The History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war online

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Whereas, should they find our forces divided (wbkli we ase
now beat on bringing about), they would ia all likelihood
quickly attack us in conjunction with the Siceliots, whose gif
liance they would heretofore have purchased at any prioe.l^ .f On
these things, then, it behoves us ^^ to ponder, vod not to tkiok
of putting matters to hazard, while the state is in so fluctualiog
and dubious a condition ^% nor to grasp after other doBninioa
be&Mre we have secured what we abeady hold. For the Chat*
ctdaeans in Thrace, after so many years of revolt from us, ave
yet unsubdued, and some others on the continent ^^ yidd as
but a precarious obedience. But the Egesteeans, our alhet
forsooth, ^^ (it seems) we must succour, while on those by
whom (so long in revolt) we are wronged, we must defer aveog'
ing ourselves.

XI. *^ And yet, after reducing these last, we may idso hold
them in subjection, while the others, if even we should subdue
them, are yet so distant and numerous, that we should with
difficulty be able to govern them. Now surely it were arrant
folly to invade those whom, after conquering, we cannot keep
in subjection ; and when, if we fail, we shall not be in the samt
condition as before the attack.^ As to the Siceliots, it eeema

lirunrovSai : for that word is found nowhere else ; and has so little force
(certainly not that which he supposes), that I suspect the true reading m
?rt (TTrovSaiQ,

<o Whose alliance they would, ^c] The sense here (which has been mis«
apprehended by Hobbes) is dear, from a kindred, but more fully-expressed,
passage at 1, 33. ufn'ig dv irpb ttoXXwv xf>»7/««^«v lri/i^o-a<r3c. where see the

•• Us.'] Literally, one; by which, I agree with Goeller, seems to be
meant Alcibiades.

19 While the state is in so fluctuating and dubious a condition,] The Scho-
liast rightly remarks, that there is here a metaphor derived from a ship in
a tempestuous sea. The passage is imitated by Dio Cass. 254, 1 9. fjurnSapov
Trie TToXkutg oviTijQ, And probably the speaker, or writer, here might have in
mind that fine passage of Soph. CEd. Tyr. 22. U6\te ydp, &<nrep xahrb^ c^
^opjig, dyav *H^ij fjoKivti,

13 Continent, "^^ Literally, continents j namely, I imagine, those both qf
Europe and Asia Minor.

i^ Forsooth,^ Such is the sense of ^»), which is found in the best writers,
and on which I have before treated. Thus there was no reason for Bauer^
Benedict, and Gail to have read, from some MSS., Sri^tv.

' Shall not be in the same condition as before the attack.] Such seems to
be the sense of the words xal fit^ Karop^utcraQ — lirrai, which have been mis-
understood by Hobbes and Smith. The Athenians would not be m the
same condition as before, as regarded the Siceliots, because they would

c 4

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to me, that in their present state they are not objects of ap-
prehension, and that, should they fall under the dominion of
the Syracusans (with which the EgestaBans especially seek to
alarno us), they would be even less so *. For now, perhaps,
they might singly (in order to oblige the Lacedaemonians) be
induced to attack us ; but in the other case it is not likely that
they would undertake the expedition, as one dominant state
against another ^ : for by the very mode by which they should,
with the Peloponnesians, reduce our country, by the same
would their own be brought down by them. As to ourselves,
the Greeks there would stand tnos^ in awe of us if we should
not go at all, and next, if, afler displaying our power, we
should speedily depart. { For if any defeat were to be-
fall us, they would utterly contemn us, and join our enemies
here in attacking us. ^) For such things as are at a dis-
tance, and offer the least opportunity of the opinion which
has been formed of them being put to proof j; are, we all
know, most admired. This, indeed, is the very feeling,
Athenians^ which you now entertain towards the Lacedaemo-
nians and their allies; because, having, contrary to your
opinion, (as to what you first feared) attained the mastery,
ye now held them cheap, and extend your views to Sicily.*

have them as enemies instead of friends> or neutrals — and enemies at once
provoked by unjust, and encouraged by unsuccessful, attack.

« // seems to me that in their present ^ S^c,"] Such is plainly the sense,
which has been missed by Uobbes and Smith, though they might have
learnt it from the Latin version of Portus.

