Thucydides.

The History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war online

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Online LibraryThucydidesThe History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war → online text (page 51 of 59)
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of Nicias (1.5, 19 and 23.), they agreed with the Athenians that,
if any thing were forgotten, they themselves (without consulting
the allies) should make such additions or changes as might be
VOL. III. E E



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4fl8 STATE OF OREECE, CIVIL AND MILITARY,

approved by both parties. Moreover, the Lacedaemonians were
little fit for supreme rule, because their manners and customs dif-
fered from those of all the rest of Greece ; and on going out
from their country, they adhered to their own customs, and did
not adopt those of others. (1. 1,77.)

Such being the case, this Peloponnesian confederacy would not
have lasted so long as it did, had it not been preserved, confirmed,
and amplified by the plots which the Athenians were perpetually
laying against the liberty of the states.

Those who belonged to the Lacedaemonian confederacy may also
be divided into the old and the neu) allies. At the beginning of
the Peloponnesian war they were (as we learn from 2, 9.) the fol-
lowing : — First, all the Peloponnesians, except the Argives,
Achaeans, and, in some measure, the Arcadians. Of these the
Argives, though always hostile to the Lacedaemonians, yet, for the
first part of the war, kept quiet, because a thirty years* treaty
still subsisted between them and the Lacedaemonians. Of the
Achaeans, the Pellenians were, at first, the only people who aided
the Lacedaemonians ; but afterwards (perhaps from the time that
the Lacedaemonians ordered things in Achaea according to their
pleasure, 5, 82.) all the rest. The Arcadians are also mentioned
among the allies ; but they efiected little, and, indeed, took pay
on both sides ; and the Mantinaeans afterwards went to war with
the Lacedaemonians. On the contrary, the most zealous allies of
the Lacedaemonians, and the most active exciters of the war
against the Athenians, were the Corinthians, Sicyonians, Phlia-
sians, Epidaurians, Troezenians, Hermionians, Halians, — all, by
reason of their enmity with the Argives, needing the aid of the
Lacedaemonians ; and, in the Mantinaean war, the Tegaans, by
their hostility to the Mantinaeans. But of Peloponnesus there
were the Megaraeans, Boeotians, Locrians (Opuntii), Phocians,
Ambraciots, Leucadians, and Anactorians. From the Boeotians
(who, like the Megaraeans, by their form of government, and
hatred of the Athenians, were the most trusty) must be excepted
the Plataeans. Anactorium was, in the war itself, subdued by the
Athenians and Acarnanians. (4, 28.) And the Ambraciots, in the
sixth year of the war, were compelled by the Acarnanians to make
peace (1. 3, 1 14.) ; which, however, did not quite deprive them
of power to injure Athens. (See 7, 58.) In the place of these,
however, arose (by hatred of the Acarnanians and Messenians)
the .^tolians, whom, in the third book, we find at war with the
Athenians, but not before they had been first attacked by them ;
and they seem to have had no permanent treaty with the Lacedse-



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AT THE BEGINNING OF THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR. 419

monians. The Trachiniansy too, acceded to the alliance in the
sixth year, for defence against their neighbours (1. 3>92.); and,
finally, the Dorians, the parent country of Lacedaemon, but too
weak to be of any weight in such a war.

Beyond Greece, if we except the cities which gradually
withdrew from the Athenian alliance, there were no Grecian
cities that had formed any close treaty with the Lacedaemonian
confederacy. The cognate cities of Italy and Sicily had,
indeed, promised assistance immediately at the commence-
ment of the war (2, 7.) ; but they did not contribute any before
the wars in Sicily. In the former of those wars all the Doric
cities in Sicily, except Camarina (3, 86.) ^ namely, Syracuse, Gela,
-^grig^^i^tum, Himera, Messene, and the Lipari islands ; in the
latter, Syracuse, Camarina, Gela, Selinus, and Himera, entered
into war with the Athenians. Of the Italian cities, the Locri
Epizephyrii were their enemies up to the peace of Phseax (1. 5, 5.),
and ever again afterwards. Tarentum favoured the Lacedaemo-
nians (1. 6, 104.), but sent no aid before the close of the Sicilian
wars ; on the conclusion of which, also the Syracusans, Selinun-
tians, and Locrians went to give assistance to the Lacedaemo-
nians. (8, 26 and 91.) The Cyrenaeans, too, supplied the Pelo-
ponnesians, when on their way to Sicily, with two triremes.

