing, pursued them to the
land* Then the crews of such ships as were not taken in the
deep water, being driven to shore, rushed some one way, some
another, towards thexamp.^^ And now the land army was no
longer variously afiTected, but with one simultaneous impulse,
all by groans and wailings expressing their overpowering
emotion at the catastrophe, some of them went to give sue*
cour to the ships, others to stand guard at the various quar-
ters of the wall; others, again (and those the greater part) fell
presently to considering for themselves, how they might best
provide for their own preservation. There was, indeed, at the
moment, a consternation such as has been never exceeded*
And, in truth, they were similarly circumstanced and affected
with those at Pylus ; for, as on the Lacedaemonian ships being
destroyed, the men, who had crossed over to the island oa
board of them, were lost to their country, so now the Athe-
nians were in despair of saving themselves by land, unless some
event contrary to all expectation should take place.

LXXIL After this battle (thus dbstinately disputed, and
with much loss of ships and men on botk sides), the Syracusans
and their allies, coming off the victors, took up the wrecks and
the dead, and, sailing off to the city, erected a trophy. As to
the Athenians, overwhelmed with the greatness of their present
misfortunes, they never thought of demanding permbsion to
take up the dead or the wrecks ^ and immediately began to
consult on measures for retreat during the night. Demos-
thenes, however, going to Nicias, gave it as his opinion that
they should man the yet remaining ships, and, at break of day,
try, if possible, to force the passage.^ He alleged, that the



'3 Rtithed, 4rc.] *^i7ri<rov seems to be a vox praegnans, denoting that
they stranded theu ships^ and inadefor the camp. ITiis second significatioa
is suggested by the preposition following, which denotes moiion to a place.
So ^seph. B. J. 7, lit 1. ^»air€<rwy iIq Kvpt/viTV.

» Never tkougfit of demanding, 4rc.] An effect of extreme calamity, such
as we have noticed at 1. 9, 1 13.

« Gave UashU opinion that, 4t?.] A counsel worthy of the unconquer-
able courage and preaence of mind of Demosthenes, and which was suc-
cesafiilly adopted by Antigonus, as related by Polyaen. 4, 6, 8. Such, how-
ever, is scarcely proper to be adopted in the case of an army which has been
reputedly beaten, since, to use the words ofTluM^ydides/l. 2, 89. fin. "when
VOL. I II. " tt



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2S4 THE HISTORY OP THUCYDIDES. BOOK. VII.

over, attain what is usually called the sweetest of all gi'atifica^
tions, revenge on an enemy.* That they are enemies, and our
bitterest ones, you all know ; since they came to our country
in order to enslave it; wherein, had they succeeded, they
would have subjected the men to the most cruel, and the
women and children to the most shameful ^ fate, and imposed
on the city the most ignominious appellation.® This being the
case, it would become no one to suffer his anger to evaporate,
nor to think it advantageous ^ for us to let them go without
putting ourselves to further danger ; for that they will equally
do, should they gain the victory : but after having done, in all
probability, what we wish, to avenge ourselves of these, and to
deliver to all Sicily a freedom before enjoyed, but then more
secure and stable; — that were an achievement worthy of all
honour. And surely of all dangers the rarest are those which,
inflicting very little injury from failure, confer much advantage
from success/*

LXIX.* The Syracusan generals and Gylippus, having
addresse<l these exhortations to their soldiers, immediately had
the ships manned, on perceiving that the Athenians had done
so. As to Nicias, being in much perturbation at the present
state of affairs, and seeing how great was the danger, and how
imminent ; thinking, too (as is usually the case in contests so
momentous), that in deeds the dispositions were even yet de-
fective, and, as far as w?orrf5wereconcerned, enough had not been
said, he again summoned every one of the captains, and call-
ing each by the name of his father ^ and by their own proper



* That it must be lawful, ^c] Few passages arc to be found more per-
plexing in the construction than this. Perhaps the mode pursued by
Goeller, who treats it as a blending of two constructions, is the most
effectual.

s The men to the mo$t cruel, 4*c.] Those who know the enormities
which were practised by the heathens on the sacking of cities, will need no
explanation of this sentence, in which is so briefly, yet forcibly, depicted
the fa|e of a conquered place.

The ai<Tx«<n-ij is employed verecuridk.

^ Ignominious appellation,] Namely, that o^ subject,

7 Think it advantageous.] Literally, " clear gain." See 1. «, 44. fin. and
note.

> C<d^ng each bi/ the name of his father.] Heyne on Hom. II. 10, 68.
(cited by Goeller) remarks, '* id eniro benevolentiam declarare putabatur.