3 As one dominant state against another.] The meaning (which is some-
what obscure, and has been misapprehended by the translators) seems to be,
that " their interest, as a great state or empire, will then be different from
what it now is." For, at present, their pnvate interest mak^ it necessary
to court the alliance of LacedsBmon ; in the other case, it must be their
interest to preserve the balance of power, by preventing the Lacedaemonians
from subduing the Athenians, and thus becoming too powerful for the Si-

^ The Greeks there will stand the most in awe of tu, <J-c.] This was the
very principle on which Nicias himself sought to act with the armament
•committed to him. See infra, c. 49. But as it was not a force sent for
display, but for service, he judeed wrongly.

* Such things as are^ Sfc![ This I conceive to be the sense of the some-
what obscure words xai rd — SSvra, with which may be compared Plutarcb
Vit. Cat. Min. rri<rTiu>^ iriXpav Mq, As to the sentiment^ it is similar to a
well-known diet of Tacitus.

6 Thisy indeed^ is the very feeing, Sfc.I Such is, I conceive, the real
sense of. the difficult sentence ^ttio vvv — l^ieeBai, which foiled botii
Uobbes and Smith; though the Scholiast might have given them a tol&^

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Whereas it behoves yoir not to be elevated at such disasters
as may by chance befall the enemy, but to feel confidence only
in accomplishing the designs you meditate '^. Nor should we
imagine diat the Lacedaemonians consider aught else but how
they may yet even now, if possible by foiling us, mitigate the
disgrace ® they sustained, inasmuch as there is nothing they so
highly prize, or so perpetually apply to, as obtaining the fame
of valour. So that the thing to be laboured at by us is (if
we be wise) not the supporting of barbarians (such as the
Egestseans in Sicily), but how we may most studiously guard ^

rable insight into the meaning. The sense has been best illustrated by
Goeller, who, after observing that *6Trtp is to be referred to the whole of
the preceding ; also that vapd yvutfiriv (for wap' IXirida) belongs to the Athe-'
mans, and ain-tov, governed of nipiyiyivfi<T^at, to the Shoots, and that
xp^c denotes compared wUh, gives tne following paraphrase of the whole
context : — ^ Quse a nobis longissime distant, omnes admiramur, quamdiu
opinionis, quam homines de illorum virtute conceperunt, nullum specimen
dederunt. Id (juod et in Syracusams eveniet, at vero jam in vobis evenit.
Nam initio quidem Spartanos timuistis, desperantes victoriam, posthac
prseter opinionem vestram victores facti elati victoria ampltora concupiscer^
coepbse vos jam videmus. Itidem Svracusani nunc vos expavescunt ; post-
hac si opum vestrarum specimen dederitis, victique fueritts, ut ab ex-
peditione tarn temeraria exspectari debet, non sktis habentes, vos ab insula
sua propulsasse, ultro etiam in vestris terris, potentia sua cum Pela-
ponnesiorum prsesidiis juncta, aggredientur."

7 To feel confidence only in, ^c] Almost all translators refer r^c ^lavoUtg
to the Peloponnesians ; but on the sense to be assigned they differ. I have
always thought that they should be referred to the Athemans ; and my opi-
nion is supported by that of Goeller, who, however, translates, '^anim
poteniem,** i. e. neque nimis foFtuna secunda elatum, neque adversa animo
Bimis demisso. If such be the true view, the form is nearly the same as
that of Horace Od. 2, 10,- concluding with, *' Rebus angustis animosus
atque Fortis appare; sapienter idem Contrahes vento nimium secundo
Turgida vela.'* And such may probably be the sense ; but there seems to
be reference not so much to iTraipeff^ai as to rd£ rvxa^ : and the scope of
the passage seems to be, to point out whence a justly- founded confidence
should arise, namely, on obtaining success by mastering and accomplishing
well-planned measures, not from the folly and bad counsel of the enemy .
So 1, 84. (xp*)) vofii^etv rdf re dtavola^ r&v trkkag irapatrXfjaiovQ tlvai, Kal
rdi irpoffKiVTOVvaQ rvx^Q ^^ X&yt^ duupBrdg, 'Ail Bk <i»c 'irpb^ lu ^vXivofikvotg
Toifg ivavriovg ipy<f» irapa<rKivaZu>fi(da' cat ovk i^ tKiivuv w; afiaprrj<rofikv<i*v
^X^tv hi rdc iXxidaCf dXX' wf i7/i<tfV airrHiv d<r^Xioc vpovoovfiivatv.

