The History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war online

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Online LibraryThucydidesThe History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war → online text (page 44 of 59)
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Athenians at home) kept themselves masters of the entrance
to the Pirseeus ; and now they would be brought to that pass,
unless they would choose to give them back the constitution ;
and that themselves were better able to exclude those from
the use of the sea than to be excluded by them. That the
assistance which the city rendered them towards overcoming
the enemy was trifling, and not worth mentioning ; and that
they (i.e. those of Samos) had lost nothing, since they (i.e. those
at Athens) had no more money to send them (but the soldiers
had to provide it for themselves), nor wholesome counsel, for
which a state exercises command over armies. Nay, that in

1 Held an aisembly,] Thus taking upon themselves to be the common-

9 Deposed the former eommanders,'] Not, it seems, thinking them suffi-
ciently zealous ; for they appear to have been moderate men.

3 Better provided.] The word vSpiftoc is rare, but it occurs in iEschyl.
Eum. and Aristophanes. See Dr. Blomfield on iEschyL P. V. 939.

* Equally as if they ^ 4-c.l This alludes to the squadrons sent to collect
the tribute, &c. fh>ra the allies.

* They were resisting^ ^c] Hobbes, " that the seat of war was the same
as before."

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this respect those had erred, by abrogating the laws of their
country, while they preserved them, and would endeavour to
compel them to do the same. So that those in the camp
who should give counsel were not inferior to those in the
city. Also that Alcibiades would, if they should grant htm
security and safe return, gladly procure them the alliance of
the king. And what was most of all, if they should be
altogether unsuccessful in their attempt, to those possessed of
so powerful a navy there were numerous retreats and places of
refuge, in which they should find both cities and lands." ^

LXXVII. Having thus discussed a£&irs in the assembly,
and encouraged each other, they not the less vigorously set
about preparations for the war. As to the ten ambassadors
sent to Samos by the four hundred, they, on hearing of these
proceedings, while yet at Delus, kept quiet.

LXXVIII. About the same time also the Pelc^xxmesian
fleet at Miletus clamoured among themselves that affairs were
ruined by Astyochus and Tissaphernes ; the former being
neither heretofore willing to come to battle, while yet they
themselves were in full strength and the navy of the Athenians
inconsiderable, nor now, when they are said to be at &ction.

6 That there were numerous retreats^ S^c.'\ In the then thinly settled state
of some of the finest parts of what is now the dvilised world, opportunities
for colonisation abounded, and were always looked to with hope by the
oppressed or unfortunate at home, whether states or individuals. It was this
sort of feeling that wrung from Johnson the fine apostrophe in his *^ Lon-
don" (170):—

<' Has Heaven reserved, in pity to the poor.
No pathless waste or undiscover'd shore ?
No secret island in the boundless main ?
No peacefiil desert yet unclaim*d by Spain ?
Quick let us rise, the happy seats explore.
And bear oppression's insolence no more ! *'

Goeller remarks that this whole passage, expressed m oratione obUgua,
contains (like many others) the seeds of orations, which were intended to be
worked up in that form when the whole was completed. A remark, indeed,
very applicable to this ei^th book, which manifestly appears to have been
\eii in a very rough and incomplete state. But there are many sueh indi-
rect passages, containing the germ of orations, in all parts of the history ^
and those may be regaraed as the most difficult, and certainly least attrac-
tive parts.

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and their ships are not yet brought together; but, waiting for
the Phceniciao ships from Tissapherne^ a mere name ^, and
nothing real, they are in danger of being ruined by procrastina-
tion ^ : also that Tissaphemesj by not bringing up the ships, and
by not giving out the pay regularly nor in full, is spoiling the
navy. Therefore, they said, they ought no longer to procras-
tinate, but to hazard a baUle. In this meeting the Syracusans
were the chief instigators.

LXXIX. And now the allies and Astyochus having heard
of this murmuring, and it being in council determined to
come to battle, especially after they had received intelligence
of the tumult at Samos, weighed anchor with all their ships,
to the niunber of one hundred and twelve ; and having ordered
the Milesians to go by land to Mycale, they proceeded to the
same place by sea. Tlie Athenians, with the eighty ships
from Samos, which happened to be riding at anchor at Glauce
near Mycale (Samos being there but a little distance^ from
the continent, fronting Mycale), as soon as they saw the Pelo-
ponnesian ships making sail towards them, retreated t6 Samos ;
not conceiving themselves to be in sufficient strength to hazard
the event of battle ; and moreover (though they saw that those
from Miletus were desirous to fight), they were expecting
Strombichides, from the Hellespont, to come to their assist-
ance with the ships which had gone from Chios to Abydos,
for a message had been before despatched to him to that
effect ; and thus these retreated to Samos : while the Pelopon-
nesians, making port at Mycale, there encamped, as did the

