The History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war online

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Online LibraryThucydidesThe History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war → online text (page 38 of 59)
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should increase, was to be given pay in the same proportion. *

1 Agreeably to hit engagement^ i, e. by the medium of this ambassador.

^ '^riobole.'] i. e. half a drachma.

s However.] Or, neverthelett, i. e. though it was more than he at first
intended. Such is plainly the sense of 5/ia>c> and not that assigned by
Goeller, ** quamquam Theramenes non adversabatur."

*• It ivaty fiowever, agreed on that, <J-c.] There is, perhaps, no passage in
our author that has occasioned greater difficulty than this * ; and in what-
ever way it be considered, we are surrounded with perplexities. I cannot,
however, enter into a detail of the various opinions of the commentators
and critics. It is admitted by all that the passage is corrupt, since no tole*
rable sense has ever yet been elicited from it without making some aiter^
ation, though the MSS. present no variety. The most prevalent opinion,
since the time of Duker, nas been, that the words kai irivriiKovTa have crept
in from the maVgin, and they are placed between brackets by all the recent
editors, who, however, are not agreed on the sense ; Hack and Gk>eller
make it as follows : " Nevertheless, to five ships, more were agreed on than
five obols a man ; for to five ships were given three talents a month, and to
the rest," &c.; which would be three oboTs and three-fifths a day. But it must
be confessed that there is something exceedingly awkward in this sense.
Why the pay should be reckoned at a certain sum ybr each Jive ships, it is
difficult to see. Besides, to make the words Kal rotg dkKoig '6<r(p irXdovc
vi}ig riaav tovtov tov dpt^fiov denote the Other Jifty ships, involves extreme
harshness : and Duker's notion concerning the Jirst five is absurd. There
is also great objection to taking vapd for Ig, since the signification is
very unusual, nor can it thus seem otherwise than strance that the
author should have used vapd and ig so close together. Finally, to cancel

• On which Bauer quaintly annotates thus : — « Diffidllimum huncce Nostri
locum, veluti scopulos terrae jam imminentes, in extremo fere opere offendimus.
Laboravimus in quibusdam ; in nonnulHs fortasse eestaverimus : at hie obhssimus
plane, nee dum extricavimus quidquam aut promovimus : nee pudet, ubi tales
Viri obbeeserint. Palmer. Meibom., Duker."

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XXX. This same winter, the Athenians at Samos (for
there had come to them from home thirty-five more shipsi
and Charminus, Strombichides, and Euctemon, as com-
manders ^) having drawn together the ships from Chios, and
the rest elsewhere S after the commanders had cast lots for
their respective services^, determined to blockade Miletus
with the fleet, and to send against Chios both a fleet and army.
And the plan was accordingly put in execution. For Strom-
bichides, Onomacles, and Euctemon with thirty ships, and
a part of those one thousand heavy-armed which went to

two words without any authority, is too bold, and not to be tolerated
unless it could remove all difficulty ; which we see is far from being the
case. Under these circumstances I have thought it proper to retain the
signification commonly assigned to vap^. Though, as the pasEa^e is un-
doubtedly corrupt, I have adopted the very mild conjecture of Meibomius,
for Tpia, rpidKovra (i. e. for y, X) ; though not his interpretation^ I am
not aware that the sense I have assigned is liable to any well-founded ob-
jection. It proceeds, indeed, upon the supposition that two hundred was
the regular number of the crew of a trireme; but so does the interpretation
of Hack and Groeller. And though that has been denied by Duker, yet the
point has been made out by Meibomius, and all the recent editors admit it.
To the passages adduced by Meibomius in proof, may be added the fol-
lowing : Plutarch Lysand. so. Thucyd. 6, 8. where the Egestians are said
to have sent sixty talents for a month's pay (namely, a drachma per diem,
as we find from 6, 31.) for sixty ships, and 1. 4, 5. (where Demosthenes is
said to have been left at Pylus with five ships) compared with Themist. 158.
A., who, though Thucydides has there omitted to sive the number of men,
estimates them at one thousand ; i. e. two hundred a ship. Demosth. Phil.
1. who reckons the half of a ship's pav at twenty minse each ship for a
month ; which makes two hundred a snip. Triremes then mostly carried
two hundred men; as a Mytilensean trireme, mentioned by Herod 3, 15. and
universally the Persian triremes, 7, 184, 7. itg dva diriKoffiovc avSpagXaytZofU'
vouri Iv iicdtrry vrfi^^ivilidrivov di — rpifiKovra dvdpsQ. See also 7, 185, 13.
& 186, 5. 8, 17, 7. i<rrpdreviTo &vSpdffi 8ir}KOffioiai Kai oiictity vr}t.