ILparuv, in the sense of mattering, has often the accusative ; as Aristopb.
Av, 4^9. Kpariiv Tdvix^p6vm

8 Mitigate the tHsgrace,] Literally, " well dispose ; " for there- seems to
be a metaphor taken ftx>m adjiuting an inconvenient burden on the back.
Examples I shall adduce in my edition.

» But how we mav, 4^cJ Such is clearly the sense, which has been missed
by Hobbes and Smith. The one they assign » not permitted either by the
verb (which is in the middle voice) or the mun, which would require the

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oturselves ugainst a state which plots our ruin by means of an
oligarchical party.

XIL ^^ It bdioves us also to remember that we have but
lately had some breathing time to recover from the ravages of
pestilence and war, so as to be somewhat recruited ^ in our per-
sons and purses \ But these it is surdy but just ^ that we should
expend herey for ourselves, and not upon a set of helpless fugi-
tives \ whose advanti^ it is to tell specious fidsehoods, and
who, while their friends bear the danger (themselves contri-
buting naught but words), are found either if they should suc-
ceed, to show no gratitude, or if they any where suffer defeat,
involve their friends in the same ruin.^

article. Besides, the context strongly confirms -the «ense above assigned,
which is supported both by Portus and Goeiler. The HaU in -question is
lAtcedamon ; and by the oti^arek^ is meant an oUgarckical party, with re-
ference to Alcibiades and his partisans, who were chiefly persons of the
higher ranks, who were always suspected of hankering after oligarchy. The
connection Alcibiades had been anxious to form with Lacedasmon strength*
ened the suspicion. And that the imputation of Nidas was not groundless
appeared from subsequent events.

This view of the sense is well supported and illustrated by Valcknaeroa
Herod, a, 17. and the notes of Heilman and Goeiler in ioc.

1 BecruUed.] On thb sense of Xta^cua I have treated at S, 49., and I
would here add the following illustrations : — Soph. Philoct. frag. s. Kai t6
iro\i> ii^ riic v6<rov Xtap^re fiol. Soph. Aj« 61. iirtiit) rovdt iXM^i|9cv wovov.
The present passive is imitated by Pausan. 7, 17, I.

« Persont ixnd property .'\ i. e. men and money.

3 Surely buijutt.] With the cTvai commentators are not a little per-
plexed. Jbome MSS. omit it, and some editors cancel it. But as it is
defended by almost every good MS. and by the Scholiast, that is certainly
uncritical. Goeiler rightly retains it, regarding its use as similar to that oif
Udiv tlvai i and Herman compares a similar passage of Demosthenes.
For my own part, I have long been persuaded that the true reading is olfuu,
sane, tUique, used parenthetically, as at 4, 64. iroXifAijeofuv, ol/mi, irap
ivfity. In my edition I shall adduce many examples of a sirailur corruption.
For the. present, the following may suffice. Orieen C. Cels. p. 25. Spenc.
tUdc yap tlvai iv ry ^vett r&v irpayfAdr^v tXvau where should be read olfiau
Stob* Serm. 542. init. 8rav H Kai ei^ rovro dfuctfrai (scil. rif ) ewaviott elvat
Xpfieriov toIqA^o^ujumC'

* Helpless Jvgilives.] Such seems to be the reid, though not the
literal, sense of dp^pwv fvydSiov imaovpiag Stofuviav, where the translators
do not well render itofikvuty *^ imploring our assistance." The argument
(which is, that these persons need assistance, but can return none) seems
to require the sense above adopted, which is quite as agreeable to the usu»

^ And who, while their friends, frc.] Such seems to be the sense of the difficult
passa^ Kai Tip rov wiXac tnvivvtft ^- Kvyaxo^eat, which the commentators
4n vain attempt to reduce to any rules of regular construction. See Goelles.