» A mere name.] Or, as we say, iham. Krueger compares, from Plato,
mvTo klvtu n6vov 6vofia, ry? ^ tpy(i»9 &c. This use of dXXvg it remarkable :
it is said by Goeiier to stand for non nisi. Indeed, it almost becomes an
adjective. Toup on Longinus compares Aristid. 1, 135. 6vofia dXKug SpTag,
and 2, 502. dWutg ovo^ia. To which may be added Eurip. Troad. 476. Philo
Jud. p. 541. iLpt^fiov &\KiitQ, Dio Cass. 1101,58. icaXXbiTrKT/ia oKXiag fjv.

« Knined by procrastinaHon,] Such seems to be the sense, which is that
assigned by the Scholiast, Hesychius, Duker, and others. To the single
example from Thucyd. 8, 87. of this extraordinary use of the word, may be
added Herod. 7, 120. Siarpitripai, where, had Wasse remarked this passage
of Thucydides, he would have seen that the var. lect. ixTpifi. is a mere gloss,
or a napaSiop^iaffig.

3 LUtle dittance.] Only about three or four miles, being separated by
what b now called the Little Boccaze, or channel.

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land forces of the Milesians and the neighbouring people ;
and on the day following, as they were about to make sail for
Samos, news reached them of the arrival of Strombichides
with the fleet from the Hellespont, wherefore they immediately
sailed away to Miletus.

And now the Athenians, on the accession of this fleet,
themselves make sail to Miletus w^ith one hundred and eight
ships, meaning to come to an engagement. But when no force
came out against them, they sailed away back to Samos.

LXXX. Immediately after this, the same summer, the
Peloponnesians, after they had reftised to go forth to meet
the enemy, as thinking themselves, even in ftiU force \ not a
match for them, being in great straits whence they should
procure money for so many ships, especially as Tissaphernes
supplied the pay irregularly ; they, therefore, send Clearchus
son of Ramphius, with forty ships, to Phamabazus, agreeably
to the "order at first received from Peloponnesus. Indeed,
Pharnabazus had sent for them, and was ready to furnish
them with support; and, moreover, Byzantium had sent a
message to them respecting a revolt Then those ships of the
Peloponnesians having put out into the main sea, that they
might escape the notice of the Athenians on the voyage,
were tempest*tossed, and some (the greater part) with Cle-
archus having reached Delos, afterwards come back to
Miletus (Clearchus, however, again going thence to the
Hellespont by land, as being appointed governor there),
while the rest, under the command .of Elixus, the Megaraean,
ten in number, having arrived in safety at the Hellespont,
bring over Byzantium to revolt.-*

After this, those of Samos hearing of it, send a reinforce-
ment of ships and a force for garrison to the Hellespont; and

» In full force.] I a^ee with Valla, Heilman, and Krueger, that A^pdaig
raXe vavtriv should be joined with d^iSfiaxoi, not with iLvravdyovro, as Portus
and others take it.

^ Were tempett-tosted, and some, Sfc ] Such seems to be the sense of the
contort and perplexed words of the original. Krueger is of opinion that
there is some corruption; Goeller thinks not. There may possibly be a
lacuna after MiX^rov : but probably this is one of those many passages of the
present book which never receivea the author's last hand.

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. -» :■?</"",-.


there occurred a petty sea*fight off Byzantium with eight ships
to eight

LXXXI. And now those who were in authority at Samos,
and particularly Thrasybulus, who had ever (especially since
he had effected the change of government) adhered to the
same opinion, that Alcibiades should be recalled, and at last
had, in an assembly, persuaded the bulk of the soldiers to
that measure; and they having decreed return and security
to Alcibiades, he went to Tissaphemes, and brought Alci-
biades to Samos, conceiving that it would be their own safety
if they could detach Tissaphernes from the Peloponnesians.
On an assembly being held, Alcibiades complained of and
bewailed the private calamity of his exile ; then dilating on
public affairs, he put them in no small hopes of the future,
and exaggeratingly set forth his own influence with Tissar-
phernes, in order that those who maintained the oligarchy at
home might stand in awe of him, and the combination be
dbsolved ; and that those in Samos might hold him in the
greater honour, and take the more courage; and, moreover,
that the enemy might feel the utmost hatred of Tissaphemes ^,
and be brought to abandon the hopes they entertained. Alci-
biades, therefore, with a great parade of words, undertook to
say, ^^ that Tissaphernes had solemnly engaged to him that as
long as he had any thing left, if he could but trust the Athe-
nians, they should never want for support, no not if he were
driven to sell his last couch ^ ; also, that he would bring up the
Phoenician ships now at Aspendus for the Athenians^ and not
the Peloponnesians ; and that he would place reliance only on

» Feel the vtmoii hatred of Tissaphemes.] Such Hack has shown to be
the sense, by a comparison of a kincfred passage at c. 83. See his note.

