Thucydides.

The History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war online

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Online LibraryThucydidesThe History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war → online text (page 42 of 59)
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subject states. For the cities having now conceived prudence,
and a fearlessness ^>out their proceedings, made for direct
liberty, not caring a whit for that hollow shadow of indepen-
dence ^ they had enjoyed under the Athenians.

LXV. As to Pisander and his colleagues, they, as they
coasted along, abolished (as had been determined) every
where democracy in the cities, and, moreover, taking from
some places heavy-armed as auxiliaries to them, they came
with them to Athens. There they found most part of tlieir
business done by their friends. For one Androcles, a prin*
eipal supporter of democracy, and one who had a chief hand
in banishing Alcibiades, certain of the younger ones, uniting
together, had privily assassinated. Him they were the rath^
induced to destroy, on two accounts ; ibr his influence with
the people, and as thinking that they should thus gratify
Alcibiades, as if he would return from banishment and
procure them the friendship of Tissaphernes. Some others,
too, who were un&vourable to their cause ^ they in the same
manner privily made away with. An oration^, moreover,
for public delivery had been previously prepared by them, in
which it was said that ^ no others ought to receive pay but such
as were engaged in military service, nor ought the manage-
ment of afiairs to be participated by more than five thousand^
and those such purses and persons as could best serve the
state."



s Shadow of independence.] I here read, from many MSS. and the
editions of Bekker, Duker, and Groeller, aifrofofAiav. The ^xovXov is itl
rendered by Hobbcs " outside," and by Smith '* precarious." The term is
properly applied to flesh which is hollow, having an ulcer underneath, and
therefore unsound at the bottom. Hence it comes to mean deceit/ul,false,
&c. Goeller refers to Wyttenb. on Pint. Morel. 1, 292. and 2, 169.

> Unfavourable to their caiae.] Such seems to he 'the sense of <iv«wiri|-
itiovc^ and not that assigned to it by the translators. If lirtrti^etoc signifies
friendly, favourable^ why should not avnrtr^^. have the contrary sense ?

« An oralion.] This was meant to make known the change of constitu-
tion which they had before hinted at.



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328 THE HISTORY OF THUCYDIDE8. BOOK YIII.

** That the LacedaBinonians, and their allies, shall not enter
into any country of the king's, to injure it in any way what-
soever; nor the king enter any of the Lacedaemonians and
their allies, to injure it in any way whatsoever.

" If, however, any of the Lacedaemonians, or their allies,
jihall enter into the king's territory for harm, that the Lace^
daemonians, and their allies, shall hinder it; and if any from
the king's territory shall enter into that of the Lacedaemonians
and their allies for harm, the king shall hinder it.

^^ That Tiss^hemes shall furnish support to the ships now
present, according to the rate of pay agreed on, until the
king's ships shall arrive. But that when the king's ships shall
have arrived, the Lacedaemonians and their allies shall, if they
please, support their own fleet, to be at their own disposal.
Hi however, they wish to receive the support from Tissa-
phemes, Tissaphemes shall furnish it; but that the La-
cedaemonians and their allies shall, at the conclusion of the
war, pay back to Tissaphernes whatever sum they may have
received. When, too, the king's ships shall arrive, the ships
of the Lacedaemonians and their allies, and those of the king,
shall carry on war jointly in such a manner as may seem good
to Tissaphemes and to the Lacedaemonians and their allies.

** Moreover, that if the parties wish to come to a treaty of
peace with the Athenians, they, shall treat by the equal con-
currence of both."

LIX. Such were the articles ; and after that, Tissaphemes
made preparations to bring up the Phoenician ships above
mentioned, and to perform such other things as he had pro-
mised ; and he was desirous at least to seem busied in prepar-
ations.

LX. At the close of this winter the Boeotians took Oropus,
by the treachery of the Athenians in garrison there. Some
persons, too, of the Eretrians and of the Oropians themselves
took part in the affair, plotting for the revolt of Euboea. For
the place being over against Eretria ^ it was impossible but

^ Overagmntt Eretria,] Not, ** built to keep Eretria id tubjection/* as
Hobbes absurdly renders.



