The History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war online

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they are an occasion of glory both to mjr acestort and to my«-
self, and are, moreover, advantageous to my country. For by
the magnificelice of my visits to the solemnities ^ of CHympia,
the Greeks have rated our state ^ beyond its power, and ima*
gined it greater than it was; though they had before expected
it had been warred down.^ Wherefore ^ I sent ^ into the sta*-
dium seven chariots (such as no private person ^^ had before
do»e), and I obtained the j£rs^ second^ and fourth prizes, and in
all other respects the figure I maintained was such as not to
disparage the splendour of my victory.^^ Now, as things of this
kind, by the laws and customs of Greece, reflect honour ^\ so

leuton. Thftt itritiOTo^ was used for l7rit6fiTOQ by the Ionic and antient
writers, is plain from a passage of Anacreon ap. Eustath. cited by Duker.

Bauer here aptly compares Terent. Adelpn. Proleg. : '* Quod malediC'
turn vehemens Illi existimaot, Eam ille laudem sibi maximam putat."

^ VisUs to the tolemnities,] Such seems to be the best representation of
dfupia, which denotes the action of a ^tiapht: a name given to one who
was sent to consult an oracle, or, in a general way, one who attended at
any of the great solemn festivals of Greece, as sent from some state. Now,
1 believe, none were allowed to ofier themselves as candidates for any of
the prizes, without the consent of their own state ; on obtaining which,
they were, in some measure, sent out by it, and therefore diutpoi,

^ Rated our state, ^c] Such is, I conceive, the full sense of the words
vTvkp ivvafiiv — lv6fii(fav, in whieh there is a blending of two phrases.
Much to the present purpose is the following passage of Dio Chrys. Orat.
31. Tovra ttXovtov ifi^ivti xal fityaXoyj/vxiav, oh y^p fiovov KSfffiov ^ipei t6
rocovrov, aXXd kuI ri)v firj^v riJQ iroXsutc iiridtiKwtn Kal rb fj^OQ, See also
Isocr. de Bigis, § 14. p. 615.

^ Had been warred down^ Hobbes and Smith, without any reason or
authority, assign an active sense to Karair^iroKiiLrie^au

8 Wherefore.} i. e. to the end that they may suppose it to be greater than
it is.

9 Sent,} Literally, tent down; for the stadium was somewhat lower than
the level of the adjacent country, in order to give the spectators in the
raised seats a better view. So Dio Cass. 985, 71. t)vioxoi rd Upfiara tifHc
Ko^rJKav, Pausan. 6, 2, Ka^vjnev lirl bySfiari roTi Ori€aiiM»v btifiov rb Upfia,
Herod. 5, 22, 7. Karatdvroi i-jr ahrb roDro (scil. oiBiktveiv kv 0\u^?r/y, Hont
II. ^. 132. ZutovQ ^ Iv ilvTjffi ro^/cre pAOvbxovQ iirrrov^,

>o ITo private person.] Kings, such as Geto, Hiero, and some Macedo-
nian monarchs, nad possibly sent more. Mitford, therefore, is wrong la
making Alcibiades say : ^ Ibave shown that an individual of Athens could
yet outdo what any prince or. state had ever done,"

1 1 ne figure I maintained was, ^c.} Among other instances of his
magnificence on that occasion, Athenaeus (cited by Duker) tells us that he
sacrificed to the Olympian Jove, and feasted the whole assemblage.

»« Things of this kind, by the laws, ^c] So Herod. 6,70. AXKart Aaxtbat^
ftovioim fTvxyd ipyourl re xai yvwfiytfi d'rroXauirpvvBiit, iv bk St) Kai 'OXvfnriaba
a^i AveMfjuvog re^piVirw Trpoai^aXt, Pind. Pyth. 2^ 55, *Iir7rorpo0iat re vojau'
^a»V, 'Ev TLavfXXdvfiw vojttft^

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also by the thing done there is created a notion of power ^^ in
the country of the doer. And again, as to such other things
in the city wherein I display magnificence, whether by the ex-
hibition of spectacles '% or in any other respect, these may (as
it is natural) excite envy in the citizens, but to foreigners they
suggest a notion of power.