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CHAP. LXIX. THE HISTORY OF THUCYDIDES. 235

names, and that of their tribes, entreated each one that had
any thing of celebrity, not to betray it; also those whose fore-
fathers were eminent, not to tarnish their hereditary virtues ;
reminding them of the high degree of libeity in their country,
and of the uncontrolled power to all therein in regard to their
manner of living ^ ; and saying whatever else persons in isuch
a conjuncture would say, who are little studious to avoid ad-
ducing topics trite and hackneyed (though they repeat what is
usually brought forward on such occasions, respecting their
wives and children and country's gods), but whatever they
think useful, in the present alarming emergency, sound forth
in their ears." ^^

After having addressed to them admonitions, not so much
what he thought sufficient^ as all that the time would permit,
he left them, and led the land forces to the sea side, and
ranged them along as large a space as possible, so as to be of
the greatest benefit in confirming the courage of those on
board the ships. And now Demosthenes, Menander, and
Euthydemus (for those were the commanders of the Athenian
fleet) went on board, and unmooring, immediately made sail



Causoe tamen plures esse potuere, ut discerneretur alter ab altero, etiam
honoris causa, cum pater esset clarus.'* It may be added, that there is
something very similar in Herod. 6, 14, 13. Iv <nr\Ky &vaypa<l>iivat irarpo^tv,
Xen. Cyr. 1, 4, 15. koI vapaKaXovvT^Q &vofia(rri i'leaorov. Pausan. 3, 14, 1.
OTflfXij irarpSB^v dvouara ix^v<ra» Plutarch Brut. 49. and Symp. irarpi^tv
ovoud^otv. iEiian V. H. 6, 2, Trarpo^cv rbv vtaviav Trpofnlwov, Soph« CEd.
Col. 21 5» Tivbq fl eirkpfiaroQ, 'Riivi, ipiavti irarpo^iv, rollux 5, lO. irarpd^iv

« Uncontrolled power, <Jc.] So Pericles in his Funeral Oration, 1. 2, 57.
says, '* Thus liberally are our public afiairs administered ; thus liberally,
too, do we conduct ourselves as to mutual suspicions in our private and
ever}'-day intercourse ; not bearing animosity towards our neighbour for
following his own humour, nor darkening our countenance with the scowl
of censure, which pains though it cannot punish.'^ All this, however,
appears to have been more in words than deeds ; at least, the higher ranks
had even less of it than the lower; Athens being certainly the very para-
dise of the mob, the very lowest of which could at any time make those
endued with merit, virtue, and wealth tremble.

5 Who are little sttuUota to avoid, ^c] See Goeller, who has very well
explained this somewhat intricate passage; also compare Livy 1. 5?, 5.
multa jam sspe memorata de majorum virtutibus, simul de militari laude
Macedonum quum disseruisset, adea quae turn maxime animos terrebant,
quibusque erigi ad aliquam spem poterant, venit, and Heliod. Mthiop, i.
p. 53, 21. Bourdel. He also truly remarks, that by the rd virkp awdvruv
frapairX-ffffui are meant commonplaces. See Lucian 1. 2, 537, 66, Isocr.
Nicocl. p. 40. Also, the note on 1. 1, 130, 7.



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238 THE HISTORY OP TUUCYDIDES. BOOK VII.

glory of his own country.'* And moreover the commanders
on both sides, if they any where saw one rowing to poop ®
without necessityi calling upon the captain by name, the Athc'-
ntans would ask him ^* if they retreated because they esteemed
the most hostile land more their own than the sea, of which
by no small trouble they had gained the dominion ;" the Syra"
cusansj " if they would flinch from those whom they well knew
to be striving by every means to escape, and thus fly from
the fliers."

LXXI. Meantime the land forces of each side, which were
drawn up along the beach ^ while the battle was yet unde-
cided % sustained a mighty conflict and commotion of mind ^,



• Rowing to poop.] Or retreating.

^ Along the beach,] Drawn up each to give aid to such of their ships as
should be hard pressed, and driven on shore.

B Undecided.] Literally, '' was maintained on equal terms, the balance
of the scales inclining neither way."

3 Sustained a mi^fuy conflict and commotion of mnuf.] Even that of sym-
pathy with their friends on the water, and of alternate hope and fear.