%



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CHAP. LXT. THE HISTORT OF THUCYDIDES. 329

that, while in the hands of the Athenians, it must aniioy Ere-
tria and the rest of Euboea. The Eretrians, therefore, being
now in possession of Oropus, they went to Rhodes, calling
the Peloponnesians into Euboea* They, however, were more
inclined to succour Chios, now in great distress, and putting
to sea with their whole fleet, they made sail for Rhodes.^
And when they were come over against the Triopium, they
descried the Athenian fleet at sea, sailing from Chalce ; and
as neither side advanced upon the other, they each reached
their destination, one going to Samos , the other to Miletus,
who also saw that without a battle it was impossible for them
to give succour to Chios. And thus ended the winter, and
terminated the twentieth year of the war which Thucydides
hath written.

YEAR XXI. B. C. 411.

LXI. The subsequent summer, immediately at the com-
mencement of spring, Dercy llidas, a Spartan, was sent with an
inconsiderable force by land to the Hellespont, in order to
bring about the revolt of Abydus, which is a colony of the
Milesians. And now the Chians, during such time as Asty-
ochus was at a loss how to relieve them, being hard pressed
by the siege, were compelled to venture on a sea-fight.

While Astyochus was yet at Rhodes, they had, after
the death of Pedaritus, received from Miletus, as governor,
Leon, a Spartan (who had sailed out with Antisthenes, as
supernumerary '), and with him twelve ships from the squadron



9 T'hey^ however, were, S^c."] This sentence is omitted by Smith.

» Supernumerary.] Or, deputy; not " private soldier," as Hobbes ren«
ders; nor ** passenger,*' as Smith. Krueger, that a commander of inferior
order is meant, since in Xenophon Hist. 1,3, 17. Hegesandridas is called
the iTn€drfic of Mindarus, and yet was in command of a fleet. The term is
also, he says, equivalent to IviaToXtitc, on which see Lex. Xen. It is long
since I came to the conclusion that, as the word properly signifies a pas^
tenser, so it came at length to denote a person who went on board a fleet
with no specific office, but as one who should be ready to occupy any post
where he might be useful. This is what the Scholiast means by saying that
the epibates was neither a trierarch, nor held any office. From the gloss
(for such it is) of some MSS., avriarpaTiiyov, it should seem that some
Scholiasts thought it meant a deputv, and, in a certain sense, this is true.
The hgatut, it may be observed, of the Roman soldiery bore some resem*
blance to this epibatet of the Grecian navy.



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S30 THE HISTORY OF THUCYDIDES. BOOK VIU.

stationed for the defence of Miletus, of which five were Thu-
rian, and four Syracusan, one Anaitan, one Milesian, and one
Leon's own ship.^ The Chians, then, making a sally in full
force, and having seized a certain strong position, and their
ships, six and thirty in number, having launched forth against
the two and thirty of the Athenians, they came to battle.
And after a sharp engagement the Chians and their allies, who
had not the worst of the afiair, retired to the city, for it was
now evening.

LXII. Presently after this, Dercyllidas having gone by land
to his destination, Abydus at the Hellespont revolts to Dercyl-
lidas and Pharnabazus, as also did Lampsacus, two days aft;er.

But Strombichides, having intelligence thereof^ went in all
haste thither, with twenty-four ships of the Athenians, of
which some were soldiers' ships ^ transporting heavy-armed.
And having defeated in battle the Lampsacenes, who had made
a saUy, and taken Lampsacus (which was unfortified) at the first
onset ^, and made spoil of the moveable property and slaves,
but established the free prisoners again in the place, he then
went against Abydus. And when the city would neither submit,
nor could he take it by assault, he then went to Sestus, a city
of Chersonesus, opposite to Abydus (once * occupied by the
Medes), and there established a fort and garrison for the
whole of the Hellespont.



« LieofCi own ship.'l Probably, that in which he came over with Antisthenes.

» Some were solcUert* thipt^ Hobbes renders, " those being also of that
number which transportea his men at arms." But this version is more
obscure than the original, which, if it be correct, cannot admit any other
sense than that above assigned. As, however, there is nothine answering to
tome in the original, and as the ellipsis is somewhat harsh, I suspect that
some number has slipped out, and conjecture arparuaTihg t jaav, i. e. six.

These erpariwriiiq were not mere transports (as Smith's version ex-
presses), but triremes, somewhat more capacious, and strongly built.

* At the first onteL"] Avrd€oH answers to the French par coup de mam,

^ Once.] I have seen no reason to follow Goeller, who edits, from most
of the MSS., rSri, The authority of MSS., in so slight a variation, is of
little weight. To omit other reasons for preferring the common reading, it
may suffice to say that, had the town been then in the occupation of the
Medes, something would surely have been said about taking it. But it
should seem that the place was at that time in the possession of the Athe-
nians, and so only required to be fortified.

