Thucydides.

The History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war online

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Online LibraryThucydidesThe History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war → online text (page 49 of 59)
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state of things, Athens, instead of having the pre-eminence
among, had obtained the dominion or tyranny {rvpow/^a), over the
allies (1. 3, 57.), and was called ri/pawo^ »^Xk (1- 1, 122.)

This domination they endeavoured to preserve and amplify,
both by specious words and craft, and by open force, united with
the methods sedulity and severity. The specious argument,
urged by the Attic orators, was, that the rule they bore was due
to them for the unwearied activity they had shown in the Persian
war, and that the allies were not deserving of freedom, as having
carried on war against Greece with the Persians. (1. 6, 82 and
83. 1, 74- and 75.) In order to set their crime in a stronger
light, and show that themselves (i. e. the Athenians) had a right
over them, they spoke oi them as their colonies (1. 6, 82.), though
few of them were colonies of Athens. Again, they pretended that
they were every where the assertors of the lonians and popular
government, against the Dorians and the higher classes, although
the falsity of this pretence, as regarded the Chalcidaeans, is proved
by Hermocrates. (1. 4-, 61. 6, 76 and 79.) And, indeed, where their
orators hoped they could strike terror by a confident strain of
speakmg, they did not dissemble their views, but frankly avowed
that they acted on the customary principle, " that the weaker
must be governed by the stronger ;" they did not say their domi-
nation yvBSJusty since justice was to be preserved only amongst
equals, but that ** what the great demand the littie must concede."
(1. 5, 89.) Their seduUti/, or readiness to serve others, they
evinced from the assistance they always gave when called upon by



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398 STATE OF GREECE, CIVIL AND MILITARY,

any Greeks in distress. Thus despising quiet, they dedined no
labour to subjugate the free, and keep in check the subject states.
On this principle, they intermeddled in every aflair from which
they could derive benefit to themselves. Hence they formed a
treaty with the Corey raeans (1. 1, 32. )» though they received no
benefit from them ; with the Chalcidsans in Sicily, though never
assisted by them (1. 4-, 61.); nay, they went to the aid of the
Egestans, Barbarians, against the Selinuntians, though Grecians,
and though the former were the aggressors (1. 6, 1 1 and 1 3.) ; nay,
they brought assistance to those who never called them in. (1. 6,
87.) Their severiti/ appears from this, that even on bare suspicion
they demolished city walls, and demanded hostages, as in the case
of Potidaea (1. 1, 56.) and Chios (1.6, 51.) Tlie iEginetes, for a
similar suspicion, they expelled from the island (1. 2, 27.)> &^^ ^^
like manner the Delians (1.5, 1.), whom afterwards they were, by
the command of an oracle, to restore. (1. 5, 32. ) Defection they
punished with the utmost cruelty. ( See 1. 3, 56. 3, 50. 5, 32 and
116. 5,3. 3, 34. 6jM' 3,2.)

Since, therefore, they disdained no mode, however base, of
acquiring or preserving their empire, the number of their subject-
allies had become great. (See the table of the Athenian con-
federacy, paulo infr.)

Such an association would have been formidable indeed, if the
fidelity of the allies could have been relied on ; but, disgusted by
the pride of the Athenians, most of them seized occasions for re-
volting. Wherefore, before the Peloponnesians had broken out,
the Potidseans, Chalcidseans, and Bottiseans had revolted, of whom
the former scarcely, at a heavy expense, subdued in the second
year of the war (1. 2, 70.), and the rest never. In the fourth year
followed the Lesbian revolt, which was happily repressed. Four
years after, when Brasidas had gone to the Chalcidsans, Acan-
thus, Stagirus (1. 4, 88.), Argilus (c. 103.), Amphipolis (c. 106.),
Scione (c. 120.), Mende (123.), and other cities passed over to
the Lacedsemonians ; of which but few were recovered. After the
misfortunes of the Athenians in Sicily, the allies contended who
should first revolt ; and, not to mention the weaker states, the
Chians and Erythraeans (1. 8, 111.), the Milesians (c. 17.), theRho-
dians (c. 4-4.), the Abydians (c. 62.), the Byzantines (c. 80.), and
the Eubceans, passed over from the Athenian to the Lace-
dasmonian alliance. Besides, the power of the Athenians, in
some cities of the continent of Asia, seems to have been dimi-
nished, because there were also Persian garrisons in them ; as at
least was the case for the latter years of the war, when Tamos



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AT THE BEGINNING OF THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR. 399

was praefect in Ionia ; though aflterwards, partly by the Lacedae-
monians themselves, the Persian garrisons were expelled.