There has, however, been no little perplexity experienced by editors and
critics to determine the true reading and sense of this passage. They
remark that the Scholiast must have read Cvvratnc, by which Goeller under-
stands cruciattu animi: but it would rather signify animi conteniio. It may
be added thak IvvraviQ seems to have been read by Valla, and is found in
almost a transcript of this passage in Dio Cass. p. 367. ^vriitaKov yap r^c
/*^X*?C-^'^C ^X^C <^yTa(ni, <Tvvdvai itXovro, Yet, Strange to say, the
conttnon reading, ivvraait, is found in another equally close imitation at
p. 575 and 576. o irk^oc — avtrrauti ttiq yviofifjQ ffwetrxovro. There can be
no doubt, too, but that Plutarch read IvvraviQ : for, in the reference which
he makes to this passage at p. 34 7, B. (quoted by Duker), he writes,
SXaoTov dyiBtva koI (Tvtrraffiv TfJQ yvufifjg lycav. where the common reading
oifVTaKiv is indefensible; and dXatn-ov pomts to aioraaiv rather than to
aifvraatir : nor do I remember one instance of ovvraciQ in a metaphorical
sense. The whole of that passage is thus emended by Goeller : koX oi nt»
ZofiaxovvrtQ fikv Ik doXarrijc Aacc^atfKivcoi, vavfiaxovvrt^ Sk dirb yijc 'A^tf'
yatoi, Koi 'n'6Xiv 6 Iv role SuccXucoic ^k tijc yrjc 'trtibQ AfjAftorkptitv^ hoppotrov rijc
vaviiaxiaQ fca^corijicvuzC) oKaorov aywva Kal (HKnatriv rfjc yvw/iijf ix<"V ^*A rd
afcp£ru»c ewixh ^C «M^^»JC> ««* «>*C <ra>/taffiv ahroX^ l<Ta ry d6Ky nepiStA^
4rv/iirvla»v /iccrra ry Sia^iffn icai ry diarvinaffu t&v yivofikvuiv ypa^ucfjc Ivap^
ytiac larl, where rb oKpinaQ is undoubtedly the true reading; and, indeed,
the same emendation I myself made many years ago. I also emended
owavoviijiavy which Goeller only timidly proposes as a qusere. As to
the last emendation lUftrd, — i(rri, it is far too Dold ; for how is it possible
to account for the omission of two words which might seem essential
to the sense? I say teem^ for they are not really so. It may suffice to
subaud tpyov kari, a very common ellipsis, on which see Bos.

Finally, Kvffraaig is also supported by Plutarch Vit Horn. § 207. 4 <H}<rra-
ciQ rife i^XVC dvi€TM Kai rd fiiKti tov cdtfuiros Xvcroi. AUo by Eurip.



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CHAP. LXXI. THE HISTORY OF THUCYDIDES. 289

those of the country being eager for an increase of the credit
already gained; the invaders fearing lest they should fall into
a yet worse condition than their present one. For, indeed^
affairs being with the Athenians wholly centred in * the shipsj
their fear for the future was unparalleled.^ And by reason
of the fluctuating inconsistency of fortune, they were also com*
pelled to view the combat from land with fluctuating feelings.®
For the scene being at but a short distance, and all not look-
ing at one and the same part, upon their own side prevail-
ing, they would take courage, and would fall to invoking the
gods not to deprive them of their safety ; while those who
saw their friends defeated, broke out into a shout of lament-



Hippol. 987. Tldrfp, fiivog fiiv ^voramq re rdv ^ptviav Aiivri, And the pas-
sage is imitated by Philostratus Vit. Ap. 5, 35. thus: rA TrpSff^wov rov
paaiXfwg dydtva iintriKov rriQ yvwfiriQ, Our author, it may be observed,
plays upon the double sense ot dywv, and hints that those on shore had
also a contest, though of another kind. So Die Cass. 575, 86. d aytav
Ido^t fikv T&v vavftaxovvriitv fioifatv tlvaif ry $' oXij^ci^ Kai r&v ofXXbiv iykvvro*
Dionys. Hal. Ant. 155,24. (Ka^ov ahrohQ rov rwp KivSw(v6vT<av lAtraXofi^
tdvovrsQ vd^ovg, dytaviffTal rt fiaXkov itovkovro ^ ^earot r<5v tpiafiiviav
yeyovivcu,

* Wholly centred in.] Or dependent on.