Whatever treaties the Lacedaemonians concluded with the Bar-
barians were of a very different nature, having no reference to
dominion, but present utility. The Chaones, Thesprotians, Molos-
sians, Atintanes, Paranaeans, and Orestians, once went on an
expedition against Acarnania, under the guidance of the Lacedae-
monians. (1. 2, SO. ; see also 1, 47. and 3, 73.) A^ to Perdiccas,
he was never long on any side. On his policy, see 1, 62. 4, 83
and 128. Some of the Siculi, under the direction of the Syracu-
sans, fought against Athens. But no alliance was of greater im-
portance (though none so disgraceful) than that of the Persians.
The Lacedaemonians must have known how ignominious it was to
make treaties with the enemy of the Greek nation; but they
excused it on the ground of the plots laid by the Athenians
against the freedom of Greece (1. 1, 82.), and at the beginning of
the war they prepared to send ambassadors to the king. (1. 2, 7.)
These embassies (of which one was intercepted) (1. 2, 67.) effected
nothing ; meanwhile king Artaxerxes Longimanus died, and nego-
tiations were afterwards entered into with two of the satraps,
Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus, and treaUes at length concluded,
though interrupted with constant bickerings. (See 1, 8. passim.)

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420



STATE OF GREECE} CIVIL AND MILITARY,



THE LACEDEMONIAN CONFEDERACY.

A. GREEKS.
1. Old Allies.



Countries, Cities^ and Commonwealths.



Race.



Form of Govern-
ment



(a) Of assured Fidelity.

Peloponnesus: —
Corinthians.
Phliauans.
Sic^onians.
Epidaurians
Allies of the Epidaurians : —

Troezenians

Hermionians

Halians
Pelleneans
Tegetae.
Lepreatae
Hellas: —
Megareans



The commonwealth of Boeotia ;
capital Thebes



Independent states : — The Haliar-
tians« Coronseans, Copaeans,
Thespians, Tanagneans, Orcho-
menians.
Cities or states tributary and con-
joined : — Chraronea and others.
Dorians, parent country of the
Lacedaemonians.



(fi) Of suspected Fidelity, and
who revolted after the Peace
of Nicias.



Peloponnesians : —
Eleans



Dorians



Dorians.

Dolopians.

Dolopians.

Achaeans.

Arcadians.

Pelasgi.

Dorians



iBolians



iOlijgarchy.
EpidemiurgL
Oligarchy.
Artynae.



Democracy to
the 89th Ol.

'Oligarchy, with
equal laws;
the 4 councils
of the Boeo-
tians; then
boeotarchs.



JStolians and
^olians, except
the antient in-
habitants, who
wereEpeans



Mixed; Demi-
urgi, the 600,
the Thesmo-
phalaces, and
the Hellano-
dic».



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AT THE BEGINNING OF THE PELOPONNESIAK WAR. 421





Race.


ment.


Peloponnesians : —
Mantinaeans, with their subjects

The Parrhasians, afterwards li-j|
berated by the Lacedaemo- 1 »
nians - - }


Arcadians
Pelasgi


Democracy,
r Demiurgi,
J Senate.
1 Theori,
t Polemarchi.



2. The New Allies.



Countries, Cities, and Commonwealths.



Race.



Form of GoTem-
ment



(a) Those who were such
from the beginning of the
War.



1



Hellas: —

Arobraciots.

Leucadians.

Anactorians - - J

(These all followed the Corinthians).

Locri Opuntii.

Epicnemidii ?



(j3) Those who acceded to the
Alliance afterwards, except
such as revolted from the
Athenians.

Hellas: —

Heraclea Trachinia

^tolian commonwealth

Apodoti, Ophiones, Eurytanes.

Bomians, Callians (Agraeans) -
Peloponnesus : —

Achaeans (unwillingly)



Dorian colonists
of Corinth -



Melian Dorians
iEolians



Grecians.



> Democracy?



C Gk>yemed by
< Latedsemon.
( Harmostse.
( Inhabited in
\ villages.

Monarchy.



E E d



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422



STATE OP GREECE^ CIVIL AND MILITARY,



Countries, Cities, mnd Commonwealths.