Thus far we have enumerated the federate states of the Athe-
nians among the Greeks. With which allies are not to be con-
founded certain states friendly to the Athenians, or inimical to the
Lacedaemonians, but entered on the lists of neither alliance. Such
are the Phocians, Ozolian Locrians» CEtaeans, iEnianes, Dolopians,
Melians (1.5,51. and 7,3), and, indeed, the Thessalians in
general. These, although they had an alliance with the Athe-
nians, on account of which they, in the first year of the war, sent
them some horse (1. 2, 22.), yet did not afterwards renew this
alliance; nay, they granted (though with difficulty) a passage
through their territories to Brasidas. (1. 4>, 78.)

There yet remain the Barbarians joined in alliance with the
Athenians, the most powerful of whom was Sitalces, king of the
Odrysse, whose alliance (procured for the Athenians by Nympho-
dorus, 2, 29.) might have had the greatest weight in determining
the event of the war, if the Athenians could have confided
in him, and his friendship had been more lasting. The connection
with the Odomanti, another Thracian people (1. 5> 6.), was of less
moment, as was also that with some princes of Macedonia, espe*
cially Philippus and Derda (1. 1, 57*)) not to mention the fickle
Perdiccas. There was also a connection with certain tribes about
Athos, who seem to have been subservient to the Athenians, as
the Pelasgi, the Tyrseni, the Edones, and others (1. 4, 109. )» of
which some revolted to Brasidas. The Lacedaemonians and Per-
diccas had, indeed, to combat with the Lyncestians (1. 4, 124.) ;
but whether the Athenians were ever at treaty with these, may be
doubted. In Italy there was a friendship, of long standings
between them and the Messenians, from whom they, in the Sici-
lian war, received some darters. (1. 7, 33.) The few Tyrseni pre-
sent at the siege of Syracuse are hardly worth mentioning (1. 6,
103. 7, 57.) ; [and yet they decided the fortune of one battle.
Edit.] In Sicily, of the Barbarians there were allied with them
the Egestans (1. 6, 6.) and the Siculi, who had revolted from the
Athenians [and such also as had been all along independent.
Edit.]

The following is a view of the whole Athenian confederacy : —



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4.00



STATE OF GREECE, CIVIL AND MILITARY,



THE ATHENIAN CONFEDERACY.

A. GRECIANS.
1. Old Allies.



Citiefly Commonwealths, Nations, and
Countries.



(a) Independent Allies, 1. 8, 10,

(aa) Independent and not Tributary.

Of assured fidelity : —
Messeniaos at Naupactus
Platseans, apart from the other >

Boeotians - - J

Less to be relied on : —
The Lesbians, who contributed'

ships.
The cities free ; as Mytilene, Era^

6us,Pyrrha,Antis8a,Methymna.

(The Mytilenaeans had some

territory on the opposite coast

of the continent called the

Actsean cities.)

Chians, furnishing ships. (These
had also some islets, called the
GBnusss)



(j3/3) Independent, but Tributary.

Before the peace of Nicias, none ;
but afterwards some cities in
Thrace.



(/3) Colonies, and such as had
been allotted out.

Faithful before the war : —
Scyrus.



Race.



Lemnus.

Imbrus.

Naxus.

Andres.

Hestisea.



(Tenos? Ceos?)
(Chalcis Eub.?)



Dorians.
iEolians



iEolians



lonians



Form of Govern-
ment.



Democracy.



{Oligarchy, or a
mixed govern-
ment, with a se-
nate, or council



Athenian.



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AT THE BEGINNING OP THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR. 401



Citieg, Commonwealths, Nations, and
Countries.



Colonized, or allotted out in the!
war: — i

iEgina. I

Potidsea. V

Lesbos (except Methymna).

Sdone.

Melos
Unstable, afterwards revolted : —

Amphipolis.

Eion (its port)
Tburians, until the faction oppose

to Athens gained the mastery.



