The History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war online

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Online LibraryThucydidesThe History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war → online text (page 37 of 59)
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partition ; and (the Athenians upon this having granted them
independence, as now of assured fidelity) they communicated
no share of the government to the landed proprietors, nor was
it any longer permitted them to intermarry with the common
people, nor those with them.

XXII. Afler these events, this summer, the Chians, as
they had begun, so they now remitted nothing of their ardour
in going (even without the Lacedaemonians) in full force to
bring over the cities to revolt ; and being desirous, moreover,'
that as many as possible should participate with them in the
danger, they by themselves went on an expedition to Lesbos
with thirteen ships (it having been directed by the Lacedae-
monians that they should go secondly to that island, and from
thence to the Hellespont) ; and, moreover, the land forces of
the Peloponnesians present, and those of the allies in those
parts, went to Clazomenae and Cyme. The commander of
the land forces was Eualus, a Spartan ; of the fleet, Dinadas,

Mitford accounts for the risine of the people on the higher classes, by
the circumstance that the latter had been, since the reduction on the for-
mer revolt, more depressed than all others, and were seeking an opportu-
nity, through the prevalence of the Peloponnesian arms, of mending their
condition ; but their designs were preoccupied by the democrats.

« The powerful.] i. e. the nobility or aristocracy ; called in various coun-
tries by (fifferent names, referrinc either to wealth or political power, as
yiuifiopoi, opHmaies, &c. See Duker, to whom, however, I cannot concede
that yc<tf/iopo(, which occurs iust after, is exactly synonymous with SwaroL
The term is well explained by Portus " landed proprietors : " so in Appian
S, 810,48. the Toi^ yiMfiopovQ, the landed proprietors or landholders are
the same as what he had called ytwpyovQ, And we may compare Herod. 5,
77, 12. ol ^ Iwfl-oCdrai UaXiovro o\ vax^fQ rwv XakKtSkutv. ^schyl. Suppl.
621. But. t6v fiTi Potj^tieovra r&vdc yafiSpiov, arifiov ilvai Kw ^i/yy ^i7/(i?'

It is surprising (Goeller remarks) that a popular government like thatjof
Athens, every where accustomed to support popular government, should
have sufiered an oligarchy to subsist in an island subject to their sway.

7 Put to death some two hundred, Sfc] Nothing, Mitford observes, could
ensure to Athens the dominion of that valuable island equally with this
measure, though humanity shudders at it.

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one of the PericBci.^ And these ships sailed first to Methjmina,
and brought it over to revolt. Leaving there four ships, they
with the rest drew Mytilene also into revolt.^

XXIII. And now Astyochus, the Lacedaemonian com-
mander of the fleet, having set sail with four ships from Cen-
chrese, arrives at Chios, whither he was bound.^ And the
third day after his arrival, the Athenian ships, twenty-five in
number, reached Lesbos, under the command of Leon and
Diomedon ; for Leon had afterwards come from Athens with
a further reinforcement of ten ships. And Astyochus weighing
anchor that same day at evening, and taking one more ship of
Chios, sailed to Lesbos, in order, if possible, to render some
service. He proceeds first to Pyrrha, and the next day to
Eresus, where he hears that Mytilene was taken by the
Athenians, on the first onset. For the Athenians as they
were sailing, unexpectedly standing into the port, over-
powered the Chian ships, and landing, conquered in battle
those that resisted, and seized the city. When Astyochus
had heard this, both from the Eresians and the ships of the
Chians who came with Eubulus from Methymna (which
having been before left there, as soon as Mytilene was
taken, fled, and happened to meet with him, four in number,
for one was captured by the Athenians), no longer held on
his course to Mytilene, but having brought over Eresus to
revolt, and armed the people % he sends them and the heavy-

1 One of the Periceci.'] Not, ^ a nation of those parts," as Hobbes and
Smith render. The Lacedaemonians consisted of two sorts : 1. The Spar^
tans, who inhabited Sparta, and a certain considerable territory around it :
these were considered as the descendants of the Dorians and HeraclidsE?,
and had the government of the state in their own hands. 2. The Periceci,
who were those Lacedaemonians that inhabited around the district of Sparta,
and the rest of the Lacedaemonian territories: these had not full political pri-
vileges, and paid a tribute to the Spartans. They were, however, sometimes
raised to the higher offices, though chiefly, if not entirely, in foreign service.