It is called by Pitnolaus ap. Aristot. Rhet. 305. TriXiav rov Ilccpaica^f,
i. e. the granary of Piraeus.



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CHAP. LXni. THE HISTORY OF THUCYDIDE9. 381

LXIII. Meanwhile, the Chians and those at Miletus had
rather the better at sea; and Astyochus hearing tidings of
the sea-fight, and that Strombichides and the fleet were de^
parted, took courage.^ And coasting along with two ships to
Chios, he fetches from thence the ships there *^, and with the
whole force makes sail towards Samos. And when those there,
by reason of the mutual suspicions of the two factions, went
not out against him, he sailed back to Miletus. For it was
about this time, or even before, that the democracy at Athens
was in the course of being put down.^ For after Pisander and
his fellow-ambassadors had gone from Tissaphernes to Samos,
they confirmed their faction in the army, drawing together the
association by closer bonds * (even the Samians themselves ex-
horting the great men ^ to endeavour with them to establish
an oligarchy, though they had themselves before taken up
arms one against another, that they might not be under an
oligarchy) : and moreover, among themselves, the Athenians
who were in Samos, holding a conference, considered * to let



' Took courage.] From this expression it should seem that Astyochus
was not only a weak and unprincipled, but also a cowardly, man.

« Fetches from thence the ships there.] Such must be the sense of icofii^u
avro^ev toq vavc, where Krueger starts frivolous objections. By the ships
are, I think with Goeller, to be understood both those of the Peloponne*
sians and those of the Chians.

3 In the course of being put dotvn.] Such is the sense, if the common
reading be the true one; though many good MSS. have KanXkXvTo. GoeU
ler, however, retains the former, observing that from c. 64. it appears that
the popular government was not yet abolished, but was only begun to be
abolished ; and this very thing (he adds) is signified by the next sentence
b^innin^ with ydp, to hint that this change of the form of government ori-
ginated m Samos : so that that change could not precede the events at
iSamos, but must follow them.

* Confirmed their faction, 4"^.] Such is, I think, with Duker and Goeller,
the full sense of rd n — KarkXa€ov: though it may be more literally and
briefly expressed by " had bound things more firmly in the army." It is
rightly observed by Goeller, that the words rd n kv airif rtf arpaTivfuiri
answer to the ones Kai iv <r0io-tv airro'tQ loKk^avro.

* Great men.] Literally, "the powerful." By these, Krueger would
understand those of the Athenians. Goeller, however, urges that those of
the Samians must be included. Yet, as a partition was so lately made of the
property of the wealthy, it is difficult to imagine how any persons could
now answer to such a character. I would observe, too, that the words
dvafrrdvrtc aifToi dXX^Xotc need not be pressed on, but may merely mean
•* rushed into a civil war."

« Considered.] Or, determined, Goeller renders reputabant. Hobbes
wrongly translates, deliberated. Our word consider has sometimes the very
sense here required.



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S$^ THE HISTORY OF THUCYDIDE8. BOOK VIIK

Alcibiades alone, since hewasunwillingto join them (for, indeed,
they thought him no fit person to come to an oligarchy ^), but
themselves and of their own strength, as they were now em-^
barked in the danger, to see and take care that the business
should not fall into a relapse ^ ; and moreover to sustain ^ tlie
war, and contribute freely, from their own private fortunes, both
money and whatever else might be necessary, since they would
be no longer labouring for others, but rather for themselves.

LXIV. Having come to these resolutions ', they imme-
diately sent Pisander, and half of the ambassadors, home, in
order to manage the business there ; and it was ordered them
to establish oligarchy in whatever of the subject states they
should touch at by the way. The other half they despatched
up and down among the rest of the dependencies. And Dio-
trephes S who was about Chios, but chose to take the com*
mand in the parte of Thrace, they sent off to his government.
And he arriving at Thasus abolished democracy. About
two months after his departure, the Thasians fortified their
city, as having no longer any need of aristocracy, but expecting
every day freedom at the hands of the LacedsBmonians. For
indeed there had also been a party of exiles from thence with
the Peloponnesians, and these strenuously contrived, by means
of their friends in the city, to introduce ships, and bring Tha-
sus to revolt. Thus matters took the very course for them they
could have wished, for the city was righted without any danger
to them, ana the democracy, which would have opposed their



T No fit person to come to an oligarchy,] Because he would want to be
at the head, and from oligarch to become monarch,

^ Fall into a relapse.] So that there might be what we call a reaction,

9 Sustain,'] Or, hold up, bear up, maintain. Such is pltunly the sense.
Yet this is hardly consutent with dvTix^tv : and, therefore, I suspect that
dvixi^v is the true reading. Sol. 1,141. at ck -Kipwvauu ro^c xoXi/iov^
^oXXov, ^ oX fiiawi ie^paif dvixovet. It may, indeed, be thought that to
stick or afply to may be the sense ; but that woidd require the middle voice
instead of the active, and the genitive instead of the accusative.