It may, indeed, seem strange that the computation should be by shyj's
pay; but the reason why that method was used seems to have been that,
as the pay of a ship came to exactly half a talent per month, so, from the
even turn, it was more convenient to reckon by ship's pay. For the same
reason, we find, in all the Greek historians, more frequent mention made
of month's pay (as here) than day's pay. Thus it appears that all that
Tissaphemes did was to make the payment (which otherwise would have
been twenty-seven talents and a half) even money, by which the pay would
be three obols and about three elevenths a day.

1 As commanders,] Namely, of the whole combined fleet, not of this
squadron only.

ft The rest elsewhere.] Namely, small detachments sent out for minor

> Cast lots/or their respective services,] This was usually done. So we
find at 1. 6, 48, and 62. the fleet was divided by lot among the three com-

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Miletus^, an allotted portion of each being conveyed on board
of the transport-triremes *, sailed for Chios. The rest re»
maining in Samos, being seventy-four ships, held the mastery
of the sea, and made cruizes ^ upon Miletus.

XXXI. And Astyochus, who happened to be now at Chios,
taking hostages, on account of the meditated treason, desisted
from his purpose when he had heard ^ of the ships that had
come with Theramenes, and that the af&irs of the confederacy
were in a better condition : and taking ten ships of the Pe*
loponnesians and ten Chian ones, he puts to sea, and after as-
saulting Pteleum, without taking it, he coasted along to
Clazomense, where he ordered such of the people as favoured
the Athenian interest, to remove up ^ to Daphnus, and submit
themselves^. Tamos, too, the lieutenant [or sub-satrap] of
Ionia, made the same demand. But they not listening to it,
he makes an attack on the city, which was unwalled. Not
being able, however, to take it, he sails oif with a hard gale of
wind, and himself is carried to Phocaea, and [then to] Cyme ;
while the rest of the ships put in at the islands off Clazomenae,
Marathussa, Pele, and Drymussa. After remaining there
eight days (on account of the stormy weather) ravaging the
country, partly plundering and partly putting aboard what
property of the Clazomenians lay outside of the place, they
then proceeded to Phocaea and Cyme to Astyochus.

XXXII. While Astyochus was there, there came some
ambassadors from the Lesbians, to signify their wishes to

* Tho$e heavy-armed which tverU to Miletus,'] Namely, those which had
been conveyed thither the preceding summer. See c. 25.

* The transport triremet,'] Not transports^ as Smith and others render.
See 1. 6, 43. and the note.

« Made crvkes.'\ I here read, with Krueger, for iir/irXovv, IniirXovQ,
See c. 2?. 8. f. and 38.

* Desisted from his purpose when he had heard, ^c] As thinking the
Peloponnesian interest in the island strong enough, without recourse being
had to any harsh measures.

« Remove up,] i. e. as Krueger explains, " up the country, into the
interior." It may, however, be observed, that the situation of Daphnus is
very uncertain.