(y) Dependent and Tributary
Allies*

Boeotia, Oropus, Euboea, firetrians,
Chalcideans, Carystians, Mace-«
donia, Methone

The parts about Thrace, a name

given to that part of the sea

coast which had been colonized

by the Athenians : —

Chalcideans (city Olvntbus)

Bottiasans (cities Scolos, Spartolus,

and Singus).
Potidsea. [All these revolted at (
the beginning of the war.] {

Scione - • j

Mende

Torone

Sane, and other cities of the Acte. ]

Acanthus.

Stagirus

Oalepsus.

(Esume

Argilus

Thasus




Thrace, ^nians
Hellespontians, as Sestus.
Bvzantium, which revolted 01. 99, i .
Chalcedon



Part Athenian,
but mostly a
mixed race.



lonians from the
Athenians, ex-
cept the Ca-
rystians, who
were Dryopes



Colony of the
Conntbians

Of Achaic ori-
gin.

Eretrian colony.

Chalddic

Andrian colonies.

Thasian colonies.
Andrian colony.
Parian colony
^olians.



Colony of Megara.
ColonyofM^gara.



'Democracy.



Democracy.

> Archons, or
I epidemiurgi.



Democracy.



Democracy till
Ol. 98.



VOL. III. D D



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403 STATE OF OREECE9 CIVIL AND MILiTARY,



Otim, Commonwealths, Nations, and
Countries.



Cyzicus.
Lampsacus



Race.



Abydus, which revolted Ol. 92, 1.

^Solians, such as Cyme, which

revolted
Tenedofl - - -

lonians — as,
Pbocflea, which revolted.
Clazomense, which revolted, but

was subdued.
Erythrseans, who revolted 01.

92,1.
Erae.
Teos.

Lebedos - - ,

Colophon and Notium
M^us.
Miletus.

Samos, to which the Athenians ^
granted independence, Ol. 92, >
1. for its fidelity - )

Caria, maritime parts.
Thorians, adjoinmg to the Carians.
Halicamassus.

Cnidus, which revolted after the J
defeat of the Athenians inv
Sicily - - )

Rhodes, which revolted, Ol. 92, l .-v
attached to which was the (
island Chalce; cities Lindus, f
Jelusos, and Caminus - J
Cos.

Islands situated between Pelopon-
nesus and Crete towards the
^ east, and the other Cydades.
Icarus.
Myconus.
Delos

Some Cretans, as the PolichnitaB, I
and the Gortynians - )



Milesian colony ?

Phodan or Mile-
sian colony.

Milenan colony.

iEolic.



Form of Gorem-
ment.



1



lonians.



lomans



Dorians.



i Democracy till
r 01.92.



In sedition.



(Oligarchy and
sediUon.



lonians.
Dorians, mixed
with others.



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AT THE BEGINNING OF THE PELOPONKE8IAN WAR.



iOS



S. New Allies.



Countries and Nations, Cities,
Commonwealths, and Tribes.




Foim of Gorern-
ment.



(a) Independent, but held in
somewhat of Subjection.

Islanders of the Ionian sea^alliesfrom ^
the beginning of the war : — >

Corqyrseans - - )

Cepbalienians — Cities : —

Palcis, Cranii, Samsei, Pronei.
Siceliots : —

Zacynthians

Naxians - • i

Catanseans.
Leontines
Italiots, Metapontians



(/3) Independent, and with
equal Suffrage.

Acamanians, all except the£niade. ]
They dwelt in petty towns, Stra-
tos the capital - - ;

Amphilochians, capital Argos Am-

ptiilochicum.
Argives : — The ^neralitv, and '
with the exception of the Epi-
daurians ; in alliance with them
were the Cleonaeans and the Or-
neatae - - ^

Those who had revolted fipom the
Lacedemonians; as the
Eleans (.£olians^ Mantinaeans
(Arcadians^;
And in the first Sicilian war : —
Camarinaeans (Dorians, but at en«

mlty with Sjrracuse).
Rhegines (Chalcidaams and Mes-
senians).



Dorians from
Corinth



Achaean colonists,
Colonists of the
Leontines

Chalddeans

from Eaboea.
Achaeans.



' Democracy,
Council
' (but in sedition.)



> Democracy.
Sedition.



Argives.



Doriam



r Democracy,
J A council,
yThe 80 artunae
C (in sedition.)