Sicily : —

Sjracusans

Camarinfleans On. second Sicilian <
war)

Geloans

Agrigentines (who, however, in
the second war kept quie^ as
did also the Messenians)

Selinuntians



Himeneans

^Elolian islands : —

Messenians.

Lipaneans
Italy: —

Tarentines
Locri Epizephyrii






■\



Race.



Dorians from

Corinth
Syracusans or

Geloans
Rhodians and

Cretans.

Dorian colonists
of the Geloans.

Dorians from Me-
gara.

Language a mix-
ture of Doric,
customs Chal-
cidic

Mixed colonists
ofCnidus.

Lacedaemonian
colony.

Locrians.



Form of Goyem-
ment.



» Democracy.
[ Democracy.



B. Barbabiaks, who were at times Allies.



The Persians ; treacherous.

Edones ; under monarchical government.

The Macedonians ; unstable, under the government of Perdiccas, and afler

him Archelaus (whose enemies were the Lyncestas, under the government

of king Arrhibaeus).
Epirots : —

The Chaonians ; not monarchical.

Thesprodans; not monarchical.

Molossians ; under the government of Tharypus.

Atintanians ; regent Salmlinthus.

Paranaeans; under the government of king Oroedus.

Orestians ; under the government of king Antiochut.
Siculi: —

Such as were subject to the Syracusans.

Ines88eanS| HyblsMms, &c.

Sicani?



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AT THE BEGINNING OF THE PELOPOKNESIAN WAR. 423



CHAP. X.

THE MILITARY BESOaBCES OF LACEDiEMONy A8 WELL EEVENC7E, AS FLEETS
AND armies; and THE MODE OF CABRYINO ON WAR.

A.S to JundSf the Lacedseroonians neither had any in the treasury,
nor readily contributed from their private purses. (1, 1, 80.) Very
similar, too, were the other Peloponnesians, whose property,
moreover (absent, as they were, during the war from their domes-
tic concerns, and precluded from the use of the sea), could not
but be diminished. (1,141.) Of the old allies, the Corinthians
alone were at all opulent, whose city had, in former times, been
very rich. (1. 1,13.) Of the other allies, the Siculi were possessed
of wealth both public, and (in the case of the Slinuntians) depo-
sited in the temples ; and in that of the Syracusans, there was
wealth arising from tribute paid by the Barbarians. (1. 6, 20.) The
Peloponnesians y on the contrary, had no other means of providing
for the expenses of the war but hj forced contributions (levied at
the order of the Lacedaemonians, afler a certain rate, from the
citizens), plunder (as in the case of lasus, 1. 8, 28 and 86.), and
loans from the wealth laid up at Delphi and Olympia (1. 1, 121
and 143.), or obtained from barbarian kings, and such allies of
Athens as had revolted. Thus, from the Bhodians they exacted
thirty-two talents. (1. 8, 44.) The army of Brasidas, too, was
sometimes paid by the Macedonians. As to the Persians^ rich as
they were, they derived but little assistance from them. Tissa-
phernes, indeed, in the twentieth year of the war, promised to
pay their soldiery a drachma a day each. He, however, only paid
it for one month, and afterwards would have only given half a
drachma, when, at the urgent remonstrances of Hermocrates, he
added a trifle more. (See note on 8, 29.) By the terms of the
second treaty, the Persians engaged to support such forces as
they should send for. (1. 8, 37.) But they feared lest, if they gave
more than the Athenians, the seamen of that power would desert
to the Lacedaemonians, and those^ consequently, would become too
powerful. Besides, Tissaphemes was so much the more sparing,
because he had to provide the money from his own treasures, and
did not receive it from the king. In the third treaty he engaged
to pay such a fleet as should be present, until the king's ships

E E 4



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424 STATE OP GREECE, CIVIL AND MILITARY,

should arrive ; afler which he would advance the money for the
payment of the Lacedaemonian fleet, to be repaid him at the end
of the war. (See also L 8, 80. 83, 87.)