3 SubmU thcnueires.] Namely, to the Peloponnesians. The sense is
here quite mistaken by Smith.

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again revolt And him they brought to listen to them ; but as
both the Corinthians and the other allies were indisposed to
co-oporate, on account of their former disaster, he put to sea and
proceeded to Chios. Thither, too, his ships, though tossed by a
tempest, at length arrived, some from one quarter and some
from another. And after this, Pedaritus, who was advancing
with the land forces from Miletus, having come to Erythrsea,
<lrossed over from thence with his army to Chios. He had
also the soldiers, to the number of about five hundred, from
those five ships ^ which were left there by Chalcideus with
arms and armour.

But certain Lesbians having engaged to revolt, Astyochus
makes a representation to Pedaritus and the Chians, that they
ought to go with the fleet and bring about the revolt of
Lesbos ; for that either they should increase the number of
their allies, or, at least, if unsuccessful, should annoy the
Athenians. But they would not listen to this suggestion, and
Pedaritus declared that he would not give up to him the
Chian ships.

XXXIIL He then, taking taking the five ships which
were Corinthian ^, and a sixth which was of Megaris, and
one of Hermione, together with those Laconian ships which
he had brought with him, sails for Miletus, to assume the
supreme naval command ; after having used much threatening
language to the Chians, that " verily he would never help
them, whatever might be their need." And on making
Corycus ^ in Erythrsea, he there took up his quarters for the
nights And now the Athenians sailing from Samos to Chios
with the forces, were themselves, in their own anchorage, only

» Five iMpt,"] Namely, those on board of which Chalcideus and Ald-
biades had come thither. See c. 1 1. and 12.

« The five sMpt which were CorirUhian.] For though our author told us,
at c. 23., that the ships set out from Cenchrea?, he did not say that five of
them were Corinthian ones. (Goeller.)

3 Corycus,] This was (notwithstanding what is expressed in Duker's
map) not a town but a promontory : so called, I believe, from its form,
for Ku)pvKog is explained by Hesychius a purse or bag, also a certain shell-
fish. %,

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separated by the hill *, and each party was ignorant of the
proximity of the other. A message, however, having by night
reached him from Pedaritus, that some Erythraean captives
dismissed from Samos are come to Erythrcea, with intention
to betray the place, Astyochus immediately sails back to Ery-
thrsea; so little did he miss falling into the hands of the
Athenians. Pedaritus having passed over to him, and they
having made inquisition on the matter respecting the sup-
posed traitors, and found that the whole was but a pretence
devised by the men for their liberation from Samos, they
pronounced their acquittal and then departed, the one to
Chios, the other to his original destination, Miletus.

XXXIV. In the meantime, the forces of the Athenians,
coasting round from Corcyrus, met off Arginus \ with three
long ships'^ of the Chians, and on descrying them made
chace. And now a violent storm came on, and the Chian
vessels with di£Sculty gained the refuge of the port ; while
the Athenian ones, those that were &rthest advanced in the
pursuit, were three of them destroyed, and bulged at the
city of Chios (where the crews were partly taken prisoners,
and partly slain) ; the rest took refuge at the port under
Mount Mimas ^, called Phoenicus, from whence they after-
wards got off to Lesbos, and made preparations for fortifying.

XXXV. This same winter Hippocrates, the Lacedaemo-
nian, having set sail from Peloponnesus with ten Thurian
ships under the command of Dorieus, son of Diagoras, and

* Were themtelves^ 4^.] It is truly observed by Goeller, that the con-
BtrucUon here is for Kal txiToi U rov M ddnpa \6^v KoBopftiodfitvoi
BuipyovTo Tt^ Xwpift. And he compares 1.3, 68. and 112.; further remark-
ing, " T6 M Mrtpa nobis est die andere teite, at genetivus X6^v pendet ex
dartpa, sicut genet, rov krri ddrtpa regitur ab U, *Ek, quod nos expriroimus
Yoculis nach etwas kin, significat^ velut rb Ik rov laBfiov nXxog 1,64.; Latini
ab isthmo.^'

» Argmus.] Called Argenus by Strabo, Ptolemy, and Steph. Byz. It
seems to have had its appellation, like our Albion, from the whiteness of
its cliffs. It is now called C. Blanco.