D D 2



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404



STATE OP GREECE, CIVIL AND MILITARY,



Countiief, CSties, Commonweihhs, and
Tribes.


Race.


Form of GoTern-
ment.


(y) Those who &voured the
Cause of the Athenians,
though not under an actual
Treaty of Alliance.

Thessaly: —
The cities of the Pharsalians, ^
Cnmonians, Oyrtonians, Phe- >
raeans, Lorissceans, Pirasians. )
Subject to the Thessallans: —
F^raebians.
Magnetes.
AchaeaDs of Pthiotis : —
Borderers on Thessaly.
Melians.

ParaliansL lereans.
Trachians, friendly to the Lacedae-
iponians: —
(Etaeans, iEnianes, Delphians.
Phods, except the Delphians, inde-
pendent, and attached to the La-
cedaemonians.
Locris; the Ozolian'Locrians dwelling

in small scattered villages.
Demi (or clans); Amphissaeans, who
favoured the Lacedaraionians : —
Myonians, Ipneans, Messapians,
Tritaeans, Chalaeans, Tolopho-
nians, Hessians, .£anthians,
Olpceans, Hyaeans.




C Government in
< the hands of
C the powerful.



B. BARBARIANS.



Countries and Natious.



Thrace



Hie partt about Thrace^



Tribes and Cities.



The kingdom of Odrysia

Odomantians.

Pelasgians, l^rsenians, and
others.

Some of the Macedonians.

Lyncestae, who, at least,
were at war with Per-
diccas and Braddas



Form of Govenu
ment.



Monarchy.

C Monarchy.

] Philip,

( Derclus, &c.

Monarchy.



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AT THE BEGINNING OF THE PEL0P0NNE8IAN WAR. 405



Countries and Nations.


IVibesand Cities.


Form of Gorern-
ment.


Sknly - . ^
Italy - . .


Siculi; mostly reroldog >
from Syracuse. J

Eg^tsansy who were
jBIymians.

Messapians; a nation of >
the Japyg9. )

Some Tyrsenians, who
joined the Athenians
from hostility to the
Syracusans.


Monarchy.

Monarchy.
Artas.



CHAP. VI.



THE ABIUTY FOB WAB, AND THB METHOD OF CARRYINO IT OK, IN THE
ATHENIAN CONFEDERACY, AND PRINCIPALLY AMONG THE ATHENIANS.

Such was the extent of the Athenian confederacy, as far as it is
known to us, though our conceptions of the Athenian power must
be imperfect, from our ignorance of other allies of whom no
mention is preserved. [These, however, can have been but very
few, and of inconsiderable importance. Edit.] We will now pro-
ceed to notice the iJoeaUh and pffooer of the confederacy, whether
as consisting in riches^ or shipping, or soldiers, all carefully noted
by Thucydides. (1. 2, 18.)

The money of the Athenians was partly laid up in the treasury,
and partly consisted in annual revenue. In the treasury, deduct-
ing three thousand seven hundred talents, which had been ex-
pended on the vestibules of the citadel and other edifices, and on
the siege of Potidsea, there remained six thousand talents ; besides
five hundred talents of gold and silver uncoined, which were con-
tained in the presents, sacred vessels, and Median spoils ; and be-
sides this was money laid up in the temples, and the golden vest of
Minerva, of thirty talents, so artfully made that it was removable.
Every year, too, besides the rest of the income of the state (firom
the public demesnes, mines, customs, tax on foreign sojourners,
and many other items, diligently treated on by Boeckh. CEcon.
Publ. Ath. 1. 8., of which, however, only the income from land,
and the judgments in the courts are mentioned by Thucydides),
the tribute paid by the allies amounted to six hundred talents.'