We see, therefore, how difficult it was for the Lacedaemonians to
maintain a fleet ; indeed, at the beginning of the war, they scarcely
had one. For though at first they meditated the formation of a
fleet of five hundred saiJ, yet most of them they expected from
Sicily and Italy, and the allies there ; in which they were disap-
pointed. They, therefore, were obliged to furnish of themselves
such as they could build and equip ; and though the Corinthians
had possessed a considerable number, yet many of those were lost
in the conflict with Corcyra. So that after all there was no con-
siderable force sent to sea, and nearly the whole of it was lost by
the disaster at Sphacteria. Besides, had the Peloponnesians even
possessed more ships, they stood in need of skilful seamen ; who
could not be formed, just when wanted, out of mere landsmen, nor
would the Athenians give them opportunity for practice. (1. 1, 80
and 142.) The latter disadvantage, indeed, they hoped they should
overcome, could they draw away, by the temptation of higher
pay, the foreign seamen in the service of the Athenians. (1. 1, 12L)
But it was doubtful whether, if they hsidjunds sufficient for that
purpose, they could induce them to venture on an increased peril,
for an increase of pay only during a short period. (I. 1, 143.) Hence
we need not wonder at the little skill or success evinced by the
Lacedaemonians in the first years of the war. (1. 2, 83. 3, 30. 4,
13.) Their hope of victory, indeed, depended on converting a
naval battle into a land engagement. Thus we see how much the
Athenians injured themselves by transferring the war to Sicily,
where the Syracusans ere Jong opposed them with a nearly equal
force, and where the method of engagement became exactly what
the Peloponnesians desired. The complete success there obtained
incited the Lacedaemonians to order the building of an hundred
ships, by the allies, in certain proportion. With these, however,
partly by the craft of Tissaphernes, nothing very effectual was per-
formed against the Athenians. Though, indeed, toithout the Per-
sians great things might have been done, especially after the
sedition at Samos, had not the Lacedaemonian admirals been slug-
gish, foolish, cowardly, and at variance with each other. Alcidas
was tardy and timid, but Astyochus was worse, who threatened
those he ought to have assisted, sold himself to Tissaphernes, and,
by bribery, permitted his companions to be defrauded of their
hard-earned wages. His successor, Mindarus, was something



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AT THE BEGINNING OF THE PELOPOKNESIAN WAR. 425

better, at least, no crimes are recorded of him, and he evinced
some ability in forming the line of battle at Cynos-sema* (1. 8,
104v) Of others, as Chalcideu^ ''predecessor of Astyochus,
Theramenes, and Thrasymedes, no decided opinion can be formed;
but there is little reason to think they were different from Alcidas.
Indeed, through distrust of their commanders, the Lacedaemo-
nians sometimes sent counsellors. But these did not all resemble
Brasidas, and two others sent to the fleet opposed to Phormio ;
and even those in vain endeavoured to rouse the torpor of Alcidas.
The Lacedaemonians, indeed, afterwards adopted the wiser expe-
dient of giving the counsellors power to control, on occasion, the
measures of the commanders, form such plans as they judged
best, and even deprive the admiral of his command.

Thus we have seen how feeble was the Lacedaemonian power
by sea. By land they were more powerful ; but even there they
were found inferior to the opinion entertained of them.

Their number of heavy-armed is nowhere clearly mentioned ;
but from 1. 5, 64. we may infer it. After they had taken the
field, en masse, with the Helots, leaving behind the sixth part, they
mustered about four thousand two hundred. Of cavalry, at first,
there were none, except the three hundred about the king's per-
son ; but, on the capture of Pylus and Cythera by the Athe-
nians, they were obliged, in order to check the incursions of pre-
datory bands, to raise a force of four hundred horse and archers.
Yet in the army collected at Nemea, though nearly the finest
Greece had seen, there were no cavalry. At Mantinsea there toere
some ; but they are not mentioned as taking part in the battle.
When, therefore, the Lacedaemonians spoke of their numbers^
they included their allies. As to their skill and courage, on which
they prided themselves, and for which they were so celebrated,
they showed little worthy of their reputation. Where was their
obedience or warlike skill at Mantinaea ? Where their JbrtUude at
Sphacteria? What must we say of their sieges, in which they con-
fessed their ignorance at Ithome ? (1. 1» 102.) And in this war
they could with difficulty starve out Plataea, though never defended
by so many as five hundred men.^ Upon the whole, except some
glorious deeds of Brasidas, which were rather to his honour than
that of the Lacedaemonians, we find no proof of any remarkable
warlike merit. They mostly contended with a very inferior num-



• This was, however, as Thucydides gives us to undenUnd, partly the result of
LacedcmoDian craft. (Edit.)



