The History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war online

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than the four hundred, let him set hb hand to the work.''
For notwithstanding what was doing, they veiled the thing
under the name of the Jive thousand, and did not plainly say
*^ whoever wishes for the saoereignty of the people,* fearing
lest they should be of the five thousand, and so by speaking
thus to any one, any one might injure the business through
ignorance. And for this reason the four hundred were neither
willing that the five thousand should exist, nor have it appear
that they existed not, thinking that to make so many partici-
pators of the government were an utter democracy; while, on
the other hand, to have it uncertain would create a fear one
of another.

XCIII. On the day following, the four hundred, though
in some perturbation, assembled at the council-hall. As to
the soldiers in the Pireeeus, having dismissed Alexicles,
whom they had apprehended, and demolished the fortification,
they went to the temple of Dionysius, and in the Piraeeus,
near Munychia ^, and making their camp [or place d'armes]

9 With the tnuUUude,] I have here followed the common readins rtf
yrXfi^Ei : but it may be questioned whether that of three MSS., the Scholiast,
and Valla, ry AXtj^tX, be not preferable. And this has been approved by
Duker, and edited by Haack, who, however, is not justified in denying that
the common reading yields any good sense. If it be joined, as it ought,
with kxaXiircuvov, it will yield a very good sense. The other reading, how-
ever, is strongly confirmed by the preceding difiicult phrase otrov dwd /3o^c
HviKOf of which it will be in some measure exegetical.

1 7%tf iem^ of Dionj/sius, j-c] I have here followed the text of several
excellent MSS., in which the words t6 Iv IltipauX are inserted. Those words
arc not admitted into the text by Bekker and Goeller ; but they are ap-

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there ^, held an assembly ^, and agreeably to the resolution
there made, marched straight to the city, and took post in the
Anac^um.* Thither to them went certain persons chosen *
by the four hundred, and conversed with them man to man,
endeavouring to persuade such as they saw were worthy and
respectable ^ both to be themselves quiet, and to restrain the
rest; telling them that they would both proclaim the five
thousand, and that out of those the four hundred should be
appointed in turn, in such way ^ as should seem good to the
five thousand ; but in the mean time ^ bidding them not to niin
the city, nor hurl it into the hands of the enemy. And now
the general body of the soldiers, after many words had pro-
proved by Porson ap. Kidd. Anecd. p. 263. Schoemann admits that the
\7ords might be tolerated, if it were certain that this was the same theatre
with that mentioned a little before ; and that it was the same, is maintained
by Spanheim, Wyttenbach, Schneider, and Krueger. That there was a
theatre of Dionysius at Pirseeus, is certain from various passages of Xeno-
phon and Lysias. Poppo and Goeller remark that the question is, whether
Doth Munychia and Pirseus had their respective theatres, or whether there
was but one, so situated that it was sometimes reckoned to one, and some-
times to the other. Krueger, indeed, maintains that Munychia was a part
of Pirseeus. On which Goeller remarks, that thus there would have been
no need of the addUanientuni in question. But though Munychia might be
in the district, or, as we say, liberty, of Pirseeus, yet it was doubtless spoken
of separately, as is Scotlandy though a part of England. Besides, the words
have no character of an addUametUum : the frpo^ ty Mov»a;xiV have much
more that appearance : they seem to have been added by way of precision.
And it is not improbable that there was another temple of Dionysius at
Pirseus, in another part of the town.

« Making their camp.] See note on 1. 2, 2.

3 Held an assembly.] I here read, from one MS., i^eKXtiffiatrav, which is
approved by Matthias, Buttman, and Krueger, and edited by Bekker and
Goeller : indeed, I had myself conjectured the same very many years ago.
Schoemann, however, and Schneider, defend the common reading. They
say that ilfKKKtimal^Hv signifies to hold an assembly out of the usual place :
but such a sense would here be very harsh and frigid.

-♦ Anac^um.] This was a temple of the Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux), not
far from the Prytaneum and the chapel of Aglaurus ; and, therefore, it
seems to have been adjacent to the citadel. (Poppo.)

* Chosen,] Or, as a sort of committee.

6 Worthy and respectable,] Hobbes renders " the mildest ; " but the word
i^ictjn)c> in Attic Ureek, often signifies moderate^ worthy, and sometimes
respectable. So Gregorinus de dialectis p. 246. sajrs t6 ii fdrpiov koI KaXdg
ixov iiruucktrrarov ^aei. And the Scholiast on Lucian t. 2, 737. explains rb
IvuuckQ by rbv rpbirov iya^bv, rd (rvfintTpov^ rb irdw, and Xen. Hist. 1, 1,
21. TobQ iwuucttrroLTOVQ r&v rpiTjpapx&v,

7 In such way,] Mitford paraphrases : «* It should be for the five thou-
sand to decide the kind of rotation, and the mode of election, by which
their successors should be appointed."