4 Sell his last couch.] This was quite in the hyperbolical style of the
East. There is something very similar in the following passages: Xen.
Anab. 7, 5, 5. kuI vpoadaptiffdfitvoi:, tl fit) y 4XX«c idvvuy icai dTrocSfitvoc rd
ffavTov IfAdTuu and Hist. 5, 3. where Cyrus says, idv dk Kal ravra IrXiVy, roi
rbv ^pSvov KaroKS^iv, i^* ^ iKi^tiro, tvra apyvpovv Kai Kpvaovp. Themist.
309. C. Kai TOi Td xpntiaTa yt AfiKSfUVOv, koI tAc vavc, ««» 'roi>s trrparwrag,
Koivt) liiayi tov x^rtart/a rbv rtXcwraiov. Aristoph. Lysist. 114. iyw Bk y Av,
Khv fu xP^iri ToioyKVKXov Tovri Kara^iitfav, &c. Diog. Laert. 6, 87. i^apyvpt-.
ada^ai r7)v owrtav. Isaeus p. 55, 21. oUov — ^ioX«Xe«oc, jcoi iKapyvpwdiuvo^
irtviav 6dvpy, *E^apyvp6w signifies, as we say, to turn into money.

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the Atheniaiis on condition that he (Alcibiades) should re-
turn, and would be bound for them.

LXXXII. On hearing these and many other such speeches,
they immediately chose him commander, conjointly with the
former ones, and committed all afiairs to his management^
Indeed, their present hope of preservation, and being avenged
on the four hundred, not a man would have bartered for any
price; and they were now ready, from their exultation at
these speeches, to hold in contempt their present enemies, and
sail for the Piraeus. Their going, however, to Piraeus, to the
abandonment of their nearer enemies, though many urged it,
be wholly forbade ; but, he said, *^ since he had been chosen
commander in chief, he would first go to Tissaphernes, and
manage the business of the war.'' And from this assembly he
immediately set out thither, in order that he might seem to
communicate every thing with him; moreover, as wishing
to be of greater consequence in his eyes, and to show that
be was now chosen commander, and was able to do him
both good and evil.''' Thus it happened that Alcibiades
kept the Athenians in awe by the means of Tissaphernes, and
Tissaphernes by them.

LXXXIII. But the Peloponnesians at Miletus, on hearing
of the return of Alcibiades, and having before distrusted
Tissaphernes, were now much more filled with hatred at
him. For it had happened that, when, at the cruize ^ of the
Athenians to Miletus, they were unwilling to put to sea and
fight them, Tissaphernes became yet more slack in the dis-

1 Commuted all affairt to kis managemenL'] Somethiog u left to be underw
stood at AvtriJ^fffav, Almost all translators seem to supply airoie : but
Smith rightly understands ainfif which is confirmed by the opinion of
Goellex, who aptly compares a kindred passage at 1. 2,65. ffrpoT^ybv ilXovro
Kcd wdvra rd irpdyfiara Mrpt^atf^

Krueger remarks that such an one was called aitroKp^T^ : and he refers
to Pausan. 4, 15, 9. Xen. Hist. 1, 4, s. and Schcemann de Com. Ath. p. 314.

^ Able to do him boik good and evil,] L e. could either be a valuable friend
or a formidable foe. This was a sort of proverbial expression, of which I
shall adduce many examples in my edition.

^ At the crtme,} I here read, from the conjecture of Goellcr, for Kal
r6y, Korii r6v.