« Leaving there, ^c] This sentence is only found in the Cod. Vallae,
and Cod. Vatican, j but it is clearly necessary, and was doubtless omitted per

3 Whither he was 6ou7id.] Or, had set on going.

-» Armed the people, ^c] I have here followed the emendation of this
formerly corrupt passage adopted by Bekker and Goeller, from one of the
best MSS. ; though 1 have ventured to cotice/ what thev ooiy placed betufeen
brackets, namely, M rt^v "KvTujaav K-ai M^^vav, which seem a neediest


Digitized by



armed from his fleet to Antissa and Metbymna, under the
command of Eteonicus ; while he himself, with his own ships
and those three Chian ones, coasted along thither, hoping
that the Methymnseans would take courage on seeing them,
and persevere in their revolt. But when every thing in Les-
bos ran counter to his wishes, he, after taking on board his
own army, made sail for Chios. On which the land forces on
board * the ships which were to have gone to the Hellespont,
returned each to their cities. After this, came to them to
Chios six of the Peloponnesian confederate fleet at Cenchreae.
And now the Athenians re-established things on their former
footing in Lesbos, and proceeding from thence, and taking the
fortified suburb of the Clazomenians on the continent, they
brought back the people to the city in the island, with the
exception of those who had been the authors of the revolt ;
for they had retired to Daphnus. And thus Clazomensd
again became subject to the Athenians.

XXIV. This same summer the Athenians, who occupied
a station with twenty ships at Lade, ofi* Miletus, having made
a descent at Panormus in the Milesian territory, slew Chal-
cideus, the Lacedaemonian governor who had gone to the as-
sistance of the inhabitants with a small paity ; and on the
third day afterwards they passed over and erected a trophy,
which the Milesians however destroyed, as not being erected
with any mastery of the country.'

And now Leon and Diomedon with the Athenian fleet
from Lesbos made war upon the Chians from their ships,

It mast be observed that 6T\i<rac has here the same sense as at 1. 5, 97
6ir\iKet rbv Srjftov. Finally, irtipairkftirw here signifies pnemitto, transmUto^
or simply mitto. See the examples in Lex. Xen.

^ » Tlie landforcet on board.] These (Krueger supposes) were Peloponne-
sian infantry with them, and those of the country, who had assembled at
Cla2omens and Cyma, to go on an expedition to the Hellespont (see c. 22.\
and who, having got over to Lesbos from the continent, were now conveyed
away on board the ships. And he observes that iirtKOfiitr^tf d itrb ruv vi&v
9rc(<$C is for dviKOfAh^ij xal dirb rdv vtCiv 6 liri rwv viiav ttc^^c.

» With any mastery of the country.] By this it should seem that no trophy
could lawfully be erected except where there was such an advantage as
enabled an army to keep the field of battle. Otherwise, if they fetreated.
and afterwards only returned and erected the trophy by stealth, it was held
of no avail.

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sallying from the CEnussse islands off Chios, and from Sidussa
and Pteleus * (forts which they occupied in the Erythraean
territory) and from Lesbos. They also had some marines
of the regular ^ heavy-armed, which had been impressed for
this service.'^ Having effected a landing at Cardamyle, and
defeated with great loss such of the Chians as went forth to
resist them, at Bolissus *, they destroyed all the places there*
abouts.^ And again they overcame them in another battle at
Phane % and in a third at Leuconium. After this the Chians
no longer ventured forth for resbtance, and thus the Athenians
plundered the country, which was very highly cultivated ®, and
had suffered none of the injuries of war from the time of the
Persian invasion. For, putting aside the Lacedaemonians,
the Chians were (as far as I can learn), the only people who
with prosperity have cultivated moderation, and in proportion
as their state increased in consequence, regulated their plans
with so much the more attention to security.^ Nor did

ft Sidussa and Pteleus^ Situated, probably, on the coast of Erythrsea
opposite to Chius.

3 Regular.] Literally, *' of the lists."

4 Impressed for this service] For this impress there was occasion, since,
as we have be&re seen, the marine service was thought much inferior to
that on shore.

6 BoUssus] Situated on the coast, at the N.W. part of the island, and
yet called Bolisso.

• Destroyed aU the places thereabouts] The sense is here completely
missed by Hobbes and Smith 'Avdarara vouXv is used as at i. 6, 76. dva»
OTCLTOVQ rrouiv*

7 Phane] A small port at the most southerly part of the island. The
precise situation has not been fixed. Poppo proves that it was somewhere
on the east coast. There is little doubt but that it was at the place now
called Cape Blanco. See Arrowsmith*s modern map.

8 Cultivated] Bauer, indeed, affirms that KanvKivaenivftv cannot sij^nify
cultivated. But his assertion is disproved by a very similar passage of Xe-
nophon, (Econ. 4, 15. KaraoKva^iw ri)v x^P^^ apurra. See also iEschyl.
Pers. 720.