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^ And if there be a certain person ^ who^ ddighted ^ his
eppaintment to coimnand (thcMigh jret too young for supreme
ruIeX and ^th a view to bis own private interest, ooimsels the
expedition, that iie mtty be adnilvd for his sumptuonsness in
borse-keeping % and (considering his expensive mode of iir-b
wag% may maise some profit by liis office; softer not such
a one to display bis private magnificence at the danger of the
slate) burt be assured diat^uch persons at once injure the pnbUc
interests^ and «ionsiime their private fortune ; aikl in short that
the bosiness is a most arduous one % and not such a one as
is fit for a yiounker ^^ to plan, and precipitately execute.

lindmi, Dmdorf, (md Grower e<fit |wvflwroXI<yai, which I have followed in
tite ▼ersion. Yet» as ihe word is siq^poited by no one MS., I am nclined
to think that KvvaTr6\«rdai, the old readings is the true one ; and it may be
tolerated, if for roi^c ^ttXovc we read rdtg 0iXo7c> a milder emendation than
which cannot be imagined. Ceftunly such a reading is more Tbocydidean*

fi Jnd if there be a ceriam person, ^.] Meaning Alcibiades : a most
delicate and dignified way of avoiding personality, at least in words, and
whix;fa is imitated by Appuo, i, ffBO, 71 . ct ^ dpa ric, &c. meaning C.Len-

7 That he may 6e admired for, 4'<?«] So expenstre was the keeping of
horses in Athens, and indeed most parts of Greece, that it was a proof of
viefaes, and was thought to show the wealth, and therefore ^ntility, of any
<ine'8 ancestors. S^ Find. Isthm. 4, 21-25. Thus Herodotus 6, 35., to
«how the nobility of the ancestry of Mi}tiades,says he was descended o6c^
Atrb iTnrorpSifMv. which passage is imitated by Philostratus Vit.^ Apoll.p. 244.
ffv dk 6 likv itnroTpd^if xal vrpccrrjytKov vaTp6s, How expensire this was,
appears from Pind. Isthm. 4,49. where see the Schol.; as also from Soidas
in daKvofuvoi, and especially iEschyl. Prom. 47S. if^' &pfiar ijyavov ^iKtjvioviQ
•'Iinrovc, iy«Xfta t^c vmpvXovTov x^t^VQ' where see Dr. Blomfield. Aristot.
Polit. 6, 7. at di 'nnrorpo^iai r&v ficucpde oifffiac Ktxrrifikvbtv thiv, Demosth.
•de Coron. § 40. luydg xai \afnrp6c ivTrorpSipo^, See also Pausan. 6, 10, 2,
and 11, 5. 9, 8, 1. Issms, p. S5. Lycurg. C. Leocr. p. 167. Hence may be
explained the latent sense of the mytholosical fiction of Diomede's mtn^eU'
ing horses. Indeed, the very same metaphor is common with us. Hence,
too, may be understood the force of ol iTrirotSrat in Herod. 5, 77, 12. a
•name given, he ^ys, to the opulent Chalcidseans, but which is also appOed
to Atreus (famed for his riches. See Thucyd. 1, 9.) by Eurip. Orest. 99S.
From Herodotus is illustrated anHl-imderstood passage of Plutarch Per. 25.
where these Chalcidfean liriro^STai are mentioned.

• £jrpennve viode of Rvmg.] The most ample illustration of this will be
found in a highly curious passage, Athen. p. 534., too long for me to insert.

9 That the business is a most arduous ofie,] So Dionys. Hal. Ant. 409, 21 •
tb fUv vpayfui fuya. JSschyl. Eum- 473# rb irpayfia fttX^ov, tl rtg oUrai rSh
TiporbQ •^ucdittv,

>o A younker,] Such is the most exact sense of vccurlp^ : for in either
word the comparative sense is lost, and as the English adjective has
become a substantive, so the Gfreek one is very little different from it.

