Thucydides.

The History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war online

. (page 36 of 59)
Online LibraryThucydidesThe History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war → online text (page 36 of 59)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


sure of the festival, as that they should violate the suspension of hostilities
which they thought themselves bound to observe during that period ; for it
should seem that the festival had been already prodmnied, and was, there-
fore, become binding to those in the country. Oh this distinction turned
the dispute between the Lacedaemonians and the Eleans, 1, 5., concerning
Lepreum.

* Take the whole armament on himself.] And thus remove it from the
Corinthians as a national concern ; for it should seem that private persons
might, during the period in question, engage in the service of any other
nation.

It is plain that the festival had not actually commenced, during which,
under the protection of the armistice, persons might come and go in safety,
and make their observations ; so that the expedition could no longer be
kept a secret.

3 To send them as, 4-c.] I cannot agree with Duker and Goeller, who
loin vovc rb wurrbv ig rb KvfiftaxtKov, As to the passage they appeal to at
I. 3, 11., it will only prove that the words might be so taken, if the rest of
the sentence and the context would permit. 'I'hat, however, is not the case.
To me it has always appeared (and in this I am supported by Bauer and
Hack) that Ic rb Kvftfi, is lor Kord rb Kvfxfi,, which is of^ frequent occurrence
in Thucydides. This is, indeed, an unusual phrase ; but it may be observed
that the whole of this eighth book abounds with anomalies, and there*
fore requires methods of criticism peculiar to itself.

* The few.] i. e. the oligarchical, or aristocratical party.



Digitized by



Google



CHAP. X. THE HISTORY' OF THUCYDIDES. 279

pected that the LacedaemoniaDs would come, because they so
long delayed.

X. In the meantime the Isthmian games were celebrated,
and the Athenians (for the truce had been proclaimed) went to
participate in the spectacle ; and thus the matter respecting the
Chians became more apparent to them. And after they had
returned home, they immediately set on foot preparations that
the ships to sail from Cenchrea should not go to their destin*
ntion undiscovered. The Corinthians, however, after the
festival, put to sea with twenty-one sail for Chios, under the
command of Alcamenes.* The Athenians, on the conclusion
of tlie truce, first advanced to them with an equal number of
ships, and then drew oflF to the main sea.^ But as the Pelo-
ponnesians did not follow them far, but desisted from the
voyage, the Athenians likewise drew off to port ; for the seven
Chian ships, which they had with them in their number, they
thought were not to be trusted. But afterwards manning
thirty-seven^ others, they chased the enemy as they were
coasting along, and drove them into Piraeus* in Corinthia.



I Alcamenes.] And yet, according to the resolutions of the congress,
supra, c. 8^ it would seem that Chalcideus should have had the commandv
But it appears from c. 11. that Chalcideus was to join them on the way
with the five ships he was fitting out in Laconia^

3 Drew off to the main tea.] Namely, to -draw the enemy into the open
space, where Athenian skill would have the advantage.

3 Thirty-sevenJ] This would seem an incredibly large number. Hence,
Krueger cancels tne thirty. But this (wholly uncountenanced as it is by
authority) is too bold a procedure ; and Goeller rightly pronounces the con-
jecture to be useless, as appears from the course of the narrative. ** Quot
naves," says he, ** de illis duodesexaginta Pirseum obsidentibus demserint,
alioque avocaverint, cap. 11. init. in universum significat, ipsum numerum
cap. 1 5. exhibet ; quot autem in locum demptarum submiserin^ reticuit.
Itaque satis erit, Thucydidi accredere c. 20, scribenti, postremo viginti pari
numero Peloponnesiacarum ad Pineum oppositas fuisse."

* Pirceia.] There were two ports of this name in Corinthia, one on the
Saronic, the other on the Crisssean gulf. Mueller, indeed, thinks that the
Piraeus in question ought to be written Spir<Bus ; a conjecture which seems
to be countenanced by Ptolemy and Pliny : though there the 2 may have
arisen from the 2 preceding ; or this may have only denoted the promon^
torv.

The student will observe that the port in question was written Piraeus,
while the famous port of Athens should be written Piraeeus.

Cramer, in his ...-«. • ^.:j.

directly contrary i
seem that the P

T 4




Digitized by



Google



280 THE HISTORY OF THUCYDIDES. BOOK VIII.

Now this is a desert port ^ and the farthest on the borders
towards Epidauria. And one ship, which was oflF to seaward,
the Peloponnesians lost ; they rest they drew together, and
brought into port. Then the Athenians making an attack
both by sea with the fleet, and by disembarkation on land,
there was a vast tumult and disorder ; and the greater part of
the ships they damaged and disabled as they lay off shore %
and Alcamenes, the commander, was slain, with the loss, how-
ever, of some of their own men.