." And surely not unuseful is this ^vfildJbUy^^ and extrava-
gance,' for a person, at his own expeiise, to benefit not himself
only, but also the state. Nor, truly, is it unjust that such a
one, carrying himself loftily on his own merit, should not put
himself on a level with others '^, since likewise, should he fall
into adversity^ he will communicate none of his misfortunes to
any oneJ^ But as, when in calamity, we are not even civilly

»» By the thing done there it, ^-c] So Find. Pyth. 9, 25—30. TovtAch:
jjv /3a<TiX€^c> '^ 'QKfavov ykvo^ Hp^€ ^tvrtpo^' ov v6tm UivBov xXttwaic Iv
VTvxaic, Nate th^pav^iloa litivnov XI^h Kpfiotc' Irwcrfv. Hence may be
emended Liban. Orat. 675. A. koX iCj Xkytiv apftariMtv nXy^og^ Kal fitydXag
vrrkp vfiuv 'OXvfjtiriaqt ^aTravac, &^' ^ SoKav vfttXg tig r6pov hxvog ItrxyKart,
where, for «/c tovov, I conjecture ir<5vv, which will thus answer to the U
rov dputfiivov of the present passage. The dg arose from the ug preceding.

»4 Exhibition of spectacles^ Or, ** by the voluntary supply of eicpenees to
ihe spectacles at public festivals." 1'he person who supplied the expense
was called the x^9r<^c- See Boechk. Staateh. d. 4th. t. 1. p. 484., referred
to by Goeller. To such a degree, it ma^ be added, was this carried, that
sometimes the Choragus reduced himself to utter poverty. So Antipho ap.
Athen. lOJ. F. xopnybg y alpt^ug *lftdria Kai Kpvaa wapaax^^ ^f X^PVf
pdxog ^ptX,

1^ Kot unuseful is this wUdfoUi/,] i. e. what you call folly ; here glancing
at Nicias.

As the reading i)^ avoia^ though the true one, is very defective in MS.
authority, it mav be worthy of remark that such was read by Procopius,
who at 537, SO. has (by imitation) axpri^roQ dvoia Kal frpoirtrttg.

1^ Nor is it unjust that such a one should not put hinueff,] But rather
claim superiority. On this sense of fir^ Iffog cTvac, see note on 1 , 132. On the
sentiment I woiud compare a passage in Alexis ap. Athen. 224. F.

>7 Since, likewise, should he fall, 4rc.] Hohbes renders : ** he should not
find any man that would share with him in his calamity." But that version
is neither agreeable to the words of the original, nor, indeed, to the sense of
the author. The argument is, that ** as he does not communicate to others
any portion of his calamity, they have no ri^ht to share in his prosperity ; "
and the envy (just before mentioned) implies a wish to have some portion
of the ffood of the envied.

With respect to the phraseology, it would seem that the o at ^ KaKug
wp6e<nitv has no place : but, in fact, this is only substituting a gnome ^ene^
raUs in place of the particular position here meant Upbg oiHva is for
oifdtvi, which is the usual syntax.

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saluted ^^9 let men in like manner endtkre to be looked down
upon by the prosperous ; or else, after giving what is just and
equal, let them claim the like in return. ^^ Well, indeed, I
khow that such persons, and all who in the lustre of any en-
dowment surpass others, must, during their lives, be objects o^
spleen, especially to their equals, and in the next place those
With whom they hold intercourse, but to after generations they
leave an ambition of claiming kindred, even where none exist-
ed ; and to the country they have belonged to, a glorying in
therii as no aliens or offenders, but as their own countrymen,
and such as achieved what was glorious and honourable.^

" Such, then, being the objects of my ambition, and fbr
which, in my private capacity, I am celebrated ; consider now
whether I am inferior to any one^* in managing public afiairs.
Thus, for instance ^\ having brought together ^', without any

'^ jpui at when in calamity, SfcJ] Here may be adduced a passage of He-
rodtan, of equal truth and felicity of expression, 7, 3, 11. rd ydp rdv £^-
Batfiovitv BoKo{>pru)v ^ irXovtriufv vrahfiara irpbc ruiv oj^utv oi) fjiSvov AfitXtl'-
'rai, AXXd, rivac rutv KatcoifduiV nai tpavXtov le^' 8r€ Kai iif^paivH, ^6vtft rwv
KpHrroywv icai iifTvxovvTUiv.

|9 Or else, after giving what is, ^c] The argument (which is well
pointed out by the ^holiast) is of the same sort as at 2, 64. ** but most
unjustly, unless, too, when you chance to attain any unlooked-for proS'
pcrity, you likewise ascribe it to me."