• In the mean time.] This sense of rlctff occurs also at 1. 6, 61.

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ceeded from many to many, was become more tractable than
before, and was in alarm chiefly for the safety of the com-
monwealth at large. They therefore consented that an
assembly should be held on an appointed day in the temple of
Dionysius ^, to treat of a reconciliation.

XCIV. When the time for the assembly in the temple of
Dionysius had come, and the people were almost congregated,
news arrives ^' that the two and fifty ships under Agesandridas
are standing over from Megara along the coast of Salamis.''
And now every one of the great body of the people, and those
disposed to democracy S conceived that this was what had
been already spoken of by Theramenes and his party, that
the ships were sailing to the fortification, and that it was well
the place had been demolished. But Agesandridas, as
perhaps had been previously concerted, turned off to Epidau-
rus, and the parts thereabout ; though it is probable, that on
the present faction subsisting among the Athenians, he stayed^
hovering about, in hopes that he might find a convenient op^
portunity for coming up.

On the contrary, the Athenians, as soon as the news reached
them, immediately marched at full run to the Pirseeus, with all
their forces, considering that their domestic quarrel was of in-
ferior moment ^ to war from the enemy, and that not remote,

9 Temple of Dionysius.] Not, it should seem, that before mentioned,
but one m the city, which Poppo thinks is to be sought for near the citadel,
where also was the council-hall and Prytaneuni. The council-hall, Goeiler
remarks, was certainly in the agora, or forum ; and the Prytaneum was
situated not far from the east angle of the citadel.

> IVie great body of the people^ and those, ^c] Such seems to be the full
sense of run/ TroXXiuv : which reading (instead of o^Xir^v) is, with reason,
edited by Bekker and Goeiler.

« Stayed^ A very rare signification, of which I have noted one example
in Xen. Hist. 1, 6, 14. lijv ovv i'lynpav ovria dvttxov. This seems, even by its
present use, to have been a phrase of nautical application; which is, indeed,
placed beyond doubt by Plutarch ap. Steph. Thes. dviixt rdc fctvrov vovc.

3 Of inferior moment.] Such is plainly the sense ; but it is admitted that
something is wrong in the text. Duker thinks an ov has slipped out after
iroXkfiov I others suppose an ellipsis of ov : others, again, would cancel d,
or transpose the words ; and, finally, Dorville would read uccovoc, which I
also myself long ago conjectured. And either this method, or that of
Duker, may be adopted : tne others are too bold. As to the ellipsis of oir,
that is a principle very precarious and unsound, and now fdroost wholly
exploded in criticism.

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but at the port And some of them embarked on board the
ships at hand) while others lamiched off the rest ; and others,
again, went to give succour at the walls and the mouth of the

XCV. But the Peloponnesian ships having sailed along the
coast [of Attical and doubled Sunium, came to anchor be-
tween Thoricus and Prasias S and afterwards arrived at

And now the Athenians being compelled, in all haste, to use
raw and unexercised ^ forces, inasmuch as the city was at fac-
tion, and they were anxious, as speedily as possible, to give
aid, for the preservation of their greatest stake (for, blocked up
as Attica was, Euboea was every thing to them ^), they send
ships, under the command of Thymocharis, to Eretria. These,
on their arrival, made up, when added to those already in
Euboea, thirty-six sail. And they were immediately com-^
pelled to come to battle ; for Agesandridas, after having dined,
drew hb ships out from Oropus. Now the dbtance of Oro-
pus from the city of Eretria is about sixty stadia of sea. The
Athenians, then, on his making sail upon them, immediately
manned their ships, thinking that their forces were near the
ships. But they happened not to have provided themselves
with any dinner from the market, for nothing was found on
sale ^, but had to be sought for from the farthest quarters of
the city *, and that by the previous contrivance of the Ere-
trians, in order that the crews being long in getting on board,
the enemy might fall upon the Athenians before they were

1 Between Thoricus and Prasus.] Perhaps, at an inlet called Potamos,
now Dascali. Thoricus yet nearly retains its name in Therico.

^ Raw and unexercised,] Such is the sense of a^vyicpor^rocc (and not
that assigned by the Scholiast, ready). Thus Goeller cites from Lucian
t. 6, 527. IfTTToc (TvyKiKpoTfiftivfi. To which it may be added, that Plato in
Crit. 24. uses ovyKporiia in the sense to exercise and prepare by instrucHon,

s Was every thins to them,] Sec the learned note of Duker on the phrase
irdvra cTvoc. I shall have much to add in my edition.