XI. On the parties separating from the contest, the Athe-
nians appointed a competent force to maintain a blockade over
the enemy's ships, and with the rest they anchored at the islet ^
not far off, on which they encamped, and sent to Athens for
a reinforcement.*'^ For on the day following the Corinthians
had come up with forces to succour the fleet, and not long
after the other neighbouring people did the same. Perceiving,
however, that the guarding of the ships in so desert a place
would be toilsome ', they were at a loss what to do, and even
thought of burning them ; but afterwards they determined to
draw them on shore, and keep guard over them, with their
land forces encamped near, until some convenient method of
escape should offer itself. Agis, on hearing what had hap-
pened, sent to them a Spartan named Thermon.



Ptolemy and the Anthedon of Pliny (a name probably first given to the
place on havine a town built there); also, that the promontory now called
C. Franco is the promont. t^nrceum of Ptolemy : and certainly that is a
very apt name for a promontory (and therefore ousht to be retained), while
Pirasus is a good one for the port; which, it should seem, was a common
place of embarkation for those who wanted to go from Peloponnesus to
Attica, by crossing the Sinus Saronicus. The port is now allied Franco-
limni.

^ A detert port.] i. e. one which had no town situated on \tk

« Off the shore.] Mitford most erroneously relates that there was a battle
at sea, in which the Peloponnesians lost one ship ; and that, on retreating
to Piraeus, the Athenians would not attack them there, but blockaded them
with a small sauadron.

1 Jtlet.] That, I imagine, called Haurocinisi in Arrowsmith's map.

9 Reinforcement.] Namely, of land forces.

5 The guarding of the ships, 4*c-] It is truly observed by Mitford, ** that
where soldiers were citizens, not under any regular military command, but
having every one a vote in the decision of all public measures, it was often
more difficult for the administration to get a service of tedious incon-
venience performed than one of great momentary danger."



Digitized by



Google



CHAP. XII. THE HISTORY OF THUCYDIDES. 281

As to the Lacedaemonians, news had first reached them that
the ships had put to sea from the isthmus (for the ephors
had ordered Alcamenes, when that should happen, to despatch
a horseman Mnth the news); and they resolved to imme-
diately send the five ships which were with them, and Chalci-
deus, to take the command ^j accompanied, too, by Alcibiades;
but afterwards, as they were hastening their departure, intel-
ligence reached them of the fleet having taken refuge at
Piraeus. Much discouraged at thus stumbling on the thres-
hold of the Ionian war, they were disposed, so far from send-
ing away those ships of their own country, to recall some which
had previously sailed.^

XII. But on learning this, Alcibiades again persuades £n-
dius ^ and the other ephors not to abandon the voyage ; urging
that by now sailing they should reach their destination before
the Chians had received tidings of the disaster respecting the
fleet ; and that he himself, on arriving in Ionia, should easily
persuade the cities to revolt, by telling them of the weakness
of the Athenians, and the zeal and energy of the Lacedaemo-
nians ; in which he would be more credited than others. To
Endius himself he privately represented that it would be a high
honour to hinif by himself to bring about the revolt of Ionia,
and make the king an ally of the Lacedaemonians ; and that
this should not be an achievement of Agis. For he happened
to be at variance with him.^ Having thus prevailed on En-
dius and the other ephors, he set sail with the five ships



♦ To take the comnmnd.] Namely, of the whole fleet, as was above
determined. See c. 8.

* Some which had previoitsly taiied.] What these Were it is not easy to
see : certainly not those collected by Calligitus and Timagoras, which were
to sail cifter this fleet.

> AtcUnadet again pertuadet Endius, ^rc] It is truly observed by Mitford,
" that the ascendency of Athenian genius showed itself even in those cir-
cumstances which contributed most to the downfied of the Athenian
empire. What the Lacedaemonian administration had neither foresight to
plan nor spirit to execute, the illustrious but unprincipled Athenian re-
fugee, participating, through the ephor his friend, m their closest councils,
planned and executed for them.** i. •_•

« To be at variance with hhn.] Krueger, p. 566., refers on this subject to
Xen. Hist. Gr. 3, 3, 2. Plutarch Alcib. 23. seqq. Ages. 3. Fausan. 3, a, 3.
Justin. 5, ^.



Digitized by



Google



282 THE HISTORY OF THUCYDIDES. BOOK VIII.

together with Chalcideus, the Lacedaemonian ; and they made
the voyage with all speed.