The whole passage is well paraphrased by Mitford thus : "If there is
among you a young man, bom to great wealth and splendid situation^

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XIII. " I cannot, however, but fear the persons ^ whom I
now see there sitting as advocates and abettors ^ to this man I
and I do, on the other hand, exhort the elderly (if any sit by
such), not to be ashamed to speak their minds freely, nor to
suppose that they will be accounted cowards, if they vote
against the war ; I exhort them (I say) not (as those do) to be
so extravagantly enamoured of what is absent and foreign ^ ;
knowing, as they must, that very few affairs prosper by pas-
sionate or sanguine counsels ; by forethought very many ; but
rather, in behalf of their country (whieh is now hazarding the
greatest danger it hath yet encountered '*), to give their vote on
the opposite side, and decree ^ that the Siceliots, keeping to
their present limits (by us not objected to), with free naviga-
tion along the shores of the Ionian gulf, and across the Sici-
lian sea, as they enjoy their own territories, so may they settle
their differences * amongst themselves.' To the Egestseans in
particular to return this answer: * That since they at first ^
engaged in a war with the Selinuntians without communication

whose passion for distinction lias, nevertheless, led him far to exceed in
magnificence, both what suited his means and what became his situation ;
if he is now appointed to a command above his years, but with which, at
his years especially, a man is likely to be delighted ; above all, if repairs are
wanting to a wasted fortune, which may make such a command desirable to
him, though ruinous to bis country, it behoves you to beware how you.
accede to the advice of such a counsellor."

1 / cannot, however, but fear the persoru, ^'c] The passage is closely imi-
tated by ^schin. p. 16,35. 6pw dk vrSWove fUv r&v vnariptav vpom<rrtjK6Tac
^pbs Ttfi duca<rrfiplti», k, r. X. See also Plutarch Nlc. 11. and Liban. Orat.
5SS. B.

2 Advocates and abettors.] Such is the full sense of irapaKfkevaro^e (ren-
dered by Goeller ** creatures**), a word which I have nowhere else met
with, except in Dio Cass. p. 195.

5 Extravagantly enamoured of, S^c.\ Ooeller aptly compares Pind. Py th.
3,35,19. oKKa rot {foaro rtjv AirUvTiav, o\a Kai iroXXot nd^ov. and Eurip.
Hippol. 184. To wnich may be added Pind. Nem. 3, 52. and Theopompus
ap. iEIian 261. A. Plutarch Pericl. 20. 2oc«Xfoc 6 Bvaipiag llKtivoi xai 5v<r-
TTOTfiot tputQ, The word BvtrkpiaQ is also used by Xenophon, Lucian, Dio
Cass., and especially Theocritus.

♦ Hazarding the greatest, 4"^.] So Dionys. Hal. Ant. 398. 37. fUyujrov
ij^ti Kivdwov avappiyl/avrt^.

5 Settle their differences,] A rare use of Kvfj^ipiv^oi, but occurring in
Dio Cass.

^ Atjirst.} Here I read, with Levesque and Bekker, r6 irp&rov. Indeed,
I had myself fallen upon the same conjecture very many vears ago ; and I
can confirm it from Livy 4,24. Negata Vegentibus auxilia, jussosque sua
consflio belhim initum suts virions exequi.

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with the Athenians, so may they without their interference
bring it to a conclusion.' Also to decree for the future to
make no alliances (as we have been accustomed to do) with
such as, when suffering adversity, we are bound to assist, but
from whom we can derive no benefit, when we ourselves stand
in need of it.

XIV. " And you, O President^ (if you think it your duty
to take care of the state, and would be a good citizen), put the
matter to vote, and let the Athenians again speak their minds*
And consider, (if you feel loth to put the question again to-
vote) that to go counter to ^ the law, can incur no censure,
when done with so many witnesses and approvers, but that you
may thus act the part of a physician to your country, suffering
under evil counsel^ ; ever remembering that the duty of a good
governor is this, to benefit his country to the utmost extent,
or, at least, not (as far as in him lies) to be the means of
injuring it" *

XV. Thus spoke Nicias : as to the Athenians that then
came forward, the greats part counseled that the expedition
should proceed, and that the decree should not be recalled,
though some were of the contrary opinion. But he who most,
earnestly pressed the expedition was Alcibiades son of Cliniasi
and that both from a wish to oppose Nicias, being otherwise

I President.] i. e. the Prytanis Epbtates.

« €fc coimier,ic.] And yet by 5^36, it appears that the Prytanis had
that power.