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charge of the pay, and thus in addition to his being, before
this, hated by them on account of Akibiades, be became the
object of greater enmity*^ Then the soldiers, forming them-
selves into chistevs, enumerated their grieTances, as they had
before done ; and certain others, even men of consequence,
and not private soldiers alone^ recounted that '^ they had never
yet received full pay ; that the rate given was but scanty, nor
yet regularly paid In short, that unless they were led to
battle or taken where they might have suf^rt, the men would
abandon the ships; and that of all this Astyochus was the
cause, who, tor private lucre, accommodated himself to the
humour of Tissaphemes." ^

LXXXIV. Whilst they were thus recounting their griev-
ances, it fell out that a tumult on the following account arose
about Astyochus. The Syracusans and Thurians, inasmuch
as they consisted chiefly of freemen \ so they with the most
daring importunity demanded their wages. Whereupon he
answered them somewhat haughtily, and even threatened
Dorieus ^ who was pleading for his own sailors, and lifted up

4 Far U had happened, 4^^.] 1 know not how better to represent the per-
plexed sentence of the original, in which there is an anacoluthon.

ft Accommodated himself, ^c] '£iri^<f>ovra dpydc Ttaoa^ipvm The Scho-
liast has here well explained the sense, of which the following are examples:
Dionys. Hal. Ant. 507,59. and 434,11. Eucip. Bacch. 1301. 6pydc irpiirei
Okovg ovx 6fioiova^ai fiporoic, .£schyl. Eum. 846. 6pydg Kwoiffut aoi' ytpavrkpa
yap cT. So the Latin obtemperare is well expluncd by Facciolati ad alterius
volurUatem me iemperare.

> Consisted chiefly of freemen^ Such seems to be the true sense of the
awkward words of the original, of which the versions are not satisfactory,
and on which the commentators are silent Why there should haye been
less than the usual proportion of slaves, may have been from the populous-
ness of Sicily. For the same reason, Attica being a very small country, and
the population little in comparison with its conseouence, a considerable
number of slaves was fUways employed on board tne Athenian ships, and
conse^ently, for security, were (as we have before seen) kept in chains.
Thus It would happen that the Syracusans and Thurians sending forth far
more seamen than the usual proportion, would have a greater weight in
popular debates.

< Dorieus^ Namely, the commander of the Thurian squadron. A^de
supra, c. ZS. The Scholiast (as Krueger remarks) does not take Dorieus for
Hermocraies (as some have thought), but only notices a var. lect This,
doubtless, was written in the margm by some one who wondered that Her-
mocrates was not mentioned, and therefore conjectured Hermocrates fbr
Dorieus, but very injudiciously ; for it is probable that Hermocrates was
not then there, or, at least, was out of office; for we find by what just

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his truncheon ^ at him. On seeing which, the military mul-
titude, seamen-like, shouting aloud % rushed upon Astyochus
to slay him. But he, foreseeing their purpose, takes refuge at
an altar.^ The Milesians also suddenly attacked and took
the fort ^ built at Miletus by Tissaphemes, and ejected the
garrison therein. This met the approbation of the rest of the
allies, and especially of the Syracusans. Lichas, however,
was not pleased therewith, and said that the Milesians and
the rest of those in the king's dominions ought to be subject
to Tissaphemes, and render him respect in all things reason-
able, until the war should be successfully terminated. But
the Milesians were incensed at him for this, and such like
speeches, and on his dying soon after of sickness, would not
sufier him to be buried where the Lacedaemonians present

LXXXV. When affiurs were in this state of dissension,
both as r^arded Astyochus and Tissaphemes, Mindarus
came up from Lacedsemon, as successor to Astyochus in the
naval command, and assumes the government, and Astyochus
sailed away; with whom Tissaphemes sent as ambassador
one of his courtiers, Gaulites by name, a Cari^, who could

afterwards follows, that, he had been already superseded by an order from

s lyuncheon.] Not tHck, as Mitford renders. From the well-known
anecdote of Eurybiades, and from what Hudson has collected, it appears
that the Ijocediunumian generals bore sticks or truncheons ; from whom it
passed to the Romans, and thus to the modems. But whether it was usual
with the other Greeks, Goeller professes doubt ; and, indeed, I am not
aware of any proof to Uiat effect.

4 Shouting aloud.] For thb seamen haye in all ages been distinguished.
Most of my readers will here bring to mind Horace's humorous account of
his voyage to Brundusiura.

» Altar, 'I Not, I conceive, one at any temple, but probably the domestic
larula in the hall.

« The fort.] Of this Thucydides has 8»d nothing before. We may,
however, p;ather from the present passage that Tissaphemes had taken this
measure tor securing his authority at Miletus ; ana though the Milesians
had not, in their necessity, made any opposition to thb, yet at len^,
indignant at this badge of servitude, and encouraged by the increasing
discontent against Tissaphemes, they ventured on this step.

7 Where 3ie Laced^Bmomaru present tMted.] Namely, we may suppose,
10 some conspicuous place of the city, as was the case with Brasidas.