* Long ihip*.] i. e. ships of war.

9 Mhnat.] A lofty mountain of Erythraea, in what part is uncertain ;
probably the northern one^ and what is called, in Arrowsmith's modern
map. Capo Koryni.

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two Others, also with one Laconian and one Syracusan ship,
arrived at Cnidus. Now that] city had revolted at the insti-
gation of Tissaphernes ' : and when those in Miletus had
heard of their coming, they required them, with the half of
the ships to garrison Cnidus, and with the rest, stationed at
Triopium ^, to sieize the vessels of burden % which touched
there in their way from -^gypt. Now the Triopium is a
promontory jutting out from Cnidia, and sacred to Apollo.
On learning this, the Athenians, likewise sailing from Samos,
took the six ships watching off Triopium, but the crew
escaped from them. After this, anchoring at Cnidus and
assaulting the city, which was unwalled, they nearly took it ;
and on the next day again assaulted it. But as the inhabit-
ants had, during the night, put the place into a better state of
defence, and the men who had escaped from the ships at
Triopium had contrived to throw themselves into the place, the
Athenians were less able to make any impression upon it;
but, departmg and ravaging the territory of the Cnidians, they
sailed off to Samos.

XXXVI. About the same time, Astyochus, havmg come to
Miletus to the fleet, the Peloponnesians had now all things in
abundance^ at the camp. For a sufficient pay was given
them, and the great wealth obtained by the plunder of lasus

» Ai the instigation of Tlstaphemet.] I here read, with Palmer and
Goeller, vvb : for it plainly appears that Cnidus was friendly to the Pelopon-
nesians, and hostile to the Athenians.

2 Triopivm,'] So called, I imagine, from its having three faces. See the
view of it in Clarke's Travels ii. p. 214. So Hesych. Tptoiriog, Tpi6<i>^a\fiOQ.
There might, indeed, be a temple of Apollo; which is confirmed by Hesych.
Tpidwiov, ri KvidoQ, koI Upbv Ivha ioprd^ovmv. where I conjecture i? Kvt^iac
dxpa Kal iip6v. That lexicographer seems to have copied from some very
antient scholiast on Thucydides. How usual it was to build temples on
promontories, I have elsewhere noticed. It seems to have been done to
excite the devotion of the passing mariner.

» Vessels of btirden,] Namely, corn-hulks of the Athenians; there being
always a constant com trade with Egypt, which was from the earliest ages
famous for its abundance of com, as we know from the Scriptures.

Smith absurdly renders, " take under their convoy the," &c,

^ The Peloponnesians had now all things in abundance,] It is truly
observed by Mitford, " that the use at this time made by the Peloponnesians
of the advantages of Persian pay and Asiatic plunder, seems to have been
to indulge themselves in the large and wealthy city of Miletus, under the
fine sky of Ionia.**

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was yet in possession of the soldiery, and the Milesians carried
on the war with great zeal and alacrity. The former treaty,
however, made with Tissaphemes by Chalcideus, was thought
by the Peloponnesians to be defective, and rather unfavourable
to them ^ ; and while Theramenes was yet with them % they
formed others as follows : —

" The second Treaty of Alliance between the Lacedemonians ]
and the King of Persia.

XXX VIL ^* The articles of agreement^ between the Lace-
daemonians and their allies, and King Darius and the king's
sons and Tissaphernes. There shall be peace and friendship
on the following terms :

" Whatever country, territory, and cities are King Darius*s,
or were his father's, or ancestors', against these neither the
Lacedaemonians, nor the allies of the Lacedaemonians, shall
go, for the purpose of war, or other injury ; nor shall the La-
cedaemonians, or the allies of the Lacedaemonians, exact any
tribute from those cities ; neither shall king Darius, or any
states subject to him, go against the Lacedaemonians or their
allies, for the purpose of war or other injury.