< Nothing was found on sale.] i. e. no provisions were found in the
market. That they should not have provisions from Athens sufficient for
at least two or three days, is amazing. It is truly observed by Mitford,
" that among the numerous proofs in hbtory of the great defects in the
antient system of naval war, this is not the least remarkable."

* From the farthest quarters of the city.] i. e. up and down, at private
houses, such as had any provisions to spare.

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ready, and compel them to put to sea just as it might happen.
A signal, too, was set up by those of Eretria towards Oropus,
at the time when they should weigh* The Athenians putting
to sea, after so insufficient a preparation, and coming to battle
before the port of the Eretrians, yet stood their ground some
little time ; then taking to flight, they were chased to the shore.
And such of them as took refuge at the city of the Eretrians,
as a friendly one, fared the worst, being butchered by them ;
while those who threw themselves into the fort at Eretria, which
was held by the Athenians, were saved, as also were such of
the ships as reached Chalcis. And the Peloponnesians, after
having taken twenty-two ships of the Athenians, whose crews
they partly put to death and partly made prisoners, set up a
trophy. Not long afterwards, having brought the whole of
Euboea to revolt, except Oreus (which the Athenians occu-
pied with their forces), they settled all the rest of the affairs
of the island at their discretion.

XCVI. And now, on the news respecting Euboea reaching
the Athenians, there was the greatest consternation among
them ever before known. For not even the calamity in Sicily,
great as it then seemed to be, nor any other affair that had yet
happened, so alarmed them. For, whereas the armament at
Samos was in rebellion, and no other ships being at hand, nor
any seamen to man them; themselves, too, being at faction, and
in uncertainty when they might engage in conflict with each
other, then such a calamity as this had befallen them, wherein
they had lost their fleet, and, what was most, Eubcea, from
which they were more beneflted than from Attica — how
then had they not reason to be dispirited ? But what gave
them the greatest and nearest alarm, was, lest the enemy
should, as victors, venture immediately to make sail to the
Piraeeus, empty as it was of ships. Nay, they imagined them
to be all but there already. And certainly that^ had they been
more adventurous, they might easily have done ; and then by
lying off the city, might either have thrown it into yet greater
dissension ; or, if they had remained and besieged it, they
would have compelled the fleet in Ionia, however hostile to
the oligarchy, to have come to the aid of their relations and

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the city at large ; meanwhile, the Hellespont would have been
theirs, and all Ionia, and the isles as far as Euboea, and, in a
manner, the whole of the Athenian dominion. But it was not
in this instance alone, but in many others, that the Lacedae-
monians showed themselves the most accommodating enemies
for the Athenians to encounter. For they were totally different
in disposition; the one being quick in action, the other tardy;
the one adventurous, the other timorous ; and thus the Lace-
daemonians gave therb great advantages, especially towards the
establishment of their maritime superiority. This was manifest
by the Syracusans ; for they, being most similar in disposition,
contested against them with the greatest success.

XCVII. However, on these tidings, the Athenians, not-
withstanding, equipped twenty ships, and convened an as-
sembly immediately at what is called the Pnyx * (or Pynx),
where they had been at other times accustomed to hold
them. At this meeting having deposed the four hundred, they
decreed to deliver up the government into the hands of the
five thousand. Of these were to be all such of them as fur-
nished arms.^ Also, that no one should enjoy any emolument
for any office, or otherwise they pronounced him accused.
There were afterwards, also, numerous other assemblies, at
which they appointed certain framers of laws, and enacted
other things concernmg the form of government And at that
time (first within my memory), the Athenians appear to have

• The Pnyx.] Or, as Bekker and Goeller edit, the Pynx ; which, too, is
thought to be countenanced bv the derivation from irvKvdQ, On this doubt-
ful, though unimportant, question, see Poppo Proleg. s. 2, 247. and the note
of Goeller. This place was situated near the Acropolis, and had been of
old a place of assembly, being appointed such by the laws of Solon.