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speak both languages \ in order to accuse the Milesians in-
the affair of the fort, and also to apologize concerning him-
self; knowing that the Milesians had gone thither for the
especial purpose of exclaiming against him, and Hermocrates
with them, who was prepared to represent that Tlssaphemes.
was ruining the afiairs of the Lacedaemonians, in conjunction;
with Alcibiades, and was plajdng a double game, and dealing
with both parties. Indeed, be had been continually at enmity
with him, on account of the payment of the wages; and at
last, on Hermocrates being banished from Syracuse, and
others of the Syracusans (Potamis, Myscon, and Demarchus,)
come to Miletus to take the command of the fleet, Tissaphemes
then inveighed yet more bitterly against Hermocrates (then
become a fugitive), and, among other offences, accused him of
this ; that on once asking him for money, and not obtaining
his request, he conceived an enmity against him. Astyochus,
then, and the Milesians and Hermocrates sailed away for
Lacedsemon, while Alcibiades passed over again from Tissa-
phemes to Samos.

LXXXVL And now the ambassadors from the four
hundred at Delos, whom they had sent to soothe and inform
those at Samos, arrive while Alcibiades is present, and an
assembly being called, they attempted to speak; but the
soldiers at first would not hear them, but shouted Out, << Kill
those destroyers of popular government ! " Afterwards, how-
ever, being with difiiculty quieted, they gave them a hearing.
They then delivered this message, " that it was not for the
destruction of the state that the change was made, but for its
preservation, and that it might not be delivered up to the
enemy. For that was in their power when the enemy had
lately, during their government, made an invasion. That all
of the five thousand should participate in the government in
turn ; that their relations were not insulted, as Chareas had

» Soih languagei,'\ i. e. Grecian and Persian. Now, the Carians werq
celebrated for their knowledge of both these languages. Thus Valckn. on
Herod. 8, 133. observes that Mardonius sent a Carian to consult the Greek
oracles ; and Cyrus the younger employed Carians as interpreters ; and the
Persians used such at court in the same office. Similar persons, too» ther^
are in the present Turkish court, generally Greeks.

VOL. II r. A A

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calumnioasly reported, nor suffered any injury, but each re-
mained undisturbedly in possession of his own.'' Notwith-
standing, however, this, and more that they said, the others
would not the more hearken to them, but were still enraged,
and some declared one opinion, some another, but especially
that they should sail to Piraeus. Whereupon Alcibiades
showed himself then, for the first time, as the benefactor of the
state, and that in as great a d^ee as any one ever was ^ ; for the
Athenians at Samos being exceedingly bent on sailing against
themselves ^ at a time when the enemy would immediately have
possessed themselves of Ionia and the Hellespont, he was the
man that prevented it.^ For at that time no one would have
been able to restrmn the people ; whereas h^ made them desist
from the voyage, and by rebuking those persons that were
incensed at the ambassadors, he diverted them from their pur-
pose; and he himself sent them away with this answer : " That
the five thousand he would not hinder fi'om governing, but
the four hundred he desired them to dismbs, and establish the
council of five hundred as before. Further, if, firom a prin-
ciple of frugality, any expense had been retrenched, with a
view that the soldiery should be better paid, he gave the thing
entire commendation. He, moreover, bid them stand out, and
make no concessions to the enemy. For if the city were pre-
served, there was great hope that they would come to terms of
treaty with them; but if once either portion, the one at Samos,
or thei/i were worsted, there would be no longer aught left for
them to treat withal.'' There were also present some ambas-
sadors of the Argives, who engaged to give assistance to the
popular government at Samos. And Alcibiades, after com-
mending them, and telling them to be at hand when called
upon, so sent them away. The Argives came with the Para-

^ Alcibiadfi showed hhnself, 4^c.] Mitford thus paraphrases: ••Then
Alcibiades did his country a real service, and such a service that, perhaps,
no man ever did a greater.**

9 SaUing against themselves.'] A very significant and energetic expression,
to characterise the madness of such a step.

3 He was the man that prevented it.] The next sentence seems to have
reference to a clause omitted, namely, ** and he was the only one that could
have done so." Mitford well paraphrases thus : " No man but Alcibiades
was able to prevent this; and he did prevent it."

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lians, who being before appointed^ to serve in the truispoTt*-
trireme by the four hundred, and to cruize around Eubcsa,
and who, conveying the ambassadors of the Athenians sent to
Lacedasmcm by the four hundred, Lcespodias, Aristophon, and
Melesius, when they were sailing off the coast of Argos, seized

Online LibraryThucydidesThe History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war → online text (page 44 of 59)