« Unparalleled.] Literally, ** equal to none (before)," i. e. greater than
any heretofore; for there is a meiosis.

fi And by reason ojf^ Sfc] There are not many passages, even in Thucy-
dides, more perplexing than the one in the original, which is so obscurely
worded that critics have long been at issue on the sense. The difficulty
centres in the iiH rb dvutfAoXov, where the Scholiast, Stephens, Reiz, and
Herman take the rb for rovro : but it is truly observed by Goeller, that
Thucydides could never have used rb for rovro in such a position, where it
could scarcely be taken otherwise than as the article, and joined with
Avutfiakov, Krueger notices with approbation the following interpretation
of Kaltwasser : Kai Sid rb dvu>fiaXov und bet der to ungleichen und tchwan-
kenden Lage i/jvayKdZovro ix^tv Kai ri^v liro-^iv miutten tie auch noch dot,
Seegefecht vom lande her mit antehen. But this is with reason rejected by
Goeller, who finally acquiesces in the conjecture of Bekker, Kai St ainb^
dvbJfiaXovy though he does not explain the sense arising. It must be this :
" and by reason of this (fear) they were compelled," &c. To which sense
there is no objection. Yet the emendation requires the support of MS.
authority ; and the koI before r)}v iwoypiv is thus worse than useless. I
would, therefore, retain the common reading, and take the Av(Sjfia)<ov
twice, as Bauer directs, and as did also Valla, unless he read in his copy
Sid rb dvdfiaXoVy dviitfiaXov : a reading, however, not necessary, for the koI
plainly has reference to the dviafiaXov to be repeated. Finally, at rb
dvwfiaXov I would subaud riJQ rixnQt or the like. And so the phrase seems
to have been taken by Libanius, who, in his Orat. p. 716. D. writes : nS
dvw^uiXy ri)Q rvxvc trKTrivaavng. So also the Schol. on Eurip. Hippol.
1102. dav/ui^ui rov fyiov rb avtofuiKoy*



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240 THE HISTORY OP THUCYDIDES. BOOK VII#

ation ^, nay, at the very sight of what was done^ they were even
more agitated in spirit than those engaged in the action.^
Others, again, having their view fixed on some quarter where
the battle was yet equal, by reason of the continual undecided-
ness of the contest, anxiously bending forward^ and moving
with their bodies, according to the opinion they formed,^
passed the interval in the most miserable torment of suspense^^
For the combatants were continually within a little either of
escaping, or perishing. And so long as the battle was yet
undecided, one might hear in the same army of the Athenians
all sounds at once, lamentations — shouts — " they conquer !*'
— " they are beaten !" ^° and such other multifaiious exclam-
ations as a great army situated in extreme peril may be found
^o utter. As to those on board the ships, they were affected
in nearly the same manner ' ^, until at length, after the battle
had lasted a considerable time, the Syracusans and their al-
lies decidedly routed^^ the Athenians, and pressing upon them

7 A shout of lametUaiUm.] Literally, *' lamentation mingled with
shouting."

^ Nat/, at the very tight, 4>c.l This, and most of the remaining part of
this description, is imitated by Dionys, Hal. Ant. p. 155. Had Sylbuigbeen
aware of this, be would not have proposed to alter irp6c tA Sputfuva into
trp6c rd v^poi/ilva. Possibly, Thucvcudes had in mind the fine description
of the combat between Eteodes and Polynices in Eurip. Phoen. 1 403.

9 Anxioutly bending forward^ S^c^ With this graphic description
Goeller compares Sallust, B. J. 6, 60. and Livy, 1. 1, 25. To which passages
may be added the following far closer imitations: Appian, 1. 1. 497, 1. Koi
Iq rdc ^vraffiaQ rutv XtyofUviav ry (fxi^fuirt tov ewfiaroQ ffwe^tpov. Liban,
Epist. 584. Bwtp ol Toif^ Iv xc^M^^* irX«ovrac dtrb yric op&vrig irdirxovei, Kal
rd KVftaTa toIq ai/r&v tiyovirrat irpoevivriiv ffiitfiaei, Philostr. Icon. p. 864.
1^ icSfiri — dpufiaavroc Si dTaKT^etuv avvawovtvovea raXg tov ^/jlov ictv^<r£(rav.
Max. Tyr. Diss. 11, 1, 198. 17 sifAopfuvri fiiq, evj, Kai vpoeavayicdZei frvvarro^
v€VHv Tois ai/TiJQ dyioyatc. The word evvairovtiKo (which is a very rare o»ie)
also occurs in Max. Tyr. Diss. 10. t. 1, 181. and in Pollux, 4, 95.