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426 STATE OF GREECE, CITIL AND MILITARY,

ber of the Athenian army, which consequently gave way to them.
What was the number of the whole Peloponnesian alliance Thu-
cydides nowhere informs us. Plutarch, Peric. 33., says that the
number, in the first invasion of Attica, was sixty thousand. Most
of the army consisted of heavy-armed. The horse were chiefly
furnished by the Boeotians, sometimes by the Locrians and Pho-
cians, Perdiccas, the Chalcidaeans, and the Edones ; in Sicily, by
the Syracusans and Geloans. The peltastse were from the cities
in Thrace which revolted from the Athenians, as also from the
Boeotians, who had, besides, many light-armed, and the Syracusans
and the ^tolians. Mercenaries from Peloponnesus [chiefly Arca-
dians] were hired by both parties.

In expeditions to distant countries undertaken by the whole
confederacy, two-thirds went out to war, and the other third
remained for home defence. The greater expeditions were com-
manded by a Lacedaemonian king, at first with full power, but
afterwards controlled by a board of ten counsellors. (1. 5, 63.)
Deputy-officers were sent out to succeed to the command in the
event of the death of the principals. (1. 3, 100. 4, 38.)

In all expeditions the superstition of the Lacedaemonians was
very injurious to them. Before they passed the borders, they
offered up sacrifices to the gods ; and if these were not favour-
able, they returned home. (1. 5, 54* and 56.) The same was the case
in earthquakes. They also would not go out to war on the festi-
vals, especially the Camean month ; which superstition lost them
Pylus, and the fruit of the victory of Mantinaea. From such
superstition, indeed, the other Greeks were not free. For the
Corinthians, in order to celebrate the Isthmian games in quiet, ex-
posed the Chians to imminent peril. (1, 8, 9.) Earthquakes dis-
turbed the assemblies both of the Athenians and Corinthians.
(1. 5, 46 and 50.) An eclipse of the moon was the ruin of the
Athenian army in Sicily. (1. 7, 50.) But the rest of the Greeks
were less alarmed at such occurrences than the Lacedaemonians,
and the Argives sometimes magnanimously despised them. (1. 5,
54. 6, 95.)

In the field of battle, the Sciritae stood on the lefl wing, the
Tegaeans on the right, the king in the centre, and the rest where
the general appointed. The Lacedaemonian army (excepting the
Sciritae) was divided into lochoiy which, at Mantinaea, were seven ;
every lochos comprehended four pentecosteis, each pentecostus
four enomotias, and the enomotia, at that time, consisted of
thirty-two, four in front and eight deep. The commanders under



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AT THE BEGINNING OF THE PELOPONKESIAN WAR. 427

the king were the Polemarchs, Lochagi, Pentecosters, Enomo-
tarchi. Before the battle they sung warlike songs, and then pro-
ceeded with slow step to the attack, to the sound of pipes. (I* ^9
70 and 73.) The Lacedaemonians might, however, easily be
beaten, if, as at Sphacteria, they were assailed in rear and flanks
with missiles ; for of this sort of warfare they were ignorant, and
their armour was no sufficient defence. (1. 4, 34.) ^



* The learned Author has two other chapters ; one on the genius, manners,
and mode of administering public affairs among the Liacedamonians, and on tba
principal personages : the other containing a comparison of the Athenians and
Liacedsmonians, and the causes why the Peloponnesian war was so disastrous to
the Athenians. But if the reader will turn to the elaborate comparison of
Thucydides himself, at 1. 1, 70., and in the first and second orations of Pericles,
and also pay any tolerable attention to what u narrated by our historian, he may
well dispense with such sort of summaries. (Edit.)



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428



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE

OF THE

MOST REMARKABLE EVENTS
RECORDED IN THE HISTORY OF THUCYDIDES.



B. P. Olym. B. C.



347

339
327

25'



42,1
45,3
50,1
58,1
63,1

65,1

66,2
67,2
70,3

72,3

74,J

75,1
75,2
75,?
75,}
76,i
77,3

77,4



1124 The Bceotians are driveD from Ame, and colonise Cad-

meis. 1. 1, 12.
1 16 The island of Melos is first colonized. 1. 5, 112.
1104 The Dorians with the Heraclidse occupy Peloponnesus.