«> Well, indecdy I know that such persons^ ^-c] This is one araone the
many eternal, but mournful, truths in this jcr^^itf etc &^U such as the histo-
rian experienced in his own case, and, perhaps, wrote with a sigh. The
disgraced exile of twenty years was afterwards one of the very greatest
boasts of that country which had cast him forth " as a broken vessel."

« • Consider noto whether lam inferior to any one,] Hobbes renders, ** con-
sider whether I administer the public the worse for it or not." But sense
would require x^''P^^ ^* • whereas rov (for rivos) yields a better sense.
Here, of course, he means Nicias, Now, it was 01 consequence to establish
this point (namely, that he was not inferior to Nicias), in order to justify his
appomtment to the command.

«« Thus, for instance.] On this sense of vAp see Hoogev. de Partic.

«3 Having brought together,] The translators and commentators take
Kvttrnoai to mean ** having reconciled." But that, besides being a rare sense
of the word, is so far from being here required, as Bauer says, that it is m-
apposite ; for what could danger and expense have to do with reconciling ?
Besides, Argos, the principal state of Peloponnesus, never was at war with
Athens, so that there could be no reconciliation. The word has reference
partly to the bringing together the states in question, in one common
alliance, and partly to the bringing together their military quotas. This
view of the subject is confirmed by Isocrates de Bigis, § 6, p. 608. tAq fit~
yitrraQ iroktiQ rwv iv UtXoTrowtj<Ttft AaKcdaifiovluyv fiiv «i7rlffrt/«v, vfiZv ^k
ffv/i/iaxovf l7ro(rj<T€V, Herod, 6, 74. d-rriKSfievoQ Ig rrjv 'ApMdlriv, vfutnpA
Inpfjffcrt irfdyfiara, avvlarac roi>c 'ApKddai i^i r^ Sw^pry. The whole pB8-

VOL. lU. O

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great danger or es^pense to you, some of the most potent states
of Peloponnesus, I, in one day at Mantinsea, brought the La-
cedaemonians to the necessity of fighting for their all. Whence
it. has arisen that, though victorious in the contest, they do not
to this day feel entire confidence in themselves.

.XVII. " Now these affairs * my yattth and madfolfy* (which
is thought to aim at what is naturally unsuitable to my years)
transacted with the most powerful states of Peloponnesus,
by the use of suitable arguments, and persuasions which con-
ciliated confidence to my * frantic impetuosity.' ^ Fear it not,
then, on the present occasion — but, while/am in the.flower of
youth and Jblli/ ^, and Nicias continues to be esteemed JoT"

sage is imitated by Plutarch Demosth. 20. iv fiipfi fiiKpt^ fiiag riftlpacrbv
vtrkp r^c riytfwviag Kai tov ffotfiaroc avappi^ai kivSvvov dvayxaa^itg, jc. r. X.

» My youth and mad folly, <J-r.] Such seems the best representation of
the Y^ry obscure and difficult words of the original, on which it is impos-
sible to speak positively. See the Scholiast. The words " my youth and
imad folly " are ironical ; q. d. what you call youth and madness. So Soph.
Antiq. 95. 'AXX' la fit koX t^v ii ifiov Sva^ovXiav. (Ed, Tyr. 397. <iAX' lydi
liokwVf 6 fjujoiv dSutg, Oidivovi, Sirav<rd viv, 1 Corinth. 1, 24. But r^c f^opiag
vov KijoCy^arog dvexf^^^^ov rrjg d^powviig.