^^ If the Lacedaemonians, or their allies, shall stand in need
of any assistance from the king, or the king from the Lace-
monians or their allies, whatever they may induce each other
to do, that shall be right for them to do.

" That both parties shall jointly carry on the war against
the Athenians and their allies ; and if they shall make any
peace, it shall be done jointly.

" Whatever army may be in the king's territory sent for
by the king, the king shall furnish the expense of it.

* Defective and rather, ^c.] The conjecture here of Bauer is unneces-
sary, as will appear from the following kindred passa^ of Eurip. Phcen.
71 J. voWtp ydp tlpw Mitii SiaXKayds. where the conjecture iroXXwv may
be disDensed with*

« Yet wUh them,] I here read, with Bekker and Goeller, for Im vap6v^
TOQ, from MS. B,, tri irap6vT0Q, which I had myself previously conjectured.

1 ArticUt of agreement.] In thU treaty the sovereignty of the Persian
king over the Grecian cities in Asia was rather less explicitly acknowledged,
but yet was acknowledged. (Mitford.)

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" If any of the cities which have entered into league with
the king shall invade the king's territory, the rest sliall hinder
them, and render assistance to tlie utmost of their power.

•^ And if any of those in the king's territory, or such as the
king rules, shall invade the territory of the Lacedaemonians
or their allies, the king shall hinder them, and render assist-
ance to the utmost of his power."

XXXVIII. After the conclusion of this treaty, Thera-
menes having delivered the fleet to Astyochus, accordingly
disappears ^ in a barge. And now the Athenians at Lesbos,
crossing over to Chios with their forces, and making themselves
masters of both the land and sea, fortified Delphinium ^, a
a place otherwise strong to the landward, and having a port,
and not far distant from the city of Chios.

As to the Chians, being beaten^ in many engagements
and otherwise not very well disposed one to another* (for
though Tydeus, an Ionian, and his adherents had been now
put to death for Atticizing, and the rest of the city been held
to oligarchy * by compulsion, yet entertaining suspicions one of
another ^ they remained inactive) ; on these accounts, neither
they nor the auxiliaries under Pedaritus conceived themselves a
match for the enemy. They therefore sent to Miletus, re-
questing Astyochus to give them aid. Which when he had
refused them, Pedaritus sends a letter on the subject to Lace-

1 Disappears.] i. e. takes himself off. The term afj^viliadai hints at
the suddenness of his departure, doubtless from pique at being only thought
worthy to bring a fleet over, not to command it. This sense of A^vlK^^ai
is found in Xen. Ages. 9. and Philostratus cited by Budeus in his Comment.
Grace. See more on the term in my note on St. Luke S4, 31.

3 Delphimum^ See the Lex. Xenoph.

9 Beaten,] It is strange that Hobbes and Smith should render ^ dis-
heartened," or ^ dispirited." It might have been expected that translators
of the roost difficult of all the Greek authors should be acquainted with
80 common an idiom as that by which irkitima^ai corresponds to our verb,
to be beaten,

^ Not perfectly well disposed, 4-c.l An elegant way of expressing their
being at taction one with another. There was a strong democratical party.

!> Held to oligarchy.] I prefer, with Hack and Goeller, and the Scholiast,
to take ic 6\iyov for kQ dXiydpxuiv, rather than assign to it the feeble sense
given by Hobbes and others ; which, too, would require Ix' dXiyov.