DD 3



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406 STATE OF GREECE, CIVIL AND MILITARY,

How much each paid does not appear, except that the Cjtherians
were rated at four talents. (1. 4, 57) [That, however, was a mere
quit-rent. Edit.] The sum of the whole amounted (according to
Xen. Anab. 7, 1, 26.) to a thousand talents ; which sum was much
increased m the war, one thousand two hundred talents being ex-
acted from the allies only. (See Boeckh. p. 431.) But this large
sum began rapidly to be exhausted, since the war was very ex-
pensive, as we may infer from the charges at the siege of Poti-
daea, and considering that two hundred and fifty ships, which, in
the summer of the fourth year, were all equipped and in service,
must have occasioned a heayy expense. Add, too, that, at the
very beginning of the war, the Chalcidaeans, Botticeans, and other
tributary allies revolted ; the Lacedaemonians ravaged Attica itself
with incursions ; and the Locri Opuntii endeavoured to devastate
Eubcea, and the Megarseans other parts of the sea with predatory
privateers. (1. 2, S2, 60. 3, 51.) A thousand talents, too, in the
first year of the war, were put aside for the last emergency ; so
that, in the fourth year, they found themselves obliged to contri-
bute money from their private purses. (1. 3, 19.) Whether, besides
the ordinary tribute, any extraordinary sums were collected from
the allies, does not appear. Ships were, indeed, sent to them to
collect money (1. 4, 75.), but whether this was the tribute itself,
or arrears, is not clear. We are, however, to remember that
ships of this kind are said to be sent to Caria and Ly cia (1. % 69. )»
of which the latter, at least, was never tributary to the Athenians,
as far as we know. In the course of the truce the city had some-
what recovered itself (1. 6, 26.), when the expedition to Sicily that
followed overwhelmed them with expense. (1. 6, 31.) The forti-
fying, too, of Decelea was an extreme injury ; for the Athenians
were quite deprived of the use of their territory, and more than
twenty thousand slaves deserted ; vast herds of cattle perished,
horses were lost or lamed, and the necessaries of life had to be
imported from Eubcea, by a very circuitous and expensive way,
for the use of the city. The revenue then falling off, and the
expenses, in so great a war, increasing, they were compelled, in
the year of the Olymp. 91, 2., to levy on the allies a tax of a twen*
tieth part of tlie goods imported or exported by sea, instead of
the tribute, thinking that thus more money would come into the
treasury. On receiving intelligence of the calamity in Sicily,
they contracted their expenses (1. 8, 4.) ; and, after the defection
of Chios, they even resorted to those one thousand talents re-
served for emergency. This was the more necessary, since the
other cities of Ionia, from which the greater revenue was derived.



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AT THE BEGINNING OF THE PEL0P0NNE8IAN WAR. 407

followed the example of Chios. Such is the substance of what
Thucydides says respecting the income and expenses of the
state, except that the Thracian mercenaries received a drachma a
day, and the soldiers at Potidaea two drachmas.

Of triremes fit for service, at the beginning of the war, there
were three hundred (1. 2, IS.) > of which one hundred were retained
for the defence of Attica, Euboea, and Salamis. (1. 3, 24.) In the
fourth year, two hundred and fifty were in service. (1. 3, 17-) To
the Athenian fleet may be added that of the Corcyraeans, consist-
ing of one hundred and twenty ships (1.1,25*); &nd of the
Chians and Lesbians, who, in the second year, accompanied the
Athenians with fifty sail. (1. 2, 56.) Triremes were divided into
ttvi/l-sailing, or fit for naval battle, and those formed to admit the
conveyance of soldiers^ arpartorriti^ or ivXirayuyot. There were also
Hippagif horse-transports. (1. 2, 56*) There were, too, other ships
destined for other uses, such as ^famryS^tq i^i^, ^povpSbt^ (1.4,
18.), vpcipvXaydbt; (1. 1, 117*)) the Salaminla and the Paralus. Besides
triremeSf there were light harks^ Xtvr^ vXo<a (1.2,83.), long barks for
war, vXcra jbcaKp^ (1. 1, 14.), privateering barks, and swift-sailing
ones, Pentecontors (of fifty oars), xtX^na, or cock-boats, ^fA^pix^,
(1. 4, 67.), xATifpi} v>io7a. (1. 4, 118.)