9 Regulated their plans, <J-c.] Such seems to be the true sense of the
expression kKovfiovvro ex^putrepov, which the translators have variously ren-
dered. Mitford well paraphrases the whole passage thus : " Till the pre-
sent conjuncture, the affairs of Chios had lonj^ been managed with a steady
prudence, uncommon amonff the Grecian cities. Moderate in prosperity,
blameless towards their neighbours, and using their increasing wealth and
power for no purpose of ambition, but directing their politics merely to
secure the happiness they enjoyed, their island, from the time of the Per-
sian war, had never seen an enemy within its bounds.*' That the island
should be in such wonderful prosperity was, perhaps, to be attributed to
their form of government, which was, indeed, chiefly aristocratical, but

u 2

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tfaey venture to make this revolt (if that may seem to have
been done contrary to their cautious system), before they were
ready to have the aid of many and good allies with whom to
encounter the danger, and had perceived the Athenians not
even themselves any longer denying, after the disaster of
Sicily, that their affairs were certainly in a very bad state.^^
And if they were (as men are) somewhat deceived by the unex-
pected casualties of afiairs ^S they participated in the error ^^with
many others, who were of the same opinion — that the Athenian
cause would speedily be brought to ruin.^^ Being then, thus
excluded from the sea, and by land their territory ravaged,
some of them attempted to bring the city over to the Athe-
nians; which, though the rulers perceived, they themselves
kept quiet; but after they had received Astyochus from
Erythrae, with four ships which were with him, they con-
sidered how they might most gently (either by the taking of
hostages, or some other expedient), put a stop to the con-

Such was the posture of affairs at C!hios.

XXV. At the close of this summer, there came from Athens
one thousand heavy-armed of the Athenians, and one thou-
sand five hundred of the Argives (for to the five hundred of

partly of that mixed nature, composed of aristocracy and democracy which
forms the great excellence of our British constitution.

'0 77uU their affairs were ceriainly aUogether bad.'\ Such is, I conceive,
the true sense. Smith surely exaggerates when he translates (or para-
phrases), ** were plunged into the lowest depth of impotence and distress.**
BcCatwc IS so used in Uie best writers ; of which I shall give examples in my

>> Deceived by the unexpected^ ($-c.l I have here departed from the
reading of all the copies, since (though the editors do not notice it) no
tolerable sense can be elicited from dv^pbtfrdoiQ. The true reading, I have
no doubt, is dvbpia'irtUa^^ which must be pointed off. The word occurs at
L 5, 40. and 5, 103.

w Participated in the error.] Or, literally, ** consented unto the error."
The construction (which the commentators do not elucidate) is : {vvlyviD-
eav (Ic) rijv afiaprlav ftitd iro\X&v, oIq ravra (tA aiftd) idoU (dtikdvort) rd
t6v 'A^ffvaikw raxif Kwaipf^vte^cu, So 1. 7, 73. KwtyivtixrKOv fikv Kal
aifToi iffffov Utivov, Dionys. Hal. 121, 35. Iwcyvo) (Ic to) ysvev^ai /3a-

>s Brought to ruin.] For ^watpt^ricivdai Bekker, Dindorf, and Goeller
edit, from one MS., Kwavaipt^rifftiT^ai, But the change is surely not jus-
ted by sufficient authority, nw is it necessary. See note on 1. 2, 51.

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the Argives, who were light-armed, the Athenians supplied
heavy armour), and of other allies one thousand more, with
forty-eight galleys (of which some conveyed soldiers * ), under
the command of Phrynicus, Onomacles, and Sdronides. These
after putting in at Samos, crossed over to Miletus, and there
encamped. On which the Milesians, taking the field with eight
hundred heavy-armed of their own, and the Peloponnesians
who came with Chalcideus, as also some foreign auxiliaries of
Tissaphemes (Tissaphemes, too, and his cavalry being pre-
sent), engaged with the Athenians and their allies. And the
Argi ves having moved too far forward ^ with their wing, and being
in some disorder, through contempt of their foes, as marching
against lonians, and such as would not withstand their attack,
they were defeated by the Milesians, and nearly ® three hun-
dred of them were slain. As to the Athenians, after conquering
.the Peloponnesians first, and then routing the Barbarians
and the rest t>f the multitude, but not engaging with the
Milesians (nay they retreated into the city after routing the
the Argives, on seeing the rest of their foes beaten), then fixed
their camp (as masters of the field), close under the city of
the Milesians^ Now it happened in this battle that the lonians
on both sides conquered the Dorians; for the Athenians
defeated the Peloponnesians opposed to them, and the Mile-
sians the Argives. Then, after erecting a trophy, the Athe-
nians made preparations for the circumvallation of the place
(which has an isthmus^), thinking that if they could reduce
Miletus, the rest of the revolted states would easily be brought
to submit.