1. 1, 12.
1033 About this year the Siculi possessed themselves of the

greater part of Sicily. 1. 6,2.
804 Lycurgus formed the Lacedsmonian le^slation. 1. 1, 18.
735 Naxusy the first Greek colony in Sicily, is founded. 1, 6, 3.
732 Syracuse is founded. 1. 6,3*
727 Leontini is built, and a little after Megara Hyblaea.

1. 6, 3.
704 Aminocles, the Corinthian, makes triremes for the Samians.

1. I, 13.
687 Gela founded. I. 6, 4.
664 The most andent sea-fight of the Corinthians and Corcy-

reans. 1. 1, 13.
597 A colony led to Selinus. 1. 6, 4.
612 The sacrifice of Cylon. 1. l, 126.
597 Camarina built by the Sjrracusans. I. 6, 5.
579 Agrigentum founded. 1. 6, 4.
548 Croesus conquered bv Cyrus. 1, 1, 16.
527 After the death of Fisistratus, Hippias becomes tyrant of

Athens. 1. 6, 94.
519 The Plataeans received by the Athenians into alliance. 1. 3.

68.
514 Hipparchus killed. 1. 6, 59.
510 Hippias driven from Athens. 1. 1, 18. 6, 59.
497 Anstagoras, endeavouring to lead forth the colony *Ewia

odoiig, is killed 1. 4, 102.
490 The battle of Marathon. 1. 1, 18. 6, 59.
486 The death of King Darius. 1. 1, 14.
481 Piraeeus be^n to be built. 1. 1,95. The war of the Athe-
nians and iEginetae. 1. 1, 14.
480 The expedition of Xerxes against Greece. 1. 1, 18.
479 The Persians driven out from Greece. 1. 1, 89.
478 The Athenians repair and fortify their city. 1. 1, 89 and 93.
477 The fortification of the Piraeeus completed. 1. l, 95.
475 Eruption of iEtna. 1. 3. 116.
470 The Grecian allies of the Spartans make the government

over to the Athenians, 1. I, 95.
469 The sea and land fight at Eurymedon. 1. 1, lOO. Pausa-

nias is killed. 1. 1, 131. seqq.



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CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.



429



B. P. OlynL a a



78,4



79,2

79,3

80,3
80,J

80,4

81,i
82,J

82,1

82,}
82,4
83,1
83,4
83,f
83,J



85,1
85,4
86,1

86,2
86,}

86,4
87,1

86,4
87,1
87,2



87,2

87,3

87,}
87,}



465 Colony sent by the Athenians to the Strymon. 1. 4, 102.

Earthquake in Laconia, 1.1, 106. The beginning of the

third Messenian war. Themistocles comes to Artaxerxes.

ibidem.
463 The Egyptians led by Inarus revolt from the Persians,

1. 1, 104. Defeat of the Athenians at Drabescus. 1. i,

100. 4, 102.
462 The Athenians bring assistance to the Egyptians, I. 1, 104.

These sent back to Ithome by the Lacedaemonians.

1. 1, 102.
458 The war of the Corinthians and their allies against the

Athenians. 1. 1, 105.
457 The Athenians driven from Egypt. 1. 1, 109 and 110. The

long walls at Athens are begun. 1. 1, 107. The battle

at Tanagne, 108.
456 Battle at (Enophyta, 1. 1, 108. The ^inetse subdued,

ibidem.
455 The Messenians driven from Ithome. 1. 1, 103.
451 The Lacedaemonians enter into a thirty years' treaty with

the Argives. 1. 5, 14.
450 The five years' treaty of the Peloponnesians and Athenians.

1. 1, 112.
449 The death of Cimon. 112.

448 The sacred war. 112.

447 Defeat of the Athenians at Coronea. 1. 1, 113.

446 Euboea revolts from the Athenians. I. 1, 114.

445 Plistoanax in Attica. 1. 2, 21. The treaty between the



Online LibraryThucydidesThe History of Thucydides. Newly tr. into English...with very copious annotations...Prefixed, is an entirely new life of Thucydides: with a memoir of the state of Greece, civil & military, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war → online text (page 51 of 59)