I Having come to these resoTutionM,] Mitford paraphrases, " having estap
blished this ground-work for future proceedings."

a Diotrephes.] The same person, Krueger thinks, with the Diitrephes
(or, as some MSS. read, Diotrephes), mentioned at 1. 7, 29., and the son of
Nicostratus, who, after holding various coramands (see 1. 3, 75. 4, 5J. and
119.}, was slain at Mantinea.



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CHAP*l«XV. THE HISTORY OF THUCYDIDES. 333

attempts, was abolished. As far as regards Thasus, therefore,
the contrary took place to what the Athenians thought, who
established the oligarchy, as also was the case in many of the
subject states. For the cities having now conceived prudence,
and a fearlessness ^>out their proceedings, made for direct
liberty, not caring a whit for that hollow shadow of indepen-
dence ^ they had enjoyed under the Athenians.

LXV. As to Pisander and his colleagues, they, as they
coasted along, abolished (as had been determined) every
where democracy in the cities, and, moreover, taking from
some places heavy-armed as auxiliaries to them, they came
with them to Athens. There they found most part of their
business done by their friends. For one Androcles, a prin-
cipal supporter of democracy, and one who had a chief hand
in banishing Alcibiades, certain of the younger ones, uniting
together, had privily assassinated. Him they were the rather
induced to destroy, on two accounts ; for his iufluence with
the people, and as thinking that they should thus gratify
Alcibiades, as if he would return from banishment and
procure them the friendship of Tissaphernes. Some others,
too, who were un&vourable to their cause ^ they in the same
manner privily made away with. An oration ^ moreover,
for public delivery had been previously prepared by them, in
which it was said that ^ no others ought to receive pay but such
as were engaged in military service, nor ought the manage-
ment of affairs to be participated by more than five thousand,
and those such purses and persons as could best serve the
state."



3 Shadow of independence.] I here read, from niajw MSS. and the
editions of Bekker^ Duker, and Groeller, aifropofiiay. The ^wovKov is ill
rendered by Hobbes " outside,** and by Smith ** precarious/' The term is
properly applied to flesh which is hollow, having an ulcer underneath, and
therefore unsound at the bottom. Hence it comes to mean deceit/td, falser
&c. Goeller refers to Wyttenb. on Plut. Morel. 1,292. and 2, 169.

• Unfavourable to their catue,'\ Such seems to be ' the sense of &viiriTri~
dtiovct and not that assigned to it by the translators. If lirirnhtoc signifies
friendly, favourable^ why should not avnrtr^J. have the contrary sense ? ^

^ An oration.] Hiis was meant to make known the change of constitu-
tion which they had before hinted at.



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834 THE HISTORY OF THUCYDIDCS. BOOK VltX.'

LXVI. This, too, wore a specious show with the many,
since those who should change the form of the state were to
administer it^ The public assembly, however, and the
council of ballot ^ still met together ; but they deliberated on
nothing except what was approved by the cabal ; nay, even
the speakers were of that number, and what was to be said
had been previously considered by them. No one of thf rest
any longer ventured at opposition, through fear, and seeing
the combination to be great If, however, any one did con-
tradict, he was immediately made away with ^ in some op-
portune manner ; and there was no inquisition after the per-
petrators, nor, if any were suspected, was there any judicial
process; yet the people kept quiet, and were in such con-
sternation that he who suffered no violence, even though he
was silent, thought himself fortunate; and, imagining the
association much more numerous than it was, they cowered in
their minds, and were unable to fathom its extent, by reason
of the greatness of the city, and their ignorance of each
other.* On thb very account, too, it was impossible for any
who felt indignation to bewail himself to another ^, and thus
contrive for mutual defence ; for either he would have had to
find a stranger to speak to, or, if one known, yet unworthy of

1 Since those who thottld, ^c.] A very different sense is assigned by
Mitford and others; but it has been shown by Krueger that that cannot be
tolerated. The words, indeed, will not admit any other than that above
expressed, and which is confirmed by Portus and Hobbes. Goeller truly
remarks that ififXKov must be taken twice, at 'iUiv, and at fit^iardvau "Exhv
ri)v irSXiv stands for oIkhv rtjv -ttoXip.