10 One might hear, S^c] This passage has been deservedly admired. It
18 strange that the commentators shoiud have failed to remark how ntuch
it was Uie object of inatation by the later writers, ex. cr. Charit. p. 66, 10.
Tdvra fiv hfiov, Sdxpva, xdpa, hdntoq, ^oc, fc. r. X. Perhaps our historian
had in mind that sublime passage of ^chyl. Agam. 312. oXfuu, porjv dfiiierov
kv ir<SXci wpiiTiiv, •— Kai r«av dX6vTiav Kai Kparfiaavnav ^t^a ^^oyydQ dxaviiv
hari, avft^pdc ^iirX^c* where Dr. Blomfield compares Hom. II. A, 430. So
also ^schyl. Pers. 407f xal irapTJv bfiov kK^hiv iroXXi)v fiotiv. See also Pers.
433. Eur. Phoen. ISO8. Diod. Sic. t. 7, S62, 6. Dip. Arrian E. A. 3. 14,3.

11 Affected m much the same manner,] i. e. suffered the same tortures of
suspense.

i« Decidedly routed.] The \afiirpwc, by the usual transposition, belongs
to irpt^iv, not (as the translators take it) to iniKslfievoi. Thus it is hinted
that there was no longer the agony oi suspense, for the rout was manifest.



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CHAP. LXXII. THE HISTORY OF THUCYDIDES. 241

with much shouting and mutual hurraing, pursued them to the
land* Then the crews of such ships as were not taken in the
deep water, being driven to shore, rushed some one way, some
another, towards thexamp.^^ And now the land army was no
longer variously affected, but with one simultaneous impulse,
all by groans and wailings expressing their overpowering
emotion at the catastrophe, some of them went to give sue*
cour to the ships, others to stand guard at the various quar-
ters of the wall ; others, again (and those the greater part) fell
presently to considering for themselves, how they might best
provide for their own preservation. There was, indeed, at the
moment, a consternation such as has been never exceeded.
And, in truth, they were similarly circumstanced and affected
with those at Pylus ; for, as on the Lacedaemonian ships being
destroyed, the men, who had crossed over to the island oa
board of them, were lost to their country, so now the Athe-
nians were in despair of saving themselves by land, unless some
event contrary to all expectation should take place.

LXXII. After this battle (thus dbstinately disputed, and
with much loss of ships and men on boOi sides), the Syracusans
and their allies, coming off the victors, took up the wrecks and
the dead, and, sailing off to the city, erected a trophy. As to
the Athenians, overwhelmed with the greatness of their present
misfortunes, they never thought of demanding permbsion to
take up the dead or the wrecks S and immediately began to
consult on measures for retreat during the night. Demos-
thenes, however, going to Nicias, gave it as his opinion that
they should man the yet remaining ships, and, at break of day,
try, if possible, to force the passage.^ He alleged, that the



'3 Rushed, ^rc-) *E^kwt<rov seems to be a vox prsgnans, denoting that
they «/ra}i(i^ their ships^ and inadefoT the camp. This second signification
is suggested by the preposition following, whicn denotes ^mtxom to a place.
So ^Meph. B. J. 7, 1 It 1* SiairiCkfy tlQ Kvpyvriv,

» Never thougfit ofdemamUng^ 4rc.] An effect of extreme calamity, such
as we have noticed at 1. 3, 113.

« Gave UashU ophdon that, ^c] A counsel worthy of the unconquer-
able courage and presence of mind of Demosthenes, and which was suc-
cessfully adopted ^ Antigonus, as related by Polyaen. 4, 6, 8. Such, how-
ever, b scarcely proper to be adopted in the case of an army whidi has been
repeatedly beaten, since, to use the words ofTlyjcydides, 1. 2, 89. fin. when
VOL. I II. ' B



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S42 THE HISTORY OF THUCffDIDES. BOOK VII.

ships fit foF service still remaining to them were more in num-
ber than the enemy's ; for the Athenians had yet left about sixty^
while those of the Syracusans were less than fifty. And when
Nicias acceded to the opinion, and both would have manned
the ships, the seamen were unwilling to embark, by reason of
their consternation at the defeat, and their persuasion that they
had no longer any chance of victory.

LXXIII. And now they were all fully bent to make their
retreat by land. But Hermocrates, the Syracusan, suspecting



Online LibraryThucydidesThe History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war → online text (page 30 of 59)