In tne interpretation of the words vapd ^vmv BoKovvra cTvat, 1 have been

fiided by the opinion of Goeller, who has here an elaborate annotation,
et I am inclined to doubt whether the interpretation of the Scholiast be
not truer, as it is certainly more simple and natural ; q. d. ** this mv youth-
ful folly which is thought, forsooth, by Nicias, so unnatural ! ' Thus

'there will be irony in the words, a weapon often employed in the course of

.this oration. Goeller has rightly remarked that wfilXritrf is for dtfiiXri<ra<fa


Of the words 6pyy vimiv 7r€ipa<rxofiivri (which are, strangely enough,
omitted by Goeller in his version of the |)assage) it is difficult to determme
the sense, so diverse are the significations of the terms. That above
assipied seems the most probable. As to the versions of Hobbes and
Smith, they are alike inconsistent with the words of the oriinnal. The
meaning of the passage seems to be this, that '* by the use of the aptest
arguments, and the most subtle persuasions, he gained confidence to his
representations, and thus showed (what smne would not believe) that there
was " method in his madness.*' Thus 6pyf will be ironical, as avota, just

As to the words /cat vwv — airn)v, I have (afler Goeller) adopted the mas-
terly conjecture of Bekker, who, by the slight alteration of v(ipo€n<r^e for
wi^ria^aif and the substitution of a period for a comma, has restored the

.true sense of the passage.

• While I am in the flotoer of youth and folly.] Such is, I conceive, the

;true sense of <iXX' Jiutg iyut re trt dKfia^ta fitr ai/rijc, of which Goeller has
mistaken the meaning. 'AKftdi^itt fur aifrijg is a sort of Hendiadys ; aKfid2^u
having reference to the preceding veSrtjCf and far airfie to dvoia, which

•is the same as 6pyy, The whole of this and the preceding sentence is well

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tunate^, make free use of* what is serviceable in either of

" And as to this expedition to Sicily ; alter not your -deter-
mination, as if it were going against a formidable power. For
the cities ^ere indeed swarm ^ with a multitudinous, but
heterogeneous % population, and thus easily admit changes of
polity, and readily adopt new forms of government."^ And on

paraphrased by Mitford thus: — "Glory, I will own, I ardently desire;
but now hare I sought to acquire it, and what has been my success? Have
I promoted rash enterprise ? Have I been forward, as it is said youth is
apt to be, to engage the commonwealth, wildly and without foresight, in
hazardous war ? Or was it I who, by negotiation, without either danger or
expense to yourselves, brought all Peloponnesus to fight your battles for
you a^inst Lacedemon, and reduced that long dreaded rival state to risk
Its existence at Mantinsea, in arms against its own antient allies ? If such
have been my services, on first entering upon public business, you need not,
I hope, fear but my greater experience will now be advantageous to

3 And Niciai continues to be esteemed fortunate.'] Here we have saKaara.
Nicias had, indeed, been successful ; but Alcibiades will only allow him to
be lucky. In this respect, therefore, Mitford has fallen into a great error^
in his paraphrase of |)art of this speech, by making Alcibiades frankly and
amply acknowledge the merits of Nicias.

On this passage I would compare Max. Tyr. Diss. 5, 4. 'Eyw nai ^rpa-
Tfiytf Siairterii irdvra iifTvxri<favTiy oloc ctv r\v 'AStip^aiotg <rrparijyic Noriac,
fffn^tic U Sciec\iac* ^ oiog Sof fyf ant^povkonpog Stifmyutybg K\la>v, iiraviX^wf
iC 'Afi^iTrSKtdti,

* Make free use of.] The <iiro in iLiroxphean^t is intensive. So
Joseph. 672, 10. ry ^po^fiUf rot) vrXii^ovg Avoxpvoao^ai, Appian> S, 69.
Ki\ev6vT(av vvv fiiv diroxp'fioavBfai rov orparov ry trpo^vfii^.

» Sivamt.] This seems to be the closest version of voXvavdpownv, The
verb is of veiy rare occurrence ; though I have met with it in Dio Cass.
752, 29. and Joseph. 829.

« Heterogeneous,] SvfifiiKToiQ has the sense of iiiyaoi : as Eurip. Bacch.
18. fiiydeiv "^XXrin pap€dpoig y bfiov. The present passage is imitated by
Aristides, 2, 7.* D. rd rt ^vfifAiKTovg tlvat rove ix^'*^^^ ahri^v, Kai Tabrb .^po-
viiv irphg rifi&v l<rriv.