* Of which some conveyed soldiers,] These were not mere transports, but
triremes of a somewhat more capacious make. In the expedition to Sicily
a great part of the first fleet was composed of such ; where the distinction
is clearly expressed.

^ Having moved too far forvrard^ Or drawn out. Goeller well defends the
common reading, npot^dKavn^, against Bekker and Dindorf, who would
alter it. It is, he truly observes, a military term, and used similarly
to I'lre^dyetv,

5 I^early.] Literally, " somewhat less." Hobbes wrongly renders, «« no

* Has an isthmus,] Not **is an isthmus," as Hobbes renders; nor
** seated on an isthmus," as Smith ; for how can isthmuses *< be cut off? '»
There is a very similar passage at 1. 7, 26., which must be understood in the
same manner.

u 3

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XXVI. In the meantime, when it was quite dusk^ they re-
ceived intelligence that the ships from Peloponnesus and Sicily,
fifty-five in number, were all but at hand. For there had come
(at the especial instigation of Hermocrates, who urged them to
take part in consummating the destruction of the Athenians),
twenty ships of the Syracusans, and two of the Selinuntians,
as also those of Peloponnesus which had been preparing and
were now ready ; and both these and the others were com-
mitted to the charge of Theramenes, to be conducted by him
to Astyochus, the naval commander in chief. They came to
anchor first at Lerus ^, the island over against Miletus ; then,
on learning there that the Athenians were near Miletus, they
made sail to the lasic gulf, desirous to know the state of
affairs at Miletus. But on Alcibiades coming on horseback
to Tichiussa in the Milesian territory, at which part of the
gulf the Peloponnesians had taken up their night quarters, they
learned the news of the battle. For Alcibiades was present,
and had given his assistance to the Milesians and Tissa-
phemes. He counselled them, unless they wished to ruin the
whole business in Ionia, to give aid with all speed to Miletus,
and not to sufi*er it to be circumvallated* ^

XXVII. It was, therefore, determined that they should
proceed to its relief at dawn of day. But Phrynicus, the
commander of the Athenians, as soon as he had received from
Lerus certain intelligence of the fleet, and when his colleagues
were of opinion that they should stay, and venture a battle, he
refused to do it, and, as far as his power extended, he would not
sufier them, or any other, so to do. For since (he said) they
were at liberty to engage with them hereafter, when they should
have learnt against how many ships of the enemy, and with what
addition to their own, and when it would be in their power to
combat, after suitable and leisurely preparation, he would never,
through fear of any base imputation, irrationally put all to
hazard (though it was no disgrace, he said, for the Athenian

1 J>rta.] I have here adopted the reading of Bekker and Goeller,
founded on the best authorities. Such an ismnd'as Eleus, there^ is un«
heard of.

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navy to retreat at a due season ; but that rather it were dis*
graceful, under whatever circumstances it might take place^
if they should be defeated), and that the state should thus not
only encounter disgrace, but also imminent peril ; wherefore,
since their recent losses, it was scarcely expedient that they
should, even with a secure force, by choice, nay, even from evi-
dent necessity, attack first ; much less then, unconstrained, to
engage with voluntary dangers. He further counselled them, as
speedily as possible, to embark the wounded, and such baggage
and utensils as they had brought, but what they had taken
from the enemy's country to leave behind, that the ships might
be light, and then to make sail to Samos ; and from thence
(after having drawn together all the ships) to make their
attack on the enemy, as opportunity might offer. The measures
pursued by Phrynichus were in conformity to his counsels ;
and not then only, but afterwards, and not in this afiair only,
but in such others as he had to do with, he was esteemed a
wise and prudent man.

And the Athenians immediately after evening, afl^r an in«
complete victory, decamped from Miletus, and the Argives
hastily, and in dudgeon at their disaster, sailed away from
Samos homeward.