1 Furnished arms,] i. e. contributed his service in full arms and armour;
which would be the case only with those who were above the lower ranks.
Krueger here aptly adduces the following important citation from Aristot.
Polit. 6, 4, 3. liTil rkrrapa fisv Iffri ^kpij lAaKiara tov wXri^ovc, ytMpyiKby,
pdvavffov ayopaioVy^iiTiK^, Tirrapa Sk rd XP'/<^*/*« '^P^ TroXefiov* iTriruriv,
bTrXiriKov, x^tXov, vavTuebv, '6irov fikv <TVfiU£tjK£ Tt^v x«p«v i\vat I'jrvdaifiov,
ivrav^a ^kv €V0vwc €x«* KaraffKivdKetv rrjv bXiyapxiav tj)v hxvpdv »/ yAp
autnjpia toIq oikov<tl Sui ravrriQ lari rijc ^vva/tiwc' at dk lirTroTpo<l>iat rwv
fiaKpag oiftriae KiKTrifJ^Viov dn'iv hirov H birUriv, rtjv Ixof^vrfv 6\iyapxiav rd
ydp oirXtTucbv rwv tvTzdpiov fuO^ov ^ rwv uTrdputv, i) 5k ^t\y) ^vvauiQ xai
vavriKt) SfjfioKpaTucii irdfiirav. He also refers to PoliU 2, 503. and Plato dq
Legg, P.75C.C.


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regulated tbeir government the best^ For there was then a
moderate admixture^ both with respect to the few and the
many.^ And this first, after so many past calamities, enabled
the city to raise its head. They decteed, moreover, the re-
call of Alcibiades, and the rest with him ; and sending to them
and to the army in Samos, exhorted them to strenuously apply
themselves to the business in hand.

XCVIII. Immediatdy after this change Pisander and
Alexides, and their partisans, and such as were the chief sup-
porters of oligarchy, steal oflf to Deoelea. Aristarchus alone
of them (for he chanced to be a commander of the troops^
taking in haste some archers of the most barbarous sort \
marched to OEnoe.* Now, this was a fort of the Athenians
on the borders of Boeotia, and there were now besieging it
(on account of the loss of men sustained by them in their re«
treat firom Decelea) some Corinthian volunteers, and Boeotians,
whom they had called to their assistance.^ Having concerted

s And at that fyne^tt^ S^o^ This is ft very remarkable passage, as show-
ing the author's opinion on the Athenian constitution more dearly than
any other. ^ In this concise eulo^/* Mitford remarks, *' is contained the
whole of the account gi^en by Thucydides of the form of government
established by Theramenes : and upon no occasion does he leave us so
much to r^et the want of explanation and detail. Upon no occasion,
however, do we see the historian more strongly marked as the true patriot
Frequently we find him reprobating the extravagancies of an unl)alanced
democracy so strongly, that we might suspect him of some partiality for
oligarchy. But here, as indeed throughout his account of tne ol^rchy
established by Pisander, he shows himself a decided enemy to tyranny in
every shape, and the warm partisan only of whatever government might
best secure universal freedom, through equal and well-supported law."

What would the great historian have said to our Brituh Corutituii(m,
in which there is just that moderate and attempered admixture of monarchy,
aristocracy, and democracy, which gives it all the peculiar advantages of
each form, and, by a happ;)r blending, merea$e$ each; and by iu tout
ememble, makes the constitution the adnmration of the civilised world.

* Archers of the most barbarous sort."] Namely, some Scythians; for
such were commonly in the pay of the Athenian garernment, both for civil
and military purposes.

5 (Enoe,] Now called Oyphto Castro.

« And there were now besieging it, ^c.] Such seems to be the true sense
of the perplexed sentence of the original, of which the following may be
the construction : oc ^i K. iTroXiSpKovv airb, iM^ovrffSbv irpoeKaXieavreg Tifi>C
B., hd ovu^opdv efunv yiyvoukvnv in ttiq Olvdtfc (wipi) Siafdof3&c &vtpi!nf i*
A. ivaxuifiovvTiav, I would further observe, that XvitfopAv is put for
iiaf^opdp, 'E^tKovrnSby must be taken with ci Kopiv^un, as the sense re-
quires. The expression seems to denote that the siege was a private and

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measures with them, Aristarchus deceives the gHrrisoD of
CEnoe, by telling them that the Athenians have come to treaty
with the Lacedaemonians on certain terms, and that they must
deliver up the place, for this was a condition. They yielding
credence to him, as a person invested with command, and
having no knowledge of what was going on by reason of being
besieged, evacuated the place under a safe conduct. And
CEnoe thus taken, was occupied by the Boeotians, and the
oligarchy and civil commotion at Athens ceased«