XIII. About the same time there arrived back from Sicily
the sixteen Peloponnesian ships which had cooperated with
Gylippus m the war ; and being intercepted on the way, about
Leucadia, and damaged' by the twenty-seven Attic ships
under the command of Hippocles son of Menippus (who
there kept watch for such ships as came from Sicily), they
however escaped the Athenians, all but one, and reached
Corinth.^

XIV. Chalcideus and Alcibiades seized such vessels as
they met with on their voyage, in order that intelligence of
their passage might not be discovered ; and having first made
the continent at Corycus, where they dismissed those whom
they had detained ^, then, on having held previous conference
with certain of the Chians who had maintained a correspond-
ence with them, and who advised them to make the port
without sending any previous message * to the city, they thus
came upon the Chians suddenly and unawares. By this t?ie
many were thrown into amazement and consternation ; but by
the f em the thing had been prepared for, so that the public
council was then met together, and after some addresses from
Chalcideus and Alcibiades, who told them that many other
ships were on their way, making, however, no mention of the
blockade of the ships in Piraeus, the Chians, and soon after
the Erythrseans, revolt from the Athenians.

They then sailed on with three ships to Clazomense, and
drew that city also into the revolt And the Clazomenians
immediately passed over to the continent, and fortified Po-



» Danuwed^ Or, as we say, cut up. Hobbes quaintly renders, ** evil
entreated ; but Smith, much worse, ** terribly harassed.'^

^ They, however^ escaped, <J-c.] Hobbes has here strangely mistaken the
sense.

3 Ditmissed those, ^c] Very different this from the conduct of Alcidas
in the former attempt on Ionia, made by the Peioponnesians, of which we
read in L iii.

* Any previous message,'] Namely, by way of asking leave to enter.



Digitized by



Google



CHAP. XV. THE HISTORY OF THUCYDIDE8. 283

lychne ^ as a retreat for them, in case of necessity, from the
island in which they dwelt.

XV. News, however, of this affair of Chios soon reached
the Athenians, who, conceiving themselves to be environed
with a great and manifest peril, and that the rest of the allies
would never be quiet at the revolt of so considerable a slate,
they therefore decreed to make use of those one thousand
talents, which throughout the whole of the war they had all
along desired to keep untouched; repealing, in order thereto
(under their present terror), those penalties which were de-
nounced against any who should speak of, or put to vote, such
a measure. This sum they resolved to apply to the equipping
of a considerable number of ships. . They also now determined
to send, under the command of Strombichides son of Dio-
timus, eight of the ships which were blockading the fleet in
Piraeus, and which, having left the watch, and gone in pur-
suit of^the ships under Chalcideus, and not overtaken them,
had returned back. And shortly after they resolved to rein-
force them with twelve more, under Thrasycles, which were
also taken from the blockading ships. Also, the seven Chian
ships, which were carrying on the blockade with them, they
withdrew ^, and the slaves who were on board they freed, and
the freemen they put into bonds. Others, too, in the place of
the ships that had departed, they speedily manned and sent
to the blockade of the Peloponnesians, and resolved to fit out
thirty others. Great indeed was their zeal and activity ; for



& Polychne.] It is probable that this place was then a sort of suburb to
the city of Clazomense ; indeed, it was situated so near to it, that the
itland of Clazomeua was by Alexander joined by a mole to the continent.

I 7%ey withdrew.] Namely, to Athens^ replacing them with seven others.
So, at least, the interpreters and Mitford understand. But it is not likely
that they would choose to withdraw so large a number from an already
much weakened squadron. Perhaps, therefore, diraydyovrtc may only
denote " took them aside," namely, for the purpose of making the change
mentioned in the next words, which was to put the freemen in fetters, and
make the slaves free ; for we must not suppose, with Smith, that the free-
men were thrown into prison. That, indeed, is at variance with the air of
the whole passage : they would be too useful as sailors to allow of that.
Their services were, therefore, retained, but they worked in chains.



Digitized by



Google



284 THE HISTORY OP THUCYDIDE8. BOOK VIII.

the matter in hand^ as it respected the reinforcement of the
fleet at Chios, was o;ie of no small moment.