« Council of ballot,] Namely, the Senate of Five Hundred, elected
by ballot, or the bean: a mode of election adopted among magistrates as
well as senators. See Potter and the other writers on Grecian antiquities.

s He wot immediately made utith, ^rc] It may truly be said, with Mitford,
that the means employed by the oligarchical party were such as do no
honour to the Athenian character. In fact, the following finely-drawn pic-
ture would be no ill representation of the state of things at Paris during the
French revolution ; periods which show human nature in its worst character
and most disgusting traits.

4 And imagining the astocialion, 4"^.] Mitford well paraphrases thus:
^ The friends of aemocracy, without equal union among themselves, igno-
rant of the numbera of the oligarchical partv, and supposing them much
greater than they really were, scarcely dared complain of enormities prac-
tised ; every one thinking himself fortunate if, with the utmost caution to
avoid offending, he avoided suffering."

ft To bewail himself to another.] Bekker aptly compares Horat. Ep. 2, 1 2.
querebar appiorant tibi.



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CHAP. LXYII. THE HISTORY OF THUCYDIDES. 385

confidence (for all the friends of democracy approached each
other with suspicion ), as one who participated in what was going
in. For, indeed, there were such among them as no one would
have thought would ever have gone over to the oligarchy.
And those occasioned the greatest distrust amongst the many,
and, by confirming their self-distrust, promoted the security of
thefem.

LXVII. At this crisis, then, Pisander and his colleagues
arriving, immediately applied themselves to the accomplish-
ment of the remainder of the business. And first convening
the people, they gave their opinion, that ten persons should
be chosen as secretaries % with absolute power, and that those
should write down their mind as to the form of government
which should be best for the state, and present it to the people
on an appointed day. Afterwards, when the day arrived,
they convened the assembly to Colonus.* Now this is a
temple of Poseidon outside of the city, and distant about ten
stadia.^ And the secretaries brought forward nothing else
but this, ^^ that it should be lawful for any Athenian to deliver
whatever opinion he might choose; and that if any should
either impeach the speaker of breach of the law ^, or in any
other way injure him, they denounced heavy punishments."
And now it was in plain terms proposed 'Hhat there should be



» Secretariet.] We have no term which exactly corresponds to Kvyypa"
^ac. These persons are supposed by the commentators to have had the
power of preparing drnfb of laws to be proposed to the people, and there-
fore (as doubtless being good jurists) were thought proper persons to form a
project for a new constitution. By the lexicoprapners we find that these
were also called vpoiovXci and icaroXoyac, plainly from the kind of duties
they had to perform. They also speak of thirtt/; but, as Goeller remarks,
the number may have varied at different times.

« Colonut.] Hudson remarks that the ordinary places of assembly were
the agora, tne pryx, and the temple of Bacchus ; the extraordinary, the
Piraeeus, the Colonus, and Munychia.

s Ten ttadia.] Meursius, for dtxA^ would read ^ (i. e. four) : but the con-
jecture is unnecessary. See Poppo Proleg. 3, 255. and Elmsley on Soph.
CEd. col. init.

♦ Impeach the speaker of breach of the law.] For it is remarked by Hack,
from Wolf's Proleg. pn Demosth., that whoever proposed a law repugnant
to any former one, even in part or in some head, was liable to a ypa^r^ Tra-
pav6ini>v, or indictment for breach of law, which any one who chose might
bring forward within one year. See Schoemann de Comit. p. 170., referred
to by Krueger.



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336 THE HISTORY OF THUCYDIDEfiU BOOK VIII«

no longer any magistracy of the same form» nor any receiving
of emolument therefrom ; also, that they should choose five
persons as Proedri, and those choose one hundred others, and
each of the hundred take unto himself three more. More-
over, that these four hundred should go into the council
chamber, and have absolute power to govern as they judged
best, and to assemble the five hundred ^ when they thought
good." ^

LXVIII. The proposer of this motion was PisanderS
who also was he who manifesdy took the most active part in
abolishing democracy. He, however, who contrived the
whole business, and how it was to be brought about, and
who had for a long time given his attention to it, was Antipho \
a man for virtue second to none of the Athenians of his time,
the ablest, too, both in profundity of thought, and in the
feculty of expressing his conceptions in words ^ ; one who,
indeed, came not forward to the assemblies of the people, nor



Online LibraryThucydidesThe History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war → online text (page 42 of 59)