7 Readily adopt new forms of govermnent.] The Scholiast and most com-
mentators interpret, ** readily admit new citizens." But that would involve
so much harshness, and oflfer so inapt a sense, that I prefer the version
above adopted, which is supported by the opinion of Goeller. By woXinLac
must, perhaps, be understood not only polity and government, but
inslitutions and customs. The best commentary on which may be found in
chapters 4 and 5. Alcibiades seems to mean by the former part of the sen-
tence, that, " though populous, yet the cities are of mixed races, who will
hardly combine together for defence, and are, therefore, not formidable.*
By the latter, that •* from their proneness to innovation in polity, they
would readily receive the democratical form of Athens."

This and the next sentence are thus paraphrased by Mitford: "The
power of the Sicilians, which some would teach you to fear, has been much
exaggerated. They are a mixed people, little attached to one another, little
att^ed to a countrj- which they consider as scarcely theirs, and httle du-

D «

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this account, the people do not, as if in behalf of their own counr
try, either furnish themselves with weapons and armour for the
defence of die body, nor attend to the affiiirs of the country,
by providing it with any regular means for defence ® ; but what
each thinks he may get^ either by swaying the public in set
qpeecb, or by ihctious opposition to it (with intent, should he
fail, to seek another country), that alone he seeks to acquire.^
** It is not likely, then, that such a rabble will either be
guided by any general plans for defence, or set themselves about
tile execution of them by common exertion ; but that, if any

posed to risk either person or fortune for it; but always ready for any
change, whether of political connection, or of local esteblishment, that
may offer any advantage, or relieve from any distress."

' T%e people d6 not at, ^c] Such appears to be the true sense of the
difficult and ill understood words of the original. What Alcibiades means
by this shrewd remark is, that, " from the little patriotism felt by the
people, and from the want of mutual reliance, the defence of the country
was little attended to, either by the providing of weapons and armour for
individuals, or of military stores in general, and the raising of such works
or forttfieations as are necessary for putting any country in a posture
of defence."

A complete illustration of this may be found in the case of Amphipolis,
and other Athenian colonies jn Thrace.

KaraeKevdic refers to the formation of the works above mentioned ; and
vouifjLoic to the doing of them by public authority, at the common and sus«
tained expense of the state, and not left to be done just when wanted, sud-
denly, opere tumultuario. The epithet is applicable to persons as well as
things. Thus in Pollux, 1, 130. ovXirai dKpiQf'is fji6vifiot, I conjecture
vSfufLoi, To the examples of the above sense of vofitfioct given by the
Schol., may be added Diod. Sic. 1, 82. ol vofufioi rwv avyypaitswv, and 1,
8S. ol vdfiifioi T&tt ^vaio\6yiav. Athenaeus, 1. 4. sub. fin. erpaTtiybc

9 Bmt what each thinks, ^c] Such seems to be the sense of the SBnig-
matical passage '6, n dk HKoarot -^ irotfiaKtrat, which the commentators in
vain seek to reduce to anv sort of regular construction. Some nearer
approach to it m^t be made bv throwing the words \a^v — oixriata^ into
a porenthesis ; where \a€u}v is for olSfuvog Xa£f iv, and at oixiiauv must be
supplied ^r«. But then it is necessary to subaud \ii^«r^ai from Xai^dtp :
a most harsh subaudition* The km roi* Xkyatv rrfi^iiv is for U tov in^eiy&g Xi-
y€w : and vram&Ciov is, by a variation of construction, for U tov era^idKfiv,
The passage may be regarded as exegetical of the peceding, namely,
that, ** no one cares for it as for his country." The sense is so admirably hud
down by the Scholiast, that there is the less excuse for the error of Hobbes .
in rendering the above words " to ruin the country."