XVI. In the mean time Strombichides arrives, with those
eight ships at Samos ; and having taken one Samian trireme
he sailed to Teios, and entreated them to keep quiet. From
Chios to Teios Chalcideus also made sail with twenty-three
ships, and the land forces ^ of the Clazomenians and Ery-
thraeans joined them. On receiving private intelligence of this,
Strombichides set sail before their arrival ; and when oflF at
sea he beheld the number of the ships from Chios, he sheered
off for Samos, chased by the enemy. The land forces the
Teians at first would not admit, but on the flight of the Athe-
nians they brought them in. And now the land forces re-
mained inactive, waiting for the return of Chalcideus from the
pursuit. But on his tarrying long, they themselves set about
demolishing the wall which the Athenians erected around Teios,
towards the continent; in which they were assisted by some
inconsiderable number of the Barbarians, who came up, un-
der the command of Otages ^, lieutenant of Tissaphemes.

XVII. And now Chalcideus and Alcibiades having chased
Strombichides to Samos, furnished the seamen of the Pelo-
ponnesian ships with arms as foot soldiers^ and left them there.



I Land/orces.] I here read, with Bekker and Goeller, oc irtl^oL
« Otaees.] I have here followed the reading of no one MS. or edition,
since all appear to be alike erroneous. The common reading 6 TdytiQ^
besides being otherwise liable to objection, is inconsistent with the use of
the Greek article, as illustrated by Bp. Middleton. Goeller edits from one
MS. Srayi^c, which is also countenanced by Xen. Hist. Gr. 1,2, 5, But
this is so at variance with all other MSS., that it must be regarded as ex-
tremely precarious. All agree in the 6 : and the difference between 6 and
<r is so slisht, that it were a wonder if one MS., out of so many, did not
present Sie variation. There is little doubt but that either 'OrdytiQ or
X>Tdvfic is the true reading ; and the difference between the y and v is so
small, that it is difficult to distinguish. I have, in defbrence to the autho-
rity of MSS., adopted 'Orayijf. It is true that 'Ordytig may (as Goeller
idmrms) occur nowhere else, and that 'Onivijc does : yet, even in the pas-
sages to which Goeller adverts, ^OrAyrfQ may possibly be the true reading ;
at least, every editor will, in such a case, do better to adhere to the decided
authority of his MSS., and leave the doubtful point, if such there be, to be
decided by the general critic.



Digitized by



Google



CHAP* XYII. THE HISTORY OF THUCTDIDES. 285

Embarking in their stead mariners from Chios, on board both
these and twenty other ships, they made sail to Miletus, in
order to bring that city over to revolt. For Alcibiades was
desirous (as being on friendly terms with the principal persons
of the Milesians) to be beforehand with the ships from Pelo-
ponnesus, in bringing them over, and thus secure the honour
of the achievement to himself S and (as he had promised) to
Chalcideus and Elndius, who had sent them, the credit of hav-
ing, with the forces of the Chians and Chalcideans, brought
over very many of the cities to revolt These, then, avoiding
observation, for most of the voyage, and arriving somewhat
before Strombichides and Thrasycles (who happened now to
have come up from Athens with twelve ships and joined in
the chase), they bring over Miletus to revolt.

The Athenians who followed close at their heels with nine-
teen ships, not being admitted by the Milesians, took up their
anchorage in the adjoining island of Lade.^

And now on the revolt of Miletus was concluded the first
alliance of the Lacedaemonians with the king, by Tissaphemes
and Chalcideus, to the following effect : —



It 18 acutely ob-



* To secure the honour of the achievement to himself.]
served by Mitford, that, " in thus promoting the Perop<
was not possible that he should have the Peloponnesian interest at heart.
The success of the operations which had been carried on under his direc-
tion had been so rapid, so uninterrupted, so important, and so little ex<*
pected, that he could not but have great present credit for it. But one
powerful party in Lacedaemon was already hostile to him; and the moment
nis services ceased to be necessary, he would have to apprehend more jea-
lousy than gratitude among the other." Besides, it must be remembered
that so unprincipled and heartless a man could have no real view to any
thing but self-interest. Now it was surely not for his interest that Lace-
daemon should completely triumph, and Athens be utterly destroved; for
then his usefulness, and, consequently, his estimation with the selfish states-
men of Lacedsmon, would be at an end ; he would be " cast away like a
broken vessel." Mitford, therefore, seems right in supposing that he wished
to raise a personal interest in Ionia; and we may imagine that this was in
order, at some future period, to be restored with honour and distinction to
the direction of the councils of his native country. Whether, indeed, his
removal of the Peloponnesian seamen to the land service, and supplying
their place with Chian ones, formed any part of his plans for personal
aggrandisement (as Mitford supposes), I would not venture to say.

* Hie island of Lade,] This is mentioned by Herodotus 6, 7, 10. as an
island adjacent to the city of the Milesians. See also Pausaa. 1, S5. and
GroQoy. on Arria^ E. A. i, is.