3 Act the part 4>f a phtfiician, ^-c.l A metaphor taken from a physician
eaUed in to a person who has suffered from some deleterious food or drink.
I would compare Eurip. Orest. 903. Onosand. 96. &9Wip ydp dya^oy
tarpovy K, r. X. Eurip. Suppl. 2S5, oihot ducaarfjv ^ f2X<(/ci7v k\iSiv Kwc&Vy
<iXX' «c iarpbv rdv^y 4va^, d^iy/it^a. Pind. Pyth. 4, 480. 'E<r<ri S' larrup Irrt^
Katp6raT0C, Uaidv ri aoi ruij. ipiSuoq, Xpi^ fiaXoKdv x^P^ vpoctSOO^oyra TptofAov
HkxiOQ dfifitroXiiv. 'Pf^cov fUv ydp irdXiv aiiaai nal d^avporkpoiQ* dXK' itri
X«tfpac av^ie iffoai Svffirayii ^r) ylviraiy llatrivac BJ fii^ dtbg aytfiSviav^
Kv€tpvarijp yiviirai. Eurip« Flioen. 907. ir6\u wapaffxtiv ^^fiaxov a*»-

4 To benefit^ 4^.] Coray thinks there is here another medical metaphor
taken from a medical adage; as in Hippocrates Epidero. l. sect. 2. p. 662.
dmuiv wtpi Td voveriuara dvo, inl^ikUiv ^ /i») i3Xdirrwv. I would compara
Eurip. ap. Aristoph. Ran. 1428. ^urd iroXimv, htn-tc ^«A£tv xdrpay Bpadiff
vi^muj fiAXa ^k yt PKkwniv rax^

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of a di£B»*ent political party, and being calumnioudy glanced
at by him, and especially from his desire of the command, and
bis hope thereby to subdue Sicily and Carthage, and also, if
successful, to promote his private advantage, both in' fortune
and fame. For being held in honour by the citizens, he lived
at a greater expense than his means would afford ^ both in re-
spect of horsekeeping, and other expensive modes of life ^ ;
which, indeed, afterwards contributed not a little to the down-
fidl of the Athenian state. For the bulk of the people, alarmed
at his greatness, and his deviation from custom, in respect to
his personal habits, and the disposition he evinced in every
thing which he undertook, became hostile to him, as aiming
at tyranny ; and though he conducted public aflairs with suf-
ficient ability, yet each privately displeased at his habits of life,
and therefore committing the conduct of afiairs to others, not
long after brought the state to ruin.

However, on thb occasion, lie advanced, and counselled the
Athaaians to the following effect.

XVI. " Yes — Athenians, to me rather than to others the
command, of right, belongs ^ ; (for with this point I must needs
commence, since here ^ I have been especially assailed by Ni-
cias) and withal I think myself worthy of the trust^ For as
to the matters concerning which I am so loudly censured %

* He Ihed at a areater txpente ikan, 4rc.] Or, ** he had more wants
than ability to satisfy them." Kard here denotes comparison.

fi Oiher ejepentive modes.] What these were will abundantly appear
from the interesting passage of Athenaeus referred to supra, c. 1 S., wnich
passage also is the bc»t commentary on the wapavouia ivmt after.

> To me, ^c, of right behngs.'^ This passage, uoeller remarks, is imi-
tated by Aristid. 5, 651. To which may be added Dio Cass. 452, 16.

« Here.] Ty^c roust be supplied, which is expressed ia a kindred passage
of Herod. 6, 69. ry^c <tcv fi^kivra icardwrovrtu oi ix^poL

» / think myself worthy of the trust.] .This passage seems to have beenia
the mind of Plato Alcio. 1 . p. 7. riyy, iAv ddrrov tic tov 'A^rjvaUav i^fiov
wapiX^^waptk^w MtlKaffBai 'A^tivaloiQ 6ri a^og tl rtfiaadai.

4 Censured,'^ I entirely agree Mrith Duker and others that l'tr4£6riTOQ is
the true readmg, and ;the sense mate audio. Yet ivtSotiroc is so very rare
A word that some examples are necessary, which, as the commentators
have not adduced, the following may be acceptable : — Dio Cass. p. 375, 1 Ss
450, 77. 965, 5. There is no doubt that Dio Cass, here so read. Hence
may be emended Hesych. 'EinCWroc* Xcioc 6fiaK6t. where I would read 'Eir^
turo^ twi^ijroc. the word, it should seen, being omitted per honuste-

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Online LibraryThucydidesThe History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war → online text (page 4 of 59)