To the equipping and manning of fleets were required (not to
mention the vtftwtu^ or supernumeraries (1. 1, 10. )> divers (L 4, 26.)
seamen (vavreu\ rotioers (vv^pto-Za, Iprrai, xonnjX^Tai, ^fou/iraiy ^aXd*
/Aioi), who were composed both of citizens and foreigners. These
latter the Peloponnesians hoped they should be able to draw away
by higher pay. (1. 1, 121.) The ships were manned both by citi-
zens, and, when need required, by the ^tmkoi, or sojourners ; and
these latter continued to man the fleet till the fourth year of the
war. (1. S, 16.) Seven hundred marines of the lowest class (^h)
accompanied the expedition to Sicily (1.6, 43.) ; but, in the Ionic
war, they were drafted from the heavy-armed. (1. 8,24.) What was
the number of all sorts on board a trireme does not appear from
Thucydides. * We only know that, in forty triremes, five hundred
and ten heavy-armed were conveyed to Sicily. [No proportion,
however, can be imagined between the number of ships and the
number of heavy-armed. Edit.] The soldiers sometimes them-
selves rowed the ships. (See 1. 1, 10. 3, 18. 6, 91») Even in other
respects, the different offices of sailors were, in case of necessity,

* The Editor is, however, of another opioion, and thinks that it has been satis-
factorily shown by ThucydSde^ and certainly by other writersy what was the
average number. See 1. 8, 39. and note.

D D 4



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408 BTATE OF GREECE, CIVIL AND MILITARY,

interchanged. Tbui Demosthenes arms his sailors with shields,
and makes them fight on land. (1. ^, 9.) Gylippus, too (1. 7» !•)>
procures arms for his sailors ; and, in the descent on Sphacteria
(1. 4f, 32.)> when all but the Thalamii took arms in the attack.^
The expenses in fitting out a ship were supplied not only bj the
state, but by private persons. The state provided the empty
ships, manned them, and gave the pay to the crews, commonly
three oboli a day (1. 8, 4>5.) ; sometimes, however, a drachma. (1. 3,
17. 6,31.) Private individuals who filled the post of trierarchs
furnished the equipments, and also some extraordinary gratuities,
in addition to the pay. llie fleets were commanded mostly by
several admirals, sometimes by one only. (See 1. 1, 46 and 51. 1,
57 and 16. The ships had their trierarchs or captains, masters,
or steersmen, and celeustae^ like our boatswains^ besides other lower
officers.

In naval war, the daring and skill of the Athenians was of the
highest order. Phormio, with twenty ships, attacks forty-seven
of the Peloponnesians, and puts them to flight (i. 2, 83). The
same officer, with the same twenty ships, maintains a dubious
engagement with seventy-seven Peloponnesian ones. (1. 2, 87.)
And, upon the whole, the Athenians had adopted the notion that
they ought not to give way to ani/ number of Peloponnesians.
Therefore, they conceived themselves conquered by the Corin-
thians (famous as they were for naval skill), because they had not
carried off a decisive victory; and the Corinthians claimed the
victory, because not defeated. (1. 7y 34.)

The form adopted in ranging the ships was various. Very oflen
the vessels followed each other, one by one, as Phormio's did in
each of his battles; whicA was called ^ir^ x/pew^ icXitv, We have also
the expressions hel xcpew^ and xar^ fA.la¥ rda-crta^at. (1. 2, 83 and 90. )
The battles themselves were either regular and scientific, or
tumultuary, and similar to land engagements. (1. 1,49.) In the
regular engagements, such as those of Phormio, and that at Sestus
in the twenty-first year of the war, the parties strive, before the
commencement of the combat, to snatch some advantage from the
enemy. (See 1. 2, 84 and 9. 8, 104.) The Athenians were attached
to two modes of fighting, the vip/ir>iov;, and the di^vXov; (with which
are connected the Avflw^p*^^, Stpdn^vtri^, and IfitoX'i), By the Jbrmer
they sailed in long line around the enemy's fleet, confining them
gradually into a smaller compass, until they crowded them toge-
ther and threw them into disorder, when they made their assault

** Such, indeed, wu very general ; especiAlly in the case of an Athenian
fquadron cruising round Peloponnesus. (Edit.;



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AT THE BEGINNING OF THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR. 409

with beaky on the broadside of the enemy's ships. (1. 2, 84.) By
the latter they broke the enemy's line, and sailing through,
damaged the hulks, and brushed among the rows of oars. For
this effect they sometimes approached, and sometimes recoiled^
and then again rushed on the enemy. Ther^coiVwas made either
with prow opposite to the enemy (when the ship was said to be
Styrhpes^fy and SUch a recoil was called Aydyt^va-i^ ifpijfjiya^ Kpo^w^euyy



Online LibraryThucydidesThe History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war → online text (page 49 of 59)