Digitized by



Google



286 THE HISTORY OP THUCTDIDE8. BOOK VIII.



" Jrticles of Alliance between Tissaphemes and the
Lacedamonians.

XVIII. ** On the following terms ^ the Lacedaemonians
and their confederates have made an alliance with the king
and Tissaphemes :

** Whatsoever territory and cities the king possesses, or
hb ancestors possessed, let those be considered the king's.*

"Also, whatever money or other profit^ has accrued from
these cities to the Athenians, the king and the Lacedaemonians
and their allies are jointly to interrupt, so that the Athenians
may neither derive money nor any other advantage.

" Moreover, the war against the Athenians, the king and
the Lacedaemonians and their allies are jointly to carry on ;
nor shall it be lawful to make an end of the war with the
Athenians, unless with the consent of both parties, the king,
and the Lacedaemonians and their allies.

" Furthermore, if any shall revolt from the king, let them be
considered as enemies to the Lacedaemonians and their allies.
And if any shall revolt from the Lacedaemonians and their'
allies, let them in like manner be accounted enemies to the
king."

XIX. These were the terms of the alliance ; immediately
after the conclusion of which, the Chians having fitted out ten
triremes, sailed to Anaea, wishing to gain intelligence of what
was doing at Miletus, and moreover to draw the cities to re-
volt. And a message having reached them from Chalcideus
to go back, and an intimation that Amorges is coming upon
them with a land force, they made sail to the temple of Jove.
There they descried sixteen ships, with which, after Thrasycles,



1 On the foUowwf terms,] Terms perfectly accommodated to promote
the purposes of Alcibiades, but not at all honourable to Lacedsemon or to
Chalcideus. (Mitford.)

< Whatsoever territory, ^c] This was surely, as Mitford observes, a
most wide and dangerous concession to Persia.

3 Other pro/it.] What this was (which is again mentioned) we are left
to imagine. It seems to be the quota of naval or military aid furnished,
and also the advantage of the custom, and the indirect one of commerce.



Digitized by



Google



CHAP. XXI. THE HISTORY OF THCJCYDIDES. 2a7

Diomedon had sailed from Athens. At sight of these they
took to flight, one ship to Ephesus ', the rest to Teios. And
four of them the Athenians captured, abandoned by their
crews, who had got to land ; the rest took refuge at the city
of Teios. And now the Athenians sail away for Samos ;
while the Chians setting sail again with the rest of their ships,
and the land forces ^ accompanying them, bring over to revolt
first Lebedos, and then Erae. Afler this both the land and
sea forces retired to their respective homes.

XX. About the same time, the twenty ships of the Pelo-
ponnesians at Piraeus, heretofore chased thither and blockaded
by the Athenians with an equal force, having made a sudden
sally, and gained the advantage in an engagement, captured
four ships of the Athenians, and sailing away to Cenchreas,
again made preparations for their voyage to Ionia. There came
also to them from Lacedaemon Astyochus, as commander, to
whom the supreme naval authority ^ was committed. On the
departure of the land forces from Teios, Tissaphemes himself
repairing thither with an army, and having assisted in the
further demolition of what remained of the wall at Teios, de-
parted. And not long ^fler his departure, Diomedon arriving
with ten ships from Athens, concluded a treaty with the Teians,
to receive them also.^ And having coasted along to Erae, and
assaulted the city without being able to take it, he sailed
away.

XXI. About this time, too, there was an insurrection ^ by
the people of Samos, in conjunction with the Athenians, who



I Ephemt^ This city, therefore, as Krueger thinks, was now hostile to
the Athenians.

« Land/orccs.] Namely, of the Erythraeans and Clazomenians, spoken
of at c. 16., joined with the Peloponnesians mentioned at c. 28. (Krueger.)

3 The supreme naval authority,'] Namely, as Goeller explains, both over
those officers whom he brought, and those who went with Chalcideus and
Aicibiades.

* To receive them also,] i. e. to observe a neutrality between the two
parties.

* IruwrectiorL] On this sense of I jrav<i<rra<nf Krueger refers to Thucyd.
5,39. 4,56. 5, 23. 8,63 and 73. Herod. 1,89.3,39. 6,91. Aridtoph.Av.l583.
Aristot. Polit. 5, 2, 6.

Mitford



Digitized by



Google



288 THE HISTORY OF THUCTDIDES. BOOK Till.

happened to be present with thirty-eight ships, against the
powerful.^ And the democratical party put to death some two
hundred in all of the nobles, condemning four hundred to
exile, and themselves occupied their lands ^ and houses by



Online LibraryThucydidesThe History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war → online text (page 36 of 59)