Upon the whole, this is, perhaps, the best description that ever was
drawn of a factious babbling demagogue and mere political adventurer,
aiming at naught but private gain, and unscrupulous in his means of ac-
quiring it : it is equally applicable to every age and country. It is, indeed,
but a sketch j yet it is so graphic, as to be superior to some of Butler's

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thing be said to tickle their ears, they will be quickly iti«tlii0d
to come over to terms of subnaission ^^ ; especiaily if (<is we
understand) they are divided by factions. The tr«^ iiideeid,
is that neither are they in possession of such nunibers of hetivy<^
armed as exaggeri^ion ascribes to them ; nor^indeed, have this
rest of the Greeks ever brought into the field any such tmin*
bers as the reckoning of each state would lead us to suppose*'^
Nay Greece itself notwithstanding the false estimates of Sttch
which prevailed, was scarcely in the present war adequately
furnished with heavy-armed.''^

** The state of affairs, then, in Sicily, is what I have iHtid,
and will be found yet more favourable to its rediKtion ; for we
shall have the aid of numerous barbarians^ who, from theilr
hatred to the Syracusans, will cooperate with us in aCtaeking
them. And the powers here, if you consider arig^ will not
be likely to fi*ustrate '^ our plan. For our fathers, thot^h

10 But that^ i^, ^e,] The sense here assigned by Smith is^ indeecf, sp^
dous, but 16 neither agreeable to the worda themselves^ nor suitable to wMI

> ( Norf indeed^ have the rest, ^c] Such is pkhily the seme, which ii
what Portus has expressed. It is therefore strange that Hobbes and Smtttt
should ha?e devised another, equally at variance with the words and the
context. ^u4tdinf<rav — jyrcc signifies " have shown themselves to be.**

As to the reading '6<toi nip KOfivwvrm (edited by Bekker and Goeller)^ it
may be the true one ; but as to what Bekker affirms, that there is no such
verb as frtpacopinsw, it is false. It is found in a book which critics might,
with advantage, study, were it only /or their craft, occurring in the Sapient.
Selom. c. 17, 4. i)x<»» ^^ KaTapiureovroQ ahrov^ TrepuKSfiirovv, where I conjee*
tore for o^o^C; a^ro7c. Nay, it occurs also in Jo9e|>h. 1020, 16. rovroig
TTiptKo^n-fjaac. Considering, therefore, the perpetual imitation of Thucy*
dides in that historian, there is little doubt but that he had neputofiiroBvrcu.

^^ Nav, Greece itself, S^c] Such is, I apprehend, the real sense, which &
"very inadequately represented by Hobbes and Smith. The orator means
" that Greece had, aforetime, much belied itself in such estimates of heavyw
anncd, for it was scarcely in the present war tolerably provided with them."
That there had been much exaggeration of the forces in Mieral, of the
times preceding this war, we learn from Thucydides in his Preface; e. gr.
c. 11. tin. and 21. fin.

The k^voitkvfi i^^'EXXac seems to refer to the historians and poets ; and
we mav compare the '*Quicquid GrBecia mendax Audet in hisCom'^oif

The subject of this whole assertion is not, as Levesque and Goeller un-
derstand, soldiers generally, but heavt^armed; This sense <^ dir\iZitv h
frequent in Thucy£des. Why it should have been late before Greece ww
sufficiently provided with this kind of force, it is easy to imagine.

" Will present no hmdrance.] 'E7rMcwX6<r€t is for kniKtiXvfiaJtrovrai. Th«»
wofd is rare, but it occurs in Xen. (Econ.8, 4. and Soph. Phil. 1242. nc
• $9r€it II o^uri#X,6<Mrtv vAit,

D »

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having the very same enemies whom they tell us we shall leave
behind in going on this expedition, and the Medes besides,
yet acquired this empire by no other means than by superiority
of strength at sea. And as for the present, the Pelopnne-
sians were never less in hope of prevailing against us, whatever
may be their power. To make irruptions into our territory
they are able, even if we go not on the expedition ; but by sea
they can never hurt us, when gone, for our remaining force
will be sufficient to make head against them.

XVIII. " Such being the case, what reasons can we, with
any probability, allege to ourselves for hanging back, or what
tolerable excuses offer to our allies for not aflTording them help,
whom we are bound to defend, by every obligation of common
oaths ^ and not make it as an objection *^that they have never
assisted us.' For we did not receive them into our confederacy,
that they might render us assistance here, but that, by finding
employment to ^ our enemies there, they might hinder them
from coming hither. This, too, is the method whereby ive
have acquired ortr empire, and by which, indeed, all empire has

Online LibraryThucydidesThe History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war → online text (page 5 of 59)