XXVIII. But the Peloponnesians weighing anchor at
dawn of day from Tichiussa, came into port after ^ the de-
parture of the Athenians, and after remaining one day, they
on the following, taking with them the ships before chased,
under Chalcideus, resolved to sail back to Tichiussa, for the
baggage which they unloaded there. ^ On their arrival,
Tissaphernes coming up with his land forces, prevails upon

> Came into port after , ^c.'\ 'EiriKardyovrai, This is a rare word, of
which the cominentatore adduce no examples. It occurs, however, in
Dio Cass. 310, 8. i<oc vd^ai al vijic i7nKarrix^fl<'ov,

3 Resolved to sail, ^c.] Such is the plain sense of the passage, at which
Bauer causelessly stumbles. 'EKaiptUdai is a vox solennis de hac re ; as 8,
90. Herod. 4, 196. Xen. Anab. 5. rd iyiiyifut iKaifHiirdai. Strabo, p. 954.
35. ^fiiropt, KardirXtvaoVf UiXov, Trdvra Trknparau Poly«n. p. 509.

The baggage had been removed to make the sliips fit for action ; for so
much didtne antients esteem lightnest for such a purpose, that (as appears
from Xen. Anab. 1, 13, «, 27 and 29.) they sometimes lUO^vro rd fUycXa

V 4

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them to sail for lasus, where Amorges (who was his enemy)
then resided. And making a sudden assault on the place
(the inhabitants not expecting that the ships were other than
Athenian), they took it ; and in the action the Syracusans
especially signalized themselves. Having taken prisoner
Amorges, an illegitimate son of Pissuthnes, and a rebel to
the king, they delivered him to Tissaphemes, to carry him, if
he pleased, to the king, agreeably to his orders. lasus they
plundered, and the army gained a large booty, for the place was
one of antient wealth.® And the mercenaries they took to them-
selves, without doing them any harm, for most of them were
from Peloponnesus.'* The city they delivered up toTissaphemes,
and all the captives, both bond and free, for whom they agreed
to receive from him one Daric stater ^ a head ; and then they
returned to Miletus. And Pedaritus son of Leon, whom the
Lacedaemonians sent to Chios as governor % they transported
to ErythroB with the mercenaries that had been in the service
of Amorges; and at Miletus they establish Philip. Thus
ended the summer.

3 0/ aniietU wealth.] UaXaioirXovrov, Of this expression (neglected by
the commentators) the following are examples : ^lian V. Hist. 6, 9. ira-
Xac^Xovrov x^P^^^* ^^ Cass. 41, 38. rd x^P^^ rroKatonKovrov ftv. Liv.
4, 59. Oppidum veteri fortuna opuientum, and 9, 39. fortuna veteri
ahundantet Etruscorum opes.

4 Mott of them were from Peloponnettu.] This is one of the earliest in-
stances of the use of Grecian auxiliaries by the Persian princes. It became,
however, in the next generation, very frequent.

* Daric stater,] The Daric staters, and also those of Philip of Mace-
don, Alexander, and Lysimachus, were of equal value with the Attic
golden stater, or the Attic didrachma. Now the value of the didrachma
was twenty drachmas of silver ; so that there were five staters in a roina,
and three hundred in a talent, since the value of gold was ten times greater
than that of silver. Boeckh. Staatsh. d. Ath. 1. 1. p. 23.

Governor.] Or, Harmostes; though Thuc^oides does not here use
that term. See more in Krueser, p. 380. On this office of Harmostes Mit-
ford has the following remarks : ** The internal divisions of every little
state, fiir more than any consideration for the confederacy at large, induced
the subordinate governments not onljr to admit readily, but often to desire,
the controlling mterference of the unperial people. The Lacedaemonian
^vernment accordingly sent superintending officers of their own, with the
title of harmost, regulator, to reside in all the cities of their confederacy,
beyond proper Greece. The authority of these officers would depend
much upon the power of the superintending state at the time, and the
weakness of the subordinate, whetner the wetness of scanty numbers and
property, or weakness superinduced by internal divisions."

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' XXIX. In the subsequent winter, Tissaphernes, after having
put a garrison into lasus, repaired to Miletus, and distributed
a month's pay to all the ships, at an Attic drachma a day each,
agreeably to his engagement ^ at Lacedsemon ; but hence-
forward he was disposed to give only a triobole% until he
should have enquired the king's pleasure ; and, if he ordered
it, would, he said, give the whole drachma. But on Hermo-
crates, the Syracusan commander, remonstrating (for Thera -
menesj not being the nauarch [or admiral] but only sailing with
the fleet to deliver it to Astyochus, was too easy and timid
respecting the pay), it was, however ®, agreed on that more
should be given each man than three oboli, and that by five
ships' pay ; for to fifty-five ships thirty talents were allowed
per month; and to all other ships, as the number of such

Online LibraryThucydidesThe History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war → online text (page 37 of 59)