Entertaining suspicions one of another,] Literally, *' being suspiciously
affected." So i. l, 75. ro7c*'£XXi7<rt Ivt^dvuts ^ccuccfcr^at. Isceus p. 3, 2. oix
6fioiwt — duuetiadM wpdt oXX^Xoec*

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daemon, representing the wrong he had done. Such was the
state of afiairs at Chios as respected the Athenians. Their
ships, too, from Samos made cruizes against those at Miletus ;
but when they would not come, out to encounter them, they
returned back to Samos and kept stiti:«

XXXIX. This sione winter, about the solstice, left Pelo-
ponnesus for Ionia the twenty-seven ships which, at the insti-
gation of Calligitus the Megaraean, and Timagoras the Cyzi-
cenian, were fitted out by the Lacedaemonians for the service
of Pharnabazus. They were commanded by Antisthenes, a
Spartan. The Lacedaemonians also sent out eleven persons
of the Spartans, as counsellors ' to Astyochus, one of whom
was Lichas ^, son of Areesilaus. They had received orders,
on arriving at Miletus, to jointly take charge of other afiairs, as
should be best for the public service, and to send ofi^ either
these ships, or more or less at their discretion, to the Helles-
pont to Pharnabazus, appointing Clearchus, son of Ramphius,
who went with them, as governor ; also (if it seemed expedient
to the eleven), to deprive Astyochus of the command of the
lieet, and appoint Antisthenes to it ; for, by reason of the
letters from Pedaritus, they held him in some suspicion.

The ships therefore setting sail from Malea, on the main

1 Sent out eleven pertonsy 4*c.] These KvfitovXot they used to send when
the admiral (to whom, however, the <rvfi€ov\oi were not hdyj/ri^i see
Thucyd. 3, 79.)> managed things ill. See Thucyd. 2, 85. 5, 69 and 76.
In the same manner, king Agis, by a custom at that time new, bad assi^ed
him ten avfiQovXoiy on his not having, when he mieht, conquered the Argives.
See Thucyd. 5, 65. Diod. 12, 7S. And from this time it became usual for
kings, when sent against an enemy, to be accompanied by a evfitovkiov
avvkiptov. (Krue&er.)

It may be added, that the appointment of this board arose from the
change of councils occasioned by the expiration of Endius's magistracy ;
with which, too, the influence of Alcibiades had much declined. ^ The
men in command," says Mitford, ^ and the measures pursuing on the
Asiatic coast,^ were looked upon with a jealous eye. The newly>prepared
squadron, placed under the command of Antisthenes, was ordered, not to
the Hellespont or any port of the satrapy of Pharnabazus, but to Miletus,
to join the fleet already there ; and eleven commissioners were embarked
in It, to enquire concerning men and things, and, as a council, to assume,
in a great degree, the direction of afiairs on the Asiatic station."

« Lichas.] He is specified, because already well known to the reader as
beine the Lacedaemonian who received such ignominious treatment trow
the Eleans, at the Olympic games, mentioned at i. 5, 50.

VOli. III. X

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16% made dw coast of MeloB ; aad meeting with Uo Atbenkoi
tkijpsy captured (hiee (but without the men ^) and burnt tbe »bip8.
After this, fearing (what really took place) lest tbe Athenian
ships which had escaped from Melos should give informatioii
of their approach to those at Samos \ they took their course to
Crete, and making their voyage (through caution) the longer,
they came to land at Caunus in Asia. Frcon thence^ as being
now in aecurity, they sent a message to the fleet at Miletus»
Uk desire to be convoyed by tbem thither.

XX^ B^t the Chians and Pedaritus, about the same time,
i^a^ massages to Astyochus, notwithstanding his backwardness^
entreating him tp come with his whde fleet and succour them,
besieged ua they were, and not to permit the most important of
tbe allied states to be excluded from the seoy and on the land
side be exposed to depredation. For the domestic servants (go:
slaves) of the Chians being many, and indeed the most numerous
possessed by any state accept that of the Lacedsemonians,
and» moreover, by reason of their numbers, the more severely
punished fior their oflfeoces, no sooner did the Athenians seem
to be firmly established in a fortress^ than most of them deserted

Online LibraryThucydidesThe History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war → online text (page 38 of 59)