XCIX. About the same time this summer, the Pelopon-
nesians in Miletus, as none gave them their pay of those who were
appointed so to do by Tissaphemes when he went to Aspendus,
and when Philippus, who had been sent with him, and also
another person, one Hippocrates, a Spartan, who was at
Phaselus, had sent word to Mindarus that ^^ the ships are not
come, and they were totally deceived and wronged by Tis^
saphemes ;" since, also^ Phamabazus had sent for them, and
was ready (as well as TissapfaemesX on obtaming a fleet, to in-
duce the remaining cities of his own government to revolt from
the Athenians; underthese circumstances, and because he hoped
to get somewhat more of pay from Phamabazus ^ Mindarus,
{orders being suddenly issued, so that it might escape the
knowledge of the Athenians at Samos) with the utmost regu-
larity setting sail from Miletus with seventy-three «hips, took
his course for the Hellespont (whither sixteen ships had before
in the course of this summer also sailed, which were ravaging a
part of the Chersonesus). Being, however, tempest-tossed.

voluntary concern of the Corinthians, and not enjoined by the confederacy*
The vpoeirapoKakkifavrtQ of some MSS. (and which is edited by Bekker
and Goeller) is required by propriety of language.

It should 9eem by the expressions here used, that the loss spoken of had
been such as was usual, though probably, of late, more severe. Why tl»
loss should be especially on their retreat, may have been from thear
going to Decelea in large bodies together; but often returning, by furlough
or otherwise, in tmall parties, when they would be exposed to sallies from
the garrison of (Enoe, which scoured the country, , j m

' Hoped to get, <Jc.] 1 know not what other sense the words can wefl
have, though some translators render so as to apply the words to I'Aar^


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and compelled to put in at Icarus, after reniainirig there five
or six days, he arrives at Chios.

C. And now Thrasyllus, on learning his departure from
Miletus, himself immediately sailed from Samos with fifty-five
ships, hastening lest the enemy should arrive at the Hellespont
before him. But hearing that he was at Chios, and thinking
that he would stay there, he set a watch at Lesbos and the
continent opposite, that, if the ships should chance to stir, no
motion might escape observation, and he himself repaired to
Methymna * ; and ordered meal and other necessaries to be
provided^, in order that if the enemy should stay long, he
might make cruizes upon them from Lesbos. At the same time
he intended to go, and, if possible, take Eresus, for it had
revolted from Lesbos. Indeed, some fugitives of the Me-
thymnaeans and those of the most powerfiil, having brought
over from Cyme about fifty heavy-armed, as voluntary as-
sociates ^, and others hired from the continent, in all about
three hundred, who were commanded by Anaxarchus, the
Theban (on account of affinity ^), made an attack on Methymna
first, but were beaten off from the attempt, by means of
the Athenian garrison which proceeded against them from My-
tilene ; and again, in a battle outside of the city, being driven
off the field, and compelled to take their way across the moun->

> To Methymiia.\ This position was certainly most skilfully chosen, to
intercept the passage of the fleet.

* Ordered meal and other necessaries to be provided.] This is one of the
few places where any mention is made of victualling ships.

3 Voluntary associates^ Upoaeratpiffrovg, This is a very rare word ; it
occurs, however, in Dio Cass. 555, 20. Hence may be illustrated Lucian 1,
647, 57. iirei dk Toi^g ^patrvrdrovc irpofftraipovfiivos Kal ^opvip6povQ (Tvvayay^v,
The verb irpoasTaipkofiai, it may be observed, is scarcely found elsewhere.
npotTiTatpi^onai is used by the best writers.

*• On account of affinity.'] For the Thessalians were ^olians, and Thes-
salia was formerly called XIoXIq from iEolus, who there ruled. Some, before
the Trojan war, departing from hence, settled in Bceotia. Afterwards,
others, being expelled from Ame in Thessaly, occupied what was in process
of time called Bceotia. Hence arose this affinity of the Boeotians and Les-
bians. See Thuc. 1, 12. Eustath. on Homer Odyss. 9. p. 1644. Schol. Find.
Ol. 1, 164. Pyth. 2, 128. Nem. 4, 136. (Duker ap. Goeller.) To the above
references may be added, frogi Krueger, Herod. 1, 151. 6, 8. Diod. 5, 81.
Thuc. 3,2, Strab. 13,2. p. 136.

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tain^ they draw Eresus into revolt. Thrasyllus, therefore,
sailing against it with all the ships, intended to carry the
place by storm. But Thrasybuhis had arrived before him
with five ships with which he had set out from Samos, on the
news of the passage of the exiles having reached him. Being,
however, too late, he went and lay at anchor off Eresus.
There also arrived from the Hellespont some two ships ^ of
the Methymnaeans which were on their return home. And
the total number of ships present was. sixty-seven, with the

Online LibraryThucydidesThe History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war → online